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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888174

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to regulate the market circulation of Caryophylli Flos and formulate standards for commodity specifications and grades of Caryophylli Flos. Market survey was carried out in four major medicinal material markets with 48 samples of Caryophylli Flos collected. The property, 100-seed weight, impurity percentage, moisture, and eugenol content in Caryophylli Flos of different specifications from different producing areas were determined and analyzed. The results showed that 27.1% of the samples surveyed on the markets did not meet the requirements of Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition). The 100-seed weight and the property are important factors for the classification of Caryophylli Flos specifications. There were significant differences in the property, 100-seed weight, impurity percentage, and eugenol content in Caryophylli Flos samples of different specifications from different producing areas, and also differences in the proportions of different specifications in Caryophylli Flos samples from different producing areas. The African-originated Xiaohong(medium grade) and Guangxi-originated Xiaohong(medium grade) accounted for 70% and 66.7% respectively, the Indonesian-originated Dahong(top grade) for 56.2%. In conclusion, there are many problems in the circulation of Caryophylli Flos at present, mainly including the loss of origin information, no standards for specifications, non-implementation of grade standards, excessive impurities, and no evidence for authenticity identification. According to the classification of Caryophylli Flos specifications in this study, the average eugenol content of Xiaohong is significantly higher than the Dahong by 4.74%.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Indonesia
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887944

ABSTRACT

Drynariae Rhizoma is warm in nature and bitter in taste, mainly acting on liver and kidney systems. It is a common Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of fracture and bone injury. The chemical compositions of Drynariae Rhizoma mainly include flavonoids, triterpenoids, phenylpropanoids and lignans. At present, modern pharmacological and clinical studies have shown that Drynariae Rhizoma has the effects of anti osteoporosis, promoting fracture healing, kidney protection, anti-inflammatory, promoting tooth growth, preventing and treating aminoglycoside ototoxicity and lowering blood lipid. In addition, the toxicity evaluation experiment of Drynariae Rhizoma has also shown that it has no obvious toxic and side effects. Naringin is a kind of dihydroflavone in Drynariae Rhizoma. Many studies have shown that naringin and other total flavonoids play an important role in anti-osteoporosis, promoting fracture healing, anti-inflammation, promoting tooth growth and lowering blood lipid. In this study, the research progresses on chemical consti-tuents and pharmacological activities of Drynariae Rhizoma in recent years were reviewed, and some mechanisms of action were summarized, to provide references for the further research and development of Drynariae Rhizoma.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Flavonoids , Humans , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Polypodiaceae , Rhizome
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906495

ABSTRACT

Ranae Oviductus has a good tonic effect and is commonly used for both medicine and food. The use of Ranae Oviductus was confused because the origin of Ranae Oviductus was roughly recorded in ancient herbal literatures. In order to clarify the confusing literatures and trace the origin of Ranae Oviductus,this paper conducted a textual research on the name,origin,distribution,harvesting and processing,efficacy of the Chinese medicine by consulting ancient herbal books,modern literatures and monographs of traditional Chinese medicine. The results of the textual research showed that Ranae Oviductus belongs to Manchu medicine,which was first applied by the Manchu people because of its tonic effect. The original animal of Ranae Oviductus has many names,which are all translated from Manchu language. By analyzing the descriptions of Ranidae in various herbal books,it is concluded that the earliest description of the original animals of Ranae Oviductus appeared in the Shengjing Tongzhi compiled by Agui in the Qing dynasty. After summarization of the taxonomic changes of some species of Rana,the original animals of Ranae Oviductus were preliminarily determined as Rana dybowskii,R. amurensis and R. huanrenensis. We excluded R. huanrenensis by its size and R. amurensis by its poor quality. Therefore,the original animal of Ranae Oviductus is R. dybowskii,the main production area is northeast China and the best capture time is in October. Ranae Oviductus is often eaten after being stewed. The study can provide the effective basis for the identification of the original animal of Ranae Oviductus,the distribution of production area and the utilization of resources.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906494

