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1.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 566-571, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981995

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the role of plasma exchange combined with continuous blood purification in the treatment of refractory Kawasaki disease shock syndrome (KDSS).@*METHODS@#A total of 35 children with KDSS who were hospitalized in the Department of Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Hunan Children's Hospital, from January 2019 to August 2022 were included as subjects. According to whether plasma exchange combined with continuous veno-venous hemofiltration dialysis was performed, they were divided into a purification group with 12 patients and a conventional group with 23 patients. The two groups were compared in terms of clinical data, laboratory markers, and prognosis.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the conventional group, the purification group had significantly shorter time to recovery from shock and length of hospital stay in the pediatric intensive care unit, as well as a significantly lower number of organs involved during the course of the disease (P<0.05). After treatment, the purification group had significant reductions in the levels of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, heparin-binding protein, and brain natriuretic peptide (P<0.05), while the conventional group had significant increases in these indices after treatment (P<0.05). After treatment, the children in the purification group tended to have reductions in stroke volume variation, thoracic fluid content, and systemic vascular resistance and an increase in cardiac output over the time of treatment.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Plasma exchange combined with continuous veno-venous hemofiltration dialysis for the treatment of KDSS can alleviate inflammation, maintain fluid balance inside and outside blood vessels, and shorten the course of disease, the duration of shock and the length of hospital stay in the pediatric intensive care unit.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Plasma Exchange , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Renal Dialysis , Plasmapheresis , Shock
2.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 284-288, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971074

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the application value of transport ventilator in the inter-hospital transport of critically ill children.@*METHODS@#The critically ill children in Hunan Children's Hospital who were transported with or without a transport ventilator were included as the observation group (from January 2019 to January 2020; n=122) and the control group (from January 2018 to January 2019; n=120), respectively. The two groups were compared in terms of general data, the changes in heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood oxygen saturation during transport, the incidence rates of adverse events, and outcomes.@*RESULTS@#There were no significant differences between the two groups in sex, age, oxygenation index, pediatric critical illness score, course of disease, primary disease, heart rate, respiratory rate, and transcutaneous oxygen saturation before transport (P>0.05). During transport, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the changes in heart rate, respiratory rate, and transcutaneous oxygen saturation (P>0.05). The incidence rates of tracheal catheter detachment, indwelling needle detachment, and sudden cardiac arrest in the observation group were lower than those in the control group during transport, but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Compared with the control group, the observation group had significantly shorter duration of mechanical ventilation and length of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit and significantly higher transport success rate and cure/improvement rate (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The application of transport ventilator in the inter-hospital transport can improve the success rate of inter-hospital transport and the prognosis in critically ill children, and therefore, it holds promise for clinical application in the inter-hospital transport of critically ill children.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Critical Illness , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Ventilators, Mechanical , Prognosis
3.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 249-254, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928595

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the efficacy and application value of plasma exchange as an adjuvant therapy in children with hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS).@*METHODS@#A prospective randomized controlled trial was designed. Forty children with severe HPS were enrolled, who were treated in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of Hunan Children's Hospital from October 2018 to October 2020. The children were randomly divided into a plasma exchange group and a conventional treatment group using a random number table, with 20 children in each group. The children in the conventional treatment group received etiological treatment and conventional symptomatic supportive treatment, and those in the plasma exchange group received plasma exchange in addition to the treatment in the conventional treatment group. The two groups were compared in terms of general information, clinical symptoms and signs before and after treatment, main laboratory markers, treatment outcome, and prognosis.@*RESULTS@#Before treatment, there were no significant differences between the two groups in gender, age, course of the disease before admission, etiological composition, pediatric critical illness score, involvement of organ or system functions, and laboratory markers (P>0.05). After 7 days of treatment, both groups had remission and improvement in clinical symptoms and signs. After treatment, the plasma exchange group had significantly lower levels of C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and serum protein levels than the conventional treatment group (P<0.05). The plasma exchange group also had significantly lower levels of alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin than the conventional treatment group (P<0.05). The length of stay in the PICU in the plasma exchange group was significantly shorter than that in the conventional treatment group (P<0.05). The plasma exchange group had a significantly higher treatment response rate than the conventional treatment group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the total length of hospital stay and 3-month mortality rate (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Plasma exchange as an adjuvant therapy is effective for children with severe HPS. It can improve clinical symptoms and signs and some laboratory markers and shorten the length of stay in the PICU, and therefore, it may become an optional adjuvant therapy for children with severe HPS.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/therapy , Plasma Exchange , Plasmapheresis , Prospective Studies
4.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 194-197, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-269510

