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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879172

ABSTRACT

Molecular pharmacognosy is a science of classification and identification, cultivation and protection, and production of active ingredients of graduated drugs at the molecular level. The proposal of molecular pharmacognosy allows the research of crude drugs to advance from the microscopic level to the genetic level. Pueraria lobata root, as a medicinal and edible plant, has high application value and economic value. There are many varieties that are easy to cause confusion, and it is not easy to distinguish and identify according to traditional identification methods. Moreover, the research of P. lobate root at the genetic level is still relatively shallow. the study received extensive attention of scholars. This article reviews recent research on molecular identification of P. lobate, transcriptome sequencing, cloning and synthesis of functional genes of P. lobate root in recent years in order to provide references for further promoting the development and utilization of P. lobate root and its active ingredients.


Subject(s)
Pharmacognosy , Plant Roots/genetics , Pueraria
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873328

ABSTRACT

Objective::To compare the effect of different medicinal parts of Nandina domestica in reducing toxicity of anti-tumor drug arsenic trioxide, so as to provide the scientific basis for its further development and application. Method::Chronic arsenic trioxide poisoning model was used in this paper. Totally 56 SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group (arsenolite 40 mg·kg-1), sodium 2, 3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonate group (sodium 2, 3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonate 25 mg·kg-1+ arsenolite 40 mg·kg-1), Nandinae Radix group (Nandinae Radix 20 g·kg-1+ arsenolite 40 mg·kg-1), Nandinae Caulis group (Nandinae Caulis 20 mg·kg-1+ arsenolite 40 mg·kg-1), Nandinae Folium group (Nandinae Folium 20 g·kg-1+ arsenolite 40 mg·kg-1), and Nandinae Fructus group (Nandinae Fructus 20 g·kg-1+ arsenolite 40 mg·kg-1). The intragastric administration lasted for 10 days. After the last administration, urine was collected within 24 hours, serum, kidney and liver tissue samples were collected after operation, and serum creatinine (SCr) and urine creatinine (UCr) levels were measured, in order to calculate endogenous creatinine clearance rate (CCr). At the same time, the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in liver and kidney of rats in each group were detected. Some kidneys and livers were fixed with formaldehyde, and the histopathological changes were observed under microscope after hematoxylin-eosin staining. Result::Compared with the model group, the rats in combination group of Nandinae Radix, Nandinae Caulis, Nandinae Fructus have a heavier body mass (P<0.01), the kidney coefficient was lower (P<0.01), the levels of UCr and CCr were significantly increased (P<0.01), the content of MDA in renal tissue was decreased significantly (P < 0.01), the level of MDA in liver tissue was decreased (P < 0.05), whereas the activities of SOD and CAT were significantly increased (P<0.01), the pathological damage of liver and kidney was alleviated. There was no significant difference in the activity of SOD in the liver between the Nandinae Folium combination group and the model group, but the changes of the other indexes were consistent with those of the above three groups. Conclusion::Nandinae Radix, Nandinae Caulis, Nandinae Fructus have significant protective effects on liver and kidney toxicity induced by arsenic trioxide oxidative stress, and Nandinae Folium was the least effective among them.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873326

ABSTRACT

Objective::Histomorphological study of the Nandinae Radix, Nandinae Caulis, Nandinae Folium, Nandinae Fructus were conducted to provide the basis for the identification of its authenticity and falsehood. Method::The origin and macroscopic identification were used to describe the plant morphology and the appearance characteristics of all medicinal parts. The microscopic characteristics of the medicinal parts, such as roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, were observed and photographed by paraffin section and powder preparation techniques. Result::It was found that the morphological characteristics of the original plant were consistent with the descriptions in herbaceous books. There was no pith on the cross-section of roots. In the transverse section of stems, there were intermittent circular fiber bundles in the cortex and a cap-shaped fibrous bundle in the inner part of the xylem. In the transverse section of the leaves, the palisade tissue was wider and the fiber bundles around the main vascular bundles formed a ring. In the transverse section of petiole, the fiber bundles were arranged intermittently into rings. In the transverse section of fruit, multi-layered sclereids formed a ring in the mesocarp. The powder characteristics of root and stem mainly contained crystalliferous sclereids. There were crystal sheath fibers and stomatal infinitive in the leaf powder, and pollen grains in the flower powder, with 3-hole grooves, obvious reticulate engraving pattern in the outer wall and more reticulate cells. There were a large number of branched sclereids and calcium oxalate square crystals in the fruit powder. Conclusion::The above-mentioned morphological and microscopic features have identification significance, and provide scientific basis for the authenticity identification, the quality standard and the utilization of resources of Nandina domestica.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873230

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effective substance of the choleretic effect of Gardeniae Fructus,and analyze the relationships between its choleretic effect and the HPLC fingerprint chromatogram. Method:HPLC method was applied to establish the fingerprint chromatography of 8 batches of Gardeniae Fructus at different harvest periods. The flow,the content of bile acid,bilirubin and cholesterol in bile were tested,and then the principal component analysis was used to comprehensively evaluate the total choleretic effects of Gardeniae Fructus. After the relationships between the relative peak area of the common peaks and the choleretic effects were explored using grey relationship analysis method,the spectrum-effect relationship of Gardeniae Fructus was established. Result:The order of the contribution of the chemical components to the choleretic effect at the common peaks was as follow(r>0.8):P9>P14>P26>P4>P30>P6>P1>P10>P5>P24. Among all peaks,the full wavelength scanning results implied that the peaks 9,14 and 4 might be iridoids, and the peaks 26,30 and 24 might be crocins. By comparing with the standard substances,the peak 9 was finally identified as geniposide. Conclusion:The choleretic effect of Gardeniae Fructus may be the results of multiple components and pathways,and the main components in Gardeniae Fructus with the choleretic effect was from geniposide. In conclusion,these results provide a reference for investigating the material basis of choleretic effect of Gardeniae Fructus.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827998