ABSTRACT

Mume Flos is a traditional Chinese medicinal material,with the effects of soothing the liver,resolving phlegm and dispelling stagnation. It was mainly used to treat globus hystericus,liver and stomach pain,loss of appetite,dizziness and scrofula. Mume Flos is native to China,with a long history of cultivation and application and complex and diverse varieties. There are hundreds varieties of Mume Flos,including fruiting Mei and flowering Mei. However,there was no ancient literature on which color of Mume Flos is the best traditional Chinese medicinal material among those with different colors,as well as relevant study report on the correlation between medicinal Mume Flos group and plant systematics. In order to define the origin,the author conducted the textual research on the changes in the origin,quality and producing areas of the Mume Flos in the past dynasties. According to the findings, traditional medicinal Mume Flos were mainly green calyx Mume Flos and white Mume Flos,and derived from flowering Mei of the true Mume branch. Among them, green calyx Mume Flos belonged to the green calyx group, while medicinal white Mume Flos belonged to the albo-plena group and the single-lobe group. The producing area of Mume Flos was first recorded in Sheng Nong's Herbal Classic,where now in southern Shaanxi province. After the Song dynasty,due to climate,social and economic factors,the producing areas of Mume Flos had continued to move southward from Shaanxi province to the Yangtze River and Dongting Lake basins. Till the Ming and Qing dynasties,the distribution of Mume Flos was also reported in Guangdong province and Hainan province. In modern times,due to the comprehensive impact of natural climate conditions and urbanization,the producing areas of medicinal Mume Flos had gradually changed from Sichuan province,Jiangsu province and Zhejiang province to southern Anhui province at present. In this paper,the textual research is conducted to define the origin and systematically summarize the changes in the producing areas of Mume Flos,so as to provide reference for defining the origin of Mume Flos and the groups of medicinal Mume Flos and making further development and utilization of resources.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906444

ABSTRACT

The historical evolution, fermentation technology and key links of Sojae Semen Praeparatum (SSP) were sorted out by consulting ancient books and modern literature, and the influencing factors and control methods of quality were analyzed and summarized in order to provide reference for the quality control of SSP. After analysis, it was found that in the fermentation process of SSP, fermentation strains, miscellaneous bacteria, temperature and humidity were all important factors affecting the quality of SSP. The condition control of "post fermentation" process has been paid more attention to in the past dynasties. In addition, the delicious SSP recognized in ancient times should be made from mold fermentation, and the breeding and application of fermented mold may be the key point to solve the quality problem of SSP. Therefore, based on the evaluation indexes of SSP in the past dynasties, it is of great significance to study and optimize the technological conditions such as strain, temperature and humidity in depth to improve the quality of SSP.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906372

ABSTRACT

Visci Herba, a commonly used Chinese medicinal, was often mistaken as Taxilli Herba in ancient Chinese materia medica. The two Chinese medicinals have often been confused even in present clinical practice, and their origins are difficult to be identified. Hence, it is necessary to carry out systematic and in-depth textual research. This paper explored the origin, producing area, quality evaluation, harvesting and processing, property, flavor, and efficacy of Visci Herba based on ancient Chinese materia medica of the past dynasties and modern plant morphology, so as to provide evidence for the development and utilization of Visci Herba. The findings demonstrated that Visci Herba was mostly recorded as Taxilli Herba until the name of Visci Herba appeared in the Tang Dynasty. The records of the two Chinese medicinals could be traced back to the Song Dynasty. Visci Herba and Taxilli Herba were officially listed as two different Chinese medicinals in the 1977 edition Chinese Pharmacopoeia for the first time, where the origin of Visci Herba was determined to be Viscum coloratum(Komar.)Nakai. According to the ancient Chinese materia medica, V. coloratum was mainly distributed in Lingbao, Henan province and Xuzhou, Jiangsu province and now it mostly grows in Northeast China and North China. In ancient times, Visci Herba with deep yellow cross-section and sticky fruit juice on the tree was preferred, which was often harvested on 3, March in spring, dried in the shade, grinded together with the roots, branches, stems, and leaves using the copper file, and preserved away from fire. By contrast, it is now usually harvested from winter to the next spring and then cut into sections for drying after the removal of thick stems, or dried after being steamed. As described in ancient Chinese materia medica, Visci Herba, bitter and sweet in flavor, neutral in property, possessed the effects of dispelling rheumatism, tonifying kidney, strengthening sinews and bones, benefiting blood vessels, and preventing abortion, basically consistent with its modern functions of dispelling rheumatism, tonifying liver and kidney, strengthening sinews and bones, and preventing abortion.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906365