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the impact of continuous blood purification (CBP) on T-cell subsets and prognosis in children with severe sepsis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 42 children with severe sepsis were randomly divided into a control group (n=22) and a CBP group (n=20). The patients in the control group received conventional treatment, while those in the CBP group underwent continuous veno-venous hemofiltration daily 12-24 hours for 3 days besides conventional treatment. Changes in clinical variables and in peripheral blood regulatory T cell subsets were assessed 3 and 7 days after treatment.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The pediatric intensive care unit length of stay and duration of mechanical ventilation were significantly shortened and the 28-day mortality rate was significantly lower in the CPB treatment group as compared with the control group (P<0.05). In the CBP treatment group, the percentage of CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+) T cell populations and PCIS scores were significantly higher at 3 and 7 days after treatment than before treatment (P<0.05). At 7 days after treatment, the percentage of CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+) T cell populations, CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio and PCIS scores were significantly higher in the CBP group than in the control group (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The CBP treatment may counteract the suppression of immune function and thus improve prognosis in children with severe sepsis.</p>


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , CD4-CD8 Ratio , Hemofiltration , Sepsis , Allergy and Immunology , Therapeutics , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , Allergy and Immunology
5.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 199-204, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-359771

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the variation of serum insulin levels in critically ill children and investigate the underlying mechanism and clinical significance to provide the basis for treatment.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Totally 332 critically ill children admitted in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of Hunan Children's Hospital from Nov., 2011 to April, 2012 were studied. The high insulin group (n = 332) was defined as insulin levels within 24 h > 11.1 mU/L and was divided into 2 groups: mildly elevated group (n = 194): 11.10 - 33.30 mU/L, increased three times group (n = 138): > 33.3 mU/L. Insulin, C-peptide and blood glucose were measured within 24 hours after admission, on day 3 and 7. Other results of inflammatory markers, lactate, cardiac enzymes, amylase, pancreatic ultrasound, hepatic and renal function as well as indicators related to severity and prognosis were recorded after admission.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The peak of insulin level was seen on day 1, then presented a downward trend and reached the normal level on day 7. The peaks of blood glucose and C-peptide level were seen on day 1 then declined, the levels on day 7 were still slightly higher than normal level. The insulin level on admission (41.47 ± 30.85) mU/L were positively correlated with lactic acid (2.29 ± 1.81) mmol/L and procalcitonin level (5.08 ± 6.70) ng/ml (r = 0.370, P = 0.000; r = 0.168, P = 0.002) (P < 0.01). The insulin level on admission in children with 1 organ failure (41.24 ± 22.60) mU/L or 2 or multiple organ failure (48.98 ± 22.17) mU/L was higher than that in children with non-organ failure (34.11 ± 29.84) mU/L (U = 1621.001, P = 0.000;U = 1300.000, P = 0.000) (P < 0.01). The insulin level on admission in death group (52.99 ± 32.34) mU/L was higher than that in survival group (32.85 ± 24.10) mU/L (U = 1585.000, P = 0.000) (P < 0.01). Ten cases in death group were complicated with pancreatic damage and the average insulin level on admission was (65.29 ± 50.53) mU/L.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The high insulin level was correlated with the degree of inflammatory response, ischemia and hypoxia. The high insulin level in critically ill children was relevant to the pancreatic damage, the severity of the disease, organ dysfunction, and evaluation of prognosis.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Blood Glucose , Metabolism , C-Peptide , Blood , Calcitonin , Blood , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide , Critical Illness , Insulin , Blood , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Multiple Organ Failure , Blood , Mortality , Pancreas , Metabolism , Pathology , Prognosis , Protein Precursors , Blood , Survival
6.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 216-218, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-236835

