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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879171

ABSTRACT

Metallomics is a frontier interdisciplinary subject at its vigorous development stage. Its goal is to systematically study the content, distribution, chemical species, structural characteristics and functions of metal elements in biological system. It is also a comprehensive discipline to study the existing state and function of free or complex metal elements in life. Metallomics is an ideal tool to study the biological behavior of inorganic elements, which can be used to solve many problems in the research of mineral Chinese medicine(MCM). It provides a strong theoretical basis and technical support for the research of MCM. Its theory and methods provide re-ference and enlightenment for the in-depth study of MCM, and also provide new ideas and open up new ways for the research of MCM. The application of metallomics theory and methods in the research of MCM is of great significance to reveal the material basis and mec-hanism of MCM, promote the process of basic research on MCM, fully exploit and utilize medicinal mineral resources and carry forward the traditional MCM treasure in China. In this paper, we introduced the concept, academic development, research content and research methods of metallomics, and discussed the application prospects of metallomics in the analysis of inorganic element composition characteristics and quality control, material basis and mechanism of MCM, so as to provide reference for further researches on MCM.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Minerals , Quality Control
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906523

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the effect of sedimentary type Limonitum on hemostatic indexes in blood and metal ions in serum of rats with hemorrhage. Method:The hemorrhagic rat models were established by warfarin sodium. The experimental animals were divided into control group,model group,powder group and water decoction group. On day 15 from drug administration, the contents of 6-keto prostaglandin F<sub>1</sub><italic><sub>α</sub></italic>(6-keto-PGF<sub>1</sub><italic><sub>α</sub></italic>),thromboxane B<sub>2</sub>(TXB<sub>2</sub>),arachidonic acid(AA),endothelin 1(ET-1),platelet activating factor(PAF),P-selectin(PS),and Ca<sup>2+</sup> in the whole blood of rats in each group were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The contents of Na,Mg,K,Ca,Fe,Al,Li,Be,Ti,V,Cr,Mn,Co,Ni,Cu,Zn,As,Sr,Cd,Sn,Sb,Ba,and Pb in serum samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer(ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS). Result:Compared with the model group,the content of 6-keto-PGF<sub>1</sub><italic><sub>α</sub></italic> was reduced in the powder group and water decoction group (<italic>P</italic><0.05),and the contents of TXB<sub>2</sub>,AA,ET-1,PAF,PS,Ca<sup>2+ </sup>were<sup> </sup>significantly increased(<italic>P</italic><0.01),with a positive and beneficial regulatory effect. In the powder group, 10 kinds of metal elements in serum of rats were significantly and positively regulated: Na,K,Ca,Fe,Li,Ti,V,Co,Cu,and Zn(<italic>P</italic><0.05,<italic>P</italic><0.01). In the water decoction group, 10 metal elements with significant positive regulation were as follows: Na,K,Ca,Fe,Li,V,Ni,Cu,Zn,and Sr(<italic>P</italic><0.05,<italic>P</italic><0.01). In addition,the content of Cr(<italic>P</italic><0.01) in the powder group and Cr(<italic>P</italic><0.01),Pb(<italic>P</italic><0.05) in the water decoction group were significantly reduced. Conclusion:The powder and water decoction of sedimentary type Limonitum had definite and positive intervention effect on warfarin hemorrhage model rats,which could play a coagulation role by enhancing the vasoconstriction ability,promoting the activation of platelets,and increasing the platelet aggregation rate and blood viscosity. The metal elements such as Na,K,Ca,Fe,Li,Ti,V,Co,Cu,Zn,Ni and Sr may be the material basis for sedimentary type Limonitum to exert hemostatic effect. According to the above indicators,the intervention effect of powder group and decoction group was basically the same.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906489