ABSTRACT

Objective:The chemical constituents in guarana (<italic>Paullinia cupana</italic> dried seeds) were systematically analyzed to provide a basis for further research, development and utilization of this plant. Method:The contents of crude protein, crude fat, crude polysaccharide and crude fiber in guarana were determined according to national standards and related documents, and the chemical constituents of guarana was qualitatively analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), ACQUITY UPLC-HSS-T3 column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.8 μm) was used with 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (A)-0.1% formic acid acetonitrile solution (B) as mobile phase for gradient elution (0-5 min, 2%-10%B; 5-6 min, 10%-20%B; 6-9 min, 20%-30%B; 9-9.5 min, 30%-35%B; 9.5-10.5 min, 35%-45%B; 10.5~13 min, 45%-55%B; 13-15 min, 55%-80%B; 15-19 min, 80%-98%B; 19-20 min, 98%B; 20-20.3 min, 98%-2%B; 20.3-23 min, 2%B), the electrospray ionization (ESI) was used for detection in positive and negative ion modes, the scanning range was <italic>m</italic>/<italic>z</italic> 50-1 500, and the structure was identified according to the relative molecular weight and fragment information combined with database matching and comparison of reference substances. Result:The contents crude protein, crude fat, crude polysaccharide and crude fiber in guarana were (0.63±0.03)%, (2.73±0.09)%, (3.23±0.12)% and (8.89±0.59)%, respectively. A total of 42 chemical constituents in guarana were identified by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, including 3 methylxanthines, 2 nucleosides, 1 amino acid, 3 organic acids, 33 flavonoids, 3 (<italic>L</italic>-tryptophan, epigallocatechin gallate, daidzein) of which were first discovered in guarana. Conclusion:Guarana is rich in nutrients and has good potential to be developed as a functional food. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technique provides a simple, rapid and accurate method for the identification of chemical constituents in guarana. Methylxanthines and proanthocyanidins are the main chemical constituents of guarana, which is meaningful for quality evaluation and material basis of guarana.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921770

ABSTRACT

At present, 141 compounds have been isolated from Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora and P. kurroa of the Scrophulariaceae plants, including 46 iridoid glycosides, 29 tetracyclic triterpenoids, 25 phenylpropanoids, and 11 phenylethanoid glycosides. Pharmacological studies have demonstrated that they have liver-, heart-, brain-, kidney-, and nerve cells-protecting effects as well as anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-asthma, anti-diabetic, immunomodulatory, and blood lipid-lowering activities. This article reviews the chemical components and pharmacological activities of P. scrophulariiflora and P. kurroa, aiming to provide a basis for the in-depth research, development, and utilization of the two plants.


Subject(s)
Iridoid Glycosides , Picrorhiza , Triterpenes/pharmacology
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879169

ABSTRACT

Based on the systematic retrieval and the reported components of Sojae Semen Nigrum and Sojae Semen Praeparatum, this study conducted in-depth analysis of conversion of components in the fermentation process, and discussed types and possible mec-hanisms of conversion of chemical components, so as to provide the basis for studying technology, medicinal ingredients and quality standards. According to the analysis, there is a certain degree of conversion of nutrients(like protein, sugar, lipid), bioactive substances(like isoflavones, saponins, γ-aminobutyric acid) and other substances(like nucleosides, melanoids, biamines, etc) in the process of fermentation.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Fermentation , Isoflavones/analysis , Semen/chemistry , Soybeans
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879167