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe changes in T cell subsets in children with sepsis and their prognosis, and to investigate the clinical significance of these changes in the occurrence and development of sepsis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Fifty children with severe sepsis and 150 children with general sepsis were enrolled as subjects, and 50 age-matched healthy children were included as controls. The percentages of CD3(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in peripheral blood and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio were measured by flow cytometry. The pediatric critical illness score (PCIS) was calculated within 24 hours of admission.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The children with severe sepsis showed significantly lower percentages of CD3(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio and PCIS than the controls and children with general sepsis (P<0.01). Among the 200 cases of sepsis, the percentages of CD3(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio and PCIS were significantly lower in the cured group than in the deceased group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Children with sepsis have different degrees of cellular immunosuppression, and the degree of cellular immunosuppression is significantly correlated with the severity of the disease. Detection of T cell subsets in peripheral blood is of great significance for evaluating immune function and judging disease severity in children with sepsis.</p>


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , CD4-CD8 Ratio , Prognosis , Sepsis , Allergy and Immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , Allergy and Immunology
7.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 219-222, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-236834

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the clinical features of capillary leak syndrome (CLS) in children with sepsis, and to analyze its risk factors.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Clinical data of 384 children with sepsis was studied retrospectively. They included 304 cases of general sepsis, 54 cases of severe sepsis and 26 cases of septic shock, and were divided into non-CLS (n=356) and CLS groups (n=28). Univariate analysis was performed for each of the following variables: sex, age, malnutrition, anemia, coagulation disorders, white blood cell count, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, blood glucose, lactic acid, Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) III score, pediatric critical illness score (PICS), severe sepsis and number of failed organs≥3. The statistically significant variables (as independent variables) were subjected to multivariate logistic regression analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The incidence rate of CLS in children with septic shock, severe sepsis and general sepsis were 42.3%, 20.1% and 1.3%, respectively, with significant differences among them (P<0.01). There were significant differences in anemia, coagulation disorders, CRP, PCT>2 ng/mL, TNF, IL-1, IL-6, blood glucose, lactic acid, PRISM III score, PICS and number of failed organs≥3 between the non-CLS and CLS groups (P<0.05). Severe sepsis/shock and PRISM III score were the independent risk factors for CLS in children with sepsis.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The severity of sepsis and PRISM III score are positively correlated with the incidence of CLS in children with sepsis. Early monitoring of such factors as infection markers and blood glucose in children with severe sepsis and high PRISM III score may contribute to early diagnosis and effective intervention, thus reducing the mortality from CLS in children with sepsis.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Capillary Leak Syndrome , Epidemiology , Incidence , Logistic Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sepsis
8.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 114-116, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-272379

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the relationship between blood lactate level and disease severity in critically ill children.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The clinical data of 232 children who were critically ill between September and December, 2010 were retrospectively studied. According to blood lactate levels within 24 hrs of admission, the 232 patients were classified into three groups: normal (n=146), high lacticemia (n=72) and lactic acidosis (n=14). The circulation functions, pediatric critical illness scores and prognosis were compared among the three groups.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The degree of sepsis among the three groups was different (χ2 = 13.592, P<0.01). The occurrence of septic shock in the lactic acidosis group (42.9%) was significant compared with that in the normal (7.5%) and the high lacticemia groups (11.1%). The pediatric critical illness scores were different among the three groups (χ2 = 12.854, P<0.05). The blood lactate level was significantly negatively correlated with the pediatric critical illness scores (r=-0.405, P=0.002). The prognosis among the three groups was also varied (χ2 = 25.599, P<0.01). The curative rate (7.1% vs 23.3%; P<0.05) and the improvement rate (28.6% vs 58.2%; P<0.05) in the lactic acidosis group were significantly lower than in the normal group, and the mortality (28.6%) was significantly higher than in the normal (5.5%) and the high lacticemia groups (6.9%).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>A higher blood lactic acid level is associated with a more severe illness state and a worse prognosis.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Critical Illness , Lactic Acid , Blood , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
9.
World Journal of Emergency Medicine ; (4): 111-116, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-789498