ABSTRACT

This research is to establish an HPLC method for determination of geniposidic acid, genipin-1-β-D-gentiobioside, geniposide, p-trans-coumaroylgenipin gentiobioside, chlorogenic acid, crocin-Ⅰ, crocin-Ⅱ and crocin-Ⅲ in Gardeniae Fructus at different harvest time. The detection wavelength was 238, 320 and 440 nm. Principal component analysis(PCA), correlation analysis, regression analysis and partial least squares(PLS) analysis were used to explore the relationship of color and content of eight components in Gardeniae Fructus. The result showed that the trend of the eight components in Gardeniae Fructus at harvest time in different three years was varied similarly. According to the variation of eight components at different harvest time, the mature and immaturate Gardeniae Fructus were discriminated. The content of crocin-Ⅰwas correlated positively with a~* of color significance. The redder color of Gardeniae Fructus showed the higher value of a~* and content of crocin-Ⅰ, indicating the better quality of Gardeniae Fructus. This method provided reference for justifying the color and quality of Gardeniae Fructus and scientific evidence for "assessing quality by distinguishing color".


Subject(s)
Chlorogenic Acid , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fruit , Gardenia
6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1849-1854, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-825159

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to determine the metabolic changes and possible toxic mechanisms of ketamine-associated bladder toxicity. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly allocated into a control group, a low-dose group and a high-dose group. The behavior of these rats was observed every day. In addition, the weight, 2 h urinary frequency and organ coefficient of the bladder were measured. Serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Urinary metabolites were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This research was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Animal Experiment Center of Southwest Medical University (No. 201901-98). After 12 weeks of administration, the frequency of 2 h urination and the bladder mass index were significantly different in the low-dose and high-dose groups compared with the control group. Serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels were higher than those of the control group (P<0.05). Bladder HE staining showed that long-term administration of ketamine could induce cystitis. The concentrations of the three common differential metabolites, including 3-aminoisobutyric acid, citric acid and uric acid in the low-dose and the high-dose groups were increased compared with those in the control group. This study indicates that 3-aminoisobutyric acid, citric acid and uric acid and their related metabolic pathways may be closely related to ketamine-associated bladder toxicity.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335776

ABSTRACT

Through the textual research, resource investigation, literature reviews (including Flora of China, municipal Flora, pharmacopoeia of China and municipal drug standards) and identification of commercial drugs on Cuscutae Semen, it was found the species described in the herbal textual was Cuscuta chinensis, with good quality from Shandong and Henan Province. The identification of commodities showed the majority drugs were from C. australis, varied from the ancient herbal textuals .Mordern literature reviews indicate that it was necessary to strengthen the research on Cuscutae Semen from C. australis, C. chinensis and C. japonica because of their differences in resources, macroscopical and microscopical characters, while wrong descriptions in some literatures. It was suggested that the two species (C. australis and C. chinensis) should be separated in pharmacopoeia of China. The study provides scientific basis for the development and utilization of Cuscutae Semen.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330185

ABSTRACT

To set standards for histomorphological studies on Lysimachia fortunei, an efficacious and widely applied folk medicine in this study, in order to develop its resources. Its species were identified by observing plant morphology and herbs appearance characters, preparing slices with routine methods and defining structural characters. According to the results of morphologic observation, leaves, stamen and pistil of this plant were different from the descriptions in Flora of China. The whole herb can be used in medicines, mainly including rhizomes, stems and leaves. According to the findings in the first study on microscopic structures, its rhizomes, stems and leaves were characteristic and worth identifying. The transaction tissue structures of rhizomes and stems were under developed and contained endodermis, secretory structures; Stems had sclerenchymata of different shapes of sclereids; Leaves were bifacial and had vascular bundles under midribs, which were surrounded by parenchymal sheathes. On the surface of leaves, stomata, glandular hairs and keratin lines were morphologically different in upper and lower epidermis. The herbal power had glandular hairs, sclereids and vessels. In conclusion, herbs of L. fortunei can be identified by the above histomorphological characteristics, which lays a foundation for further development and application of L. fortunei.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Traditional , Plant Leaves , Plant Stems , Plants, Medicinal , Primulaceae
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279266

ABSTRACT

In order to develop characteristic folk medicine resources in Jiangxi, a pharmacognostical study was systematically performed for four different origin plants of Sikuaiwa, the result of study provides the microscopic features of powder and tissue of the crude drug. The research provided reference for the identification of Sikuaiwa, as well as a theoretical basis for the further development and the formulation of quality standards.


Subject(s)
Magnoliopsida , Chemistry , Medicine, Traditional , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-318698

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To clarify the origin and provide pharmacognostical evidences for the leaves of 5 species in Chloranthus.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Histological observation and microscopic identification through different slice-making techniques were applied to the research.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>There were subtle differences between the histological characteristics. In microscopical identification, the different structures of vascular bundles in veins were observed, appendages and non-glandular hairs were distinct.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The method can be used to distinguish the features of 5 species in Chloranthus. This article offers information for the further research and exploitation of Chloranthus.</p>


Subject(s)
Magnoliopsida , Pharmacognosy , Plant Epidermis , Plant Leaves , Plant Vascular Bundle , Plants, Medicinal , Species Specificity
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