ABSTRACT

Rubi Fructus is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine. The origin of Rubi Fructus is the dried fruit of Rubus chingii, a plant of the family Rosaceae, according to the 2015 edition of Chinese pharmacopoeia. There are some differences in the plant origin of Rubi Fructus in ancient herbal literature, to trace back its sources, we conducted a textual research on its origin, producing areas, quality evaluation, processing and concocting, properties, tastes and efficacy etc. based on the records of ancient herbal literatures and combined with plant morphology and related investigation. RESULTS:: showed that the variety of Rubi Fructus was more complex among ancient herbal literature, including R. coreanus, R. hirsutus, R. corchorifolius, R. foliolosus and other mixed varieties. Most scholars believe that the R. chingii has not been recorded in ancient herbal literature, while R. chingii was recorded as early as the Ming Dynasty in Compendium of materia medica through our textual research. Ancient Chinese herbs recorded that Rubi Fructus was mostly produced in Hubei, Shandong, Shanxi and Jiangsu provinces, while R. chingii mainly produced in Anhui, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Fujian and other provinces nowadays. Also, it was recorded that Rubi Fructus harvested in wheat field during May were the best. Besides, R. chingii with big, full, grain integrate, firm, yellow and green color, sour taste and impurity free possess the best quality in the contemporary. The ancient records of processing and concocting, properties, tastes and efficacy were basically the same as modern ones.These results provide the basis for the correct utilization and further development of Rubi Fructus.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fruit , Humans , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Rubus
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879100

ABSTRACT

Indication and functions is an important key information in the research and development of the ancient classical formulas, which directly affects the clinical positioning of the compound formulas and their reasonable, effective and safe use after marke-ting. It is also the embodiment of the ultimate vitality of ancient classical formulas. Due to the particularity of ancient classical formulas, it is of great significance to accurately define and describe the functions and indications of classical formulas to exert their unqiue advantages. Based on the analysis of the provenances, classification of clinical indications, and functions of 100 prescriptions in the Catalogue of Ancient Classical Formulas(First Batch), this paper summarized the incompleteness, irregularity and inconsistency in the original text, the differences in terminology between ancient and modern times, and the evolution of the meanings of prescriptions in different dynasties. In addition, under the guidance of the general principle of textual researh on ancient classical formulas, which is to inherit the essence, make the past serve the present, link up the past and the present, and bulid consensus, this paper proposed the following ideas: respecting the original meanings and provenances of ancient classical formulas, taking full consideration of the development and evolution, serving the current clinical application and health needs, accurately linking up the ancient and modern terminologies, standardizing the expression of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) terminology, highlighting the characteristics of TCM, attaching importance to the textual research principles and suggestions of post-marketing evidence-based and clinical positioning research, so as to determine the the functions and indications of the ancient classical formulas in a scientific, standardized and reasonable way and better guide the clinical application of the classical formulas.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Oils, Volatile , Prescriptions
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879031

ABSTRACT

It is the core of the development for Chinese patent medicine enterprises to cultivate large varieties of Chinese patent medicine, and the selection of potential "seed" products is the prerequisite for the cultivation strategy. By constructing the evaluation model from multiple dimensions of value and risk, we can conduct specialized evaluation of Chinese patent medicines to effectively, professionally and objectively select the "seed" products with large variety cultivation potential. In this paper, the establishment of a multidimensional evaluation system would be discussed from the aspects of drug naming and prescription composition, safety risk and supply guarantee of raw materials and medicinal materials, competition situation, access to policy catalogue, scientific and technological support, clinical evidence and recognition, systematical and standardized collection of information on product instructions, quality standards, policy catalogue, scientific and technological literature, market competition and clinical application of Chinese patent medicines. Through the objective evaluation index and the range of objective index, the multi-dimensional evaluation model on values and risks of Chinese patent medicine products was discussed. Based on this model, a batch of Chinese patent medicine products can be quickly and comprehensively analyzed, and quantitative comparison can be formed among different types and fields of products. According to the evaluation results of the model and the comprehensive evaluation of experts, high-quality "seed" products can be selec-ted, laying a solid foundation for the next step of large variety cultivation. With use of this model, we can further clarify the external competitive advantages and internal priority levels of each product, and provide support for enterprises to optimize product structure and improve product strategic layout.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Nonprescription Drugs/adverse effects , Quality Control
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878915