ABSTRACT

@#BACKGROUND: Pancreatic damage in critically ill patients is associated with the progressive failure of multiple organs, but little is known about its clinical characteristics. At present, no guidelines are available for the diagnosis and management of pancreatic damage. This study was undertaken to analyze the clinical and pathologic characteristics of pancreatic necrosis in critically ill children, and to find some biological markers of pancreatic damage or pancreatic necrosis. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data, laboratory results, and autopsy findings of 25 children, who were admitted to Hunan Children's Hospital, China from 2003 to 2009, and died of multiple organ failure. The autopsy revealed pancreatic necrosis in 5 children, in whom sectional or gross autopsy was performed. RESULTS: The 5 children had acute onset and a fever. Two children had abdominal pain and 2 had abdominal bulging, flatulence and gastrointestinal bleeding. Four children had abnormal liver function, characterized by decreased albumin and 3 children had elevated level of C-reactive protein (CRP). B-ultrasonography revealed abnormal acoustic image of the pancreas in all children, and autopsy confirmed pancreatic necrosis, which may be associated with the damage of the adrenal gland, liver, lung, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, thymus, mediastinal and mesenteric lymph nodes and other organs. Children 1 and 2 died of acute hemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis (AHNP);children 3-5 died of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) due to pancreatic necrosis. CONCLUSION: Pancreatic damage or pancreatic necrosis in critically ill children is characterized by acute onset, severity, short course, multiple organ damage or failure. It may be asymptomatic in early stage, and easy to be ignored.

10.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 4-9, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-286152

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the pathological reports and clinical data of the cases with pancreatic damage in critically ill children, and summarize the clinical features and biological markers of critically ill children with pancreatic damage or pancreatic necrosis so as to provide the basis for early diagnosis and treatment in children complicated with pancreatic damage.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The clinical data of 13 patients treated in our hospital from 2003 to 2009 whose autopsy confirmed pancreatic damage existed and the pathological results of all organs were collected and analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>All the cases had acute onset; 7 cases had fever, 2 had abdominal pain, the other cases had abdominal distention, hepatosplenomegaly, hypoactive bowel sounds, ascites, intestinal obstruction and gastrointestinal bleeding, etc. All these cases had abnormal liver function, especially elevated ALT or AST level and significantly decreased albumin, 9 cases had abnormal blood glucose, 5 cases had elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). In abdominal B-mode ultrasonography, no case showed abnormal pancreas acoustic image. Autopsy confirmed that 7 cases had varying degrees of necrosis of the pancreas, other 6 cases showed edematous, hemorrhagic or inflammatory changes, which may be associated with adrenal gland, liver, lung, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, thymus, mediastinal and mesenteric lymph nodes and other damage. All these children died within 36 hours after the patients' conditions worsened.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Pancreatic damage or necrosis in critically ill children had acute and ferocious onset, short course and were prone to multiple organ damage or failure to which all pediatric clinicians should have high alert.</p>


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Critical Illness , Pancreas , Pathology , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing , Diagnosis , Pathology , Therapeutics , Retrospective Studies
11.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 10-16, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-286151