ABSTRACT

Caffeic acid and its oligomers are the main water-soluble active constituents of the traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) Arnebiae Radix. These compounds possess multiple biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, cardiovascular protective, liver protective, anti-liver fibrosis, antiviral and anticancer activities. The phenylpropanoid pathway in plants is responsible for the biosynthesis of caffeic acid and its oligomers. Glycosylation can change phenylpropanoid solubility, stability and toxic potential, as well as influencing compartmentalization and biological activity. In view of the important role played by de-glycosylation in the regulation of phenylpropanoid homeostasis, the biosynthesis of caffeic acid and its oligomers are supposed to be under the control of relative UDP-glycosyltransferases(UGTs). Through the data mining of Arnebia euchroma transcriptome, we cloned 15 full-length putative UGT genes. After recombinant expression using the prokaryotic system, the crude enzyme solution of the putative UGTs was examined for the glycosylation activities towards caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid in vitro. AeUGT_01, AeUGT_02, AeUGT_03, AeUGT_04 and AeUGT_10 were able to glycosylate caffeic acid and/or rosmarinic acid resulting in different mono-and/or di-glycosylated products in the UPLC-MS analyses. The characterized UGTs were distantly related to each other and divided into different clades of the phylogenetic tree. Based on the observation that each characterized UGT exhibited substrate or catalytic similarity with the members in their own clade, we supposed the glycosylation abilities towards caffeic acid and/or rosmarinic acid were evolved independently in different clades. The identification of caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid UGTs from A. euchroma could lead to deeper understanding of the caffeic acid oligomers biosynthesis and its regulation. Furthermore, these UGTs might be used for regiospecific glycosylation of caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid to produce bioactive compounds for potential therapeutic applications.


Subject(s)
Boraginaceae/genetics , Caffeic Acids , Chromatography, Liquid , Cinnamates , Cloning, Molecular , Depsides , Glycosyltransferases/genetics , Phylogeny , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828058

ABSTRACT

Dao-di herbs are an important part of clinical medicine in traditional Chinese medicine. They are also precious wealth left to human beings from history, which contain deep traditional Chinese cultural connotations and play an important role in supporting and serving the Chinese medicine business. The relevant policy documents introduced by various national ministries and commissions have many contents and requirements related to the promotion of Dao-di herbs protection and industrial development. Due to the Dao-di herbs industry has a series of characteristics, such as a long chain, many involved links, long cycles, multiple production entities, multiple locations, and various types, the high-quality development of the industry has put forward higher requirements on the linkage between upstream and downstream, production entities, traceability of the whole process and information sharing. This article takes Dao-di herbs certification work as an application scenario and entry point, and discusses it from the perspective of block chain and information technology. It proposes the following work ideas: establish multi-party consensus from the macro-organizational management, business, and operational technical levels, and unblock channels for data and information, to achieve institutionalization of certification; establish certification-related standards and specifications to achieve certification standardization; build a certification hardware system to achieve certification networking; build a certification software system to develop functions for specific information content such as identity, origin, production, production process, quality, product and brand of authentic medicinal material production interactively, and realize certification programmatic; data security and sharing of related production activities to achieve socialization of certification. Make full use of modern technologies such as blockchain, the internet of things, big data and information technology, and through the joint participation of management, production, use and the public, the whole process information of Daodi herbs is integrated to form an interconnected information sharing application mode, thus, to serve and promote the high-quality development of Dao-di herbs industry.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plants, Medicinal , Technology
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827971

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this article is to study the degradation of chemical compositions after the silkworm excrement being expelled from the silkworm, and to determine its main metabolic compositions and their changing relationships. This research is based on UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology. Based on the systematic analysis of the main chemical compositions contained in silkworm excrement, the principal compositions analysis(PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) on commercial silkworm excrement and fresh silkworm excrement were analyzed for differences. The S-plot chart of OPLS-DA was used to select and identify the chemical compositions that contributed significantly to the difference. At the same time, the relative peak areas of the different compositions were extracted by Masslynx to obtain the relative content of different compositions in fresh silkworm excrement. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the chemical compositions between fresh silkworm excrement and commercial silkworm excrement. The difference compositions were mainly flavonoid glycosides and Diels-Alder type composition, and two types of compounds are degradated during the storage of silkworm sand. In this study, the chemical compositions of fresh silkworm excrement were systematically identified and analyzed for the first time by mass spectrometry, and it was found that some chemical compositions of silkworm excrement were degradated with time during storage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Discriminant Analysis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Mass Spectrometry
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878845

ABSTRACT

In this paper, through the collection and collation of ancient herbs, medical books and prescriptions, combined with modern literature, the historical changes of the name, origin, position, medicinal parts, collection, processing and processing of bluegrass were systematically combed and verified.It can be seen from the research that bluegrass was first used as medicine by the fruit, namely blueberry, which was originally Polygonum tinctorium. Since the Ming and Qing Dynasties, blueberry was rarely used, and it has been no longer used medicinally. In the Wei and Jin Dynasties, the medicinal parts extended to the stems and leaves, and most of them used juice as medicine.Since the Tang Dynasty, origin has been extended to Isatis indigotica, Baphicacanthus cusia, Indigofera tinctoria, Compositae plant Wulan, etc. In the Song Dynasty, the medicinal parts extended to the roots, and the "Banlangen" began to appear, and gradually became the main medicinal parts of blue medicinal materials, the main base of which was B. cusia. Since the Qing Dynasty, I. indigotica, a Cruciferae, has gradually become a genuine indigo root, while B. cusia has become a southern indigo root. It was the first mineral dye imported from abroad for thrush, and then used as medicine, also known as clam powder. Because it was found that it had the same effect with the extract of bluegrass, it was also named indigo naturalis in China, which has lasted till now. The main stream of Isatidis Folium in the past dynasties is the dry stem and leaf of Clerodendrum cyrtophylum. Since the Qing Dynasty, the stem and leaf of Isatis indigotica, P. tinctorium and other blue grasses have been gradually mixed as substitutes and gradually become the mainstream.


Subject(s)
China , Clerodendrum , Isatis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plants, Medicinal
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773239

ABSTRACT

This paper is aimed to study the commodity specification and grade standard of Galla Chinensis,for standardizing market order and guide the market circulation,and provide a basis for standardization of Galla Chinensis. With 33 samples of Galla Chinensis from market as the object of the research,the herbal textual research and market research were carried out. Then the grading indicator were selected by the descriptive statistics,principal component analysis and cluster analysis,combining with production practice,the commodity specification and grade standard of Galla Chinensis were set out. The data of moisture,ash,gallic acid as the internal index were used to analyze the relationship between the quality difference between grades and the appearance characters and the intrinsic composition. Herbal textual research and market research found that the high quality of Galla Chinensis characterized with large,complete,wall thick,grayish brown characteristics,and Galla Chinensis could be divided into gallnuts and horned gall. Through principal component analysis and cluster analysis,combining actual production and herbal record,screening,the length,diameter,single weight,the number of 500 g were determined as 4 grading indicators,the commodity specification was divided into two: gallnuts and horned gall,the grades was divided into two: selected goods and mixed goods. The result of correlation analysis showed there was no significant correlation between the internal index and the appearance characters of Galla Chinensis. The result of multiple comparison showed that the ash content of the selected goods was smaller than that of the mixed goods,but it did not reach significant. The content of gallic acid of the selected goods and the mixed goods of gallnuts were higher than selected goods of horned gall,and higher than mixed goods of horned galls. Using the length,diameter,single weight,the number of 500 g as the appearance characters index. Combining with the herbal textual research and market research,we have divided two specifications and two grades for the commodity specification and grade standard of Galla Chinensis,which can provide a basis for industry standards and national standards.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Gallic Acid , Plant Tumors , Quality Control
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773198