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the characteristics of children with acute pancreatitis and provide the basis of early diagnosis and treatment.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Totally 121 children with acute pancreatitis admitted to Hunan Children's Hospital between March 2003 and December 2009 were enrolled in this retrospective study. The data of clinical manifestations, biochemical examinations, imaging and prognosis were summarized and statistically analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Of the 121 cases, preschool and school-age children were the main groups, and the prevalent months were May and June. Abdominal pain (88.4%) and vomiting (61.2%) were the major initial symptoms of pancreatitis in children, but none of children under the age 1 year complained of abdominal pain; 70.2% had signs of abdominal tenderness, accompanied by abdominal rigidity, distension, hepatomegaly, jaundice, etc. Severe patients developed shock, convulsions, coma and so on. Serum amylase concentration increased to above the upper reference limit in 114 children (94.2%) when they admitted within 24 hours after admission. Urine amylase elevation was noted in 77 children (79.4%). The amylase concentration decreased after 3 days, but not all returned to normal 14 days afterward. Children with sustained serum amylase elevation or serum amylase level ≥ 3 times upper limit of normal range more likely to have fever, vomiting, abdominal distension, and pancreatic abnormalities at ultrasonography or CT which showed that the echo of pancreas decreased or enhanced, pancreas edema, pancreatic duct expanded, etc. Abdominal ultrasonography and CT showed that 75 cases (62.0%) had other organ damage besides pancreatitis, liver (25.3%) and intestinal (16.0%) damages were very common, while liver and myocardial damages were seen frequently in the laboratory examinations, which complicated with serum ALT/AST, total bilirubin, blood glucose elevation and myocardial enzyme abnormalities. Several gastroscopic examinations showed mucosal hyperemia and edema, sheet-like erosion, etc. Except for one case who underwent laparotomy, all the remaining children were treated with non-operative comprehensive treatment. Of them 119 were cured or improved, 2 died and 5 had recurred disease later.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Gastrointestinal symptoms were the main clinical manifestations of acute pancreatitis in children, often complicated with extrapancreatic damage. The younger the patient was, the less complaint of abdominal pain they had. This indicates that acute pancreatitis should be considered when children suffered from acute abdominal pain and vomiting which had no known cause or could not be explained. It is important to do take serial monitoring of serum amylase, and imaging procedures.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Amylases , Blood , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing , Blood , Diagnosis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
12.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 342-345, 2006.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-309204

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To summarize and analyze the clinical characteristics and diagnostic and therapeutic measures for the first human case of H5N1 avian influenza pneumonia in mainland of China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The clinical data of the first case of H5N1 avian influenza virus infection in China were analyzed and summarized.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The case is a 9-year old boy, who developed acute symptoms of a light common respiratory infection, including fever and dry cough without obvious catarrh. On the 7th day after onset, his temperature reached 40 degrees C, tachypnea occurred, distinct rales could be heard and large areas of consolidation were seen in the lungs on chest X-ray. The patient's peripheral blood leukocyte count was 2.81 x 10(9)/L and neutrophils dominated. After comprehensive therapeutic approaches, including antiviral therapy (amantadine) and use of low-dosage glucocorticoid, the patient's temperature returned to normal on the 3rd hospitalization day, chest X-ray showed absorbed inflammatory change on the 5th day after admission, and leukocyte count became normal on the 6th day. No complication occurred during the whole course. The case was diagnosed by the 4 fold raised antibody to the H5N1 influenza virus in recovery stage serum because the H5N1 nucleic acid test in early stage was negative. The case was cured and discharged after 3 weeks comprehensive treatment.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>It is very important for clinicians to pay enough attention to epidemiological history, especially history of exposure to avian influenza virus contaminated material, which will be very helpful for early detection, early diagnosis of the disease, and also very important for effective treatment and better prognosis.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Child , Humans , Male , Amantadine , Therapeutic Uses , Antibodies, Viral , Blood , Allergy and Immunology , Antiviral Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Birds , China , Glucocorticoids , Therapeutic Uses , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Allergy and Immunology , Influenza in Birds , Influenza, Human , Diagnosis , Pneumonia , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Virology , Treatment Outcome
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