ABSTRACT

Through the records of herbal and market investigations,the samples collected from different market and origin were analyzed,and the appearance character indexes were determined in order to revise the commodity specification and grade standard of Dipsaci Radix combined with production practice. This is also to analyze association of the appearance with quality different of intrinsic components. The investigation results indicated the root's long and thick was better,and atrovirens of fracture surface,there are most of the market is dominated by the ungraded goods. Through principal component analysis,variance analysis and cluster analysis,combining with the feasibility of actual operation and herbal record,the length,middle diameter and phloem color were filtrated and the specification was divided into 2 ranks: the selection and ungraded goods,and the grade was divided into 2 ranks for the selection goods: big,small selected goods. Moreover,there were no significant correlation between the appearance and the intrinsic quality index of Dipsaci Radix,the content of extractum were significantly positive correlation with the moisture,but had extremely negative correlation with the total ash. Multiple comparisons indicated that the content of the moisture,extractum and asperosaponin VI of the selected goods were higher than the ungraded goods,while the total ash content were lower,and they hasn't significant difference. The commodity specification and grade standard of Dipsaci Radix as a basis provide commodity specification and grade standard of communities and standardizing market trade order.


Subject(s)
Cluster Analysis , Dipsacaceae , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Principal Component Analysis
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773105

ABSTRACT

The study aims at investigating the grade standard and the quality characteristic of Pinelliae Rhizoma for commodity specification, which provides the reference for its grade standard formulation. 42 Pinelliae Rhizoma simples were collected from 5 medicinal materials markets and 2 producing areas. Based on the previous herbalogical study and market investigation, we combined with the data analysis to select the grading indicators using SPSS software for descriptive statistical analysis, analysis of variance, K-cluster analysis and correlation analysis. According to the actual production condition, we developed the grading standards of Pinelliae Rhizoma. Moreover, we compared the internal indicators(water, total ash, leachate and guanosine) of Pinelliae Rhizoma at various grade levels, and analyzed the correlation between appearance traits and internal indicators. The herbalogical study and market research found that the Pinelliae Rhizoma was better in large, solid and white. The results from descriptive and variance analysis showed that the appearance of Pinelliae Rhizoma was significantly different in weight per grain and grain number of 500 g. Referring to the 2015 Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the production practice, we use the length, weight per grain and grain number of 500 g as the classification index of Pinelliae Rhizoma. The results from correlation analysis showed that there was no significant correlation between the appearance of Pinelliae Rhizoma and the intrinsic quality index. In addition, we found there was no significant difference in the content of the intrinsic index except for the total ash and the extract. The current study established the classification index of the product specification and grade standard of Pinelliae Rhizoma with length, weight per grain and grain number of 500 g as the index, which can provide the basis for the classification of the product specification and grade of Pinelliae Rhizoma market.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Pinellia , Chemistry , Rhizome , Chemistry
20.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 432-438, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779893

ABSTRACT

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was applied to this study to detect heavy metal contents in Coptidis Rhizoma from different habitats, for a comprehensive understanding of heavy metal residues in Coptidis Rhizoma. Decocting method and artificial gastrointestinal digestion model were used to determine transfer rates of heavy metals in assessment of health risk of heavy metals using the target hazard quotient (THQ) developed by the US EPA (1989). The results showed that excess rates of Cu, Pb, As, Cd and Hg of 17 batches of Coptidis Rhizoma were 0, 12%, 0, 0 and 0, respectively, under the ISO international standard of Chinese medicine-Chinese herbal medicine heavy metal. The transfer rates of Cu, Pb, As, Cd and Hg were 3.63%, 1.69%, 37.17%, 20.86% and 0 in decoction solution, respectively, and 59.15%, 29.98%, 67.55%, 104.59% and 0 in artificial gastrointestinal solution, respectively. The values of THQ under the two ways of administration in adults and children were 0.001 0, 0.005 3 and 0.000 7, 0.003 6, respectively, and the maximum residue limits (MRL) of heavy metals in Coptidis Rhizoma were higher than the contents of samples in this study. The research showed that the contents of heavy metals in Coptidis Rhizoma were in the safe ranges with no obvious risks to human body, indicating that the excessive of heavy metals in Coptidis Rhizoma might be attributed to the unduly strict standard. The contents of heavy metals in Coptidis Rhizoma of different habitats was estimated for health risks using international risk assessment model, which provides a reference for establishment of heavy metal standards in Coptidis Rhizoma.

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