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the possible mechanism of Chloriti Lapis in the treatment of epilepsy by the metabonomics of brain tissue in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-kindled epileptic rats treated with Chloriti Lapis. Method:The epileptic animal model in rats was established by PTZ kindling, and the rats were divided into the control group, model group, carbamazepine group and Chloriti Lapis group. The brain tissue samples were detected by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC/Q-TOF-MS), and the experimental results were statistically analyzed by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and SPSS 18.0. Result:The metabolic fingerprints and metabolic profiles of the rat brain tissue were established, which showed that the metabolic profiles of each group had changed significantly and could be separated well among the groups. Moreover, the Chloriti Lapis group had a tendency to be closer to the control group than the carbamazepine group. Seven differential metabolites were screened, including phosphatidylserine (PS) (18∶0/18∶0), <italic>L</italic>-glutamic acid, docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide, arachidonic acid, glucosylsphingosine, cholestane-3,7,12,24,25-pentol and lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) (P-18∶0). Except for docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide and LysoPC (P-18∶0), Chloriti Lapis had significant intervening and regulating effects on the other five differential metabolites. There were 12 possible metabolic pathways that affected the metabolic disorder of PTZ-kindled rats, and 3 important metabolic pathways (pathway impact>0.1), namely, <italic>D-</italic>glutamine and <italic>D-</italic>glutamate metabolism, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, and arachidonic acid metabolism, among which <italic>D-</italic>glutamine and <italic>D-</italic>glutamate metabolism was the most important metabolic pathways. Conclusion:From this point of view, Chloriti Lapis has a clear intervention effect on PTZ-kindled epileptic rats, which may be related to the intervention of the above differential metabolite contents and related metabolic pathways. It can reduce the toxic effect of excitatory neurotransmitters on neurons in brain tissue and inhibit the development of inflammation in brain tissue, so as to maintain the biological function of brain cells and slow down the occurrence of epilepsy.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906433

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of Chloriti Lapis on metal elements in brain tissue and plasma of epileptic rats kindled by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), and to explore the possible material basis of Chloriti Lapis. Method:PTZ kindling method was used to establish epileptic rat model. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) were used to determine the contents of metal elements in brain tissue and plasma of the blank group, model group, carbamazepine group (0.1 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) and Chloriti Lapis group (2 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>). The data were statistically analyzed by SPSS 18.0 software. Result:Compared with the blank group, the contents of Sr, Sb and Ba in brain tissue of rats in the model group were significantly increased (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), while the contents of Zn, Fe, Cu, K, Li, Co, Sn and Pb were significantly decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the model group, the contents of Zn, Fe, K, Li, Co, As and Pb in brain tissue of rats in the Chloriti Lapis group were obviously increased (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), while the contents of Sr and Sb were significantly decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.01). These results showed that Chloriti Lapis had positive effect on the regulation of the content of metal elements in rat brain tissue to normal level, the intervention effect was clear, and the overall effect was better than that of carbamazepine group. The determination of 21 metal elements in plasma showed that compared with the blank group, the levels of K, Sr and Cd in the model group were significantly increased (<italic>P</italic><0.05), and the contents of Li, Al, Ti and Cr were significantly decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.05). Compared with the model group, the contents of Ca, K, Li, Al and V in the Chloriti Lapis group were obviously increased (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), and the contents of Fe, Ti, Sr and Cd were significantly decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.05,<italic>P</italic><0.01). The correlation analysis of metal elements among the groups showed that there were 17 pairs of elements had positively correlation in the brain tissue of rats, 2 pairs of elements had significant negative correlation. In the plasma of rats, 8 pairs of elements had significant positive correlation and 6 pairs of elements had significant negative correlation. Conclusion:The metal element groups represented by Zn, Fe, K, Li, Co, As, Pb, Sr, Sb, Ca, Al, V, Ti and Cd may be the effective material basis for Chloriti Lapis to interfere PTZ-kindled epileptic model rats, which may be related to the influence of these metal element groups on the release of neurotransmitters and the electrical balance of neurons, the regulation of abnormal synchronous discharge induced by Na<sup>+</sup>, K<sup>+</sup>, Ca<sup>2+</sup> channel disorders and intervention of metabolism pathways in brain tissue related to epilepsy. It can make the excitatory and inhibitory activities restrain each other, and finally reach the normal physiological state of neurons and cells. The intervention effect of Chloriti Lapis group was better than that of carbamazepine group.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905921

ABSTRACT

Objective:To control the quality of the reference sample of Wenjingtang by establishing the specific chromatograms. Method:On the basis of analyzing 15 batches of Wenjingtang freeze-dried powder samples, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) specific chromatogram analysis method of Wenjingtang was established. The system adaptability was investigated and the retention time, relative retention value and deviation caused by different chromatographic columns and instruments were calculated by using the same brand of chromatographic columns, four different brands of chromatographic columns and instruments from three different manufacturers. The precision, repeatability and stability of this method was further completed. The possible chemical components of the freeze-dried powders were speculated and identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS<italic><sup>n</sup></italic>). Chromatographic separation was performed on ACQUITY UPLC BEH C<sub>18</sub> column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) with acetonitrile (A)-0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (B) as mobile phase for gradient elution (0-2.8 min, 10%A; 2.8-8.0 min, 10%-18%A; 8.0-12.2 min, 18%-25%A; 12.2-15.3 min, 25%-40%A; 15.3-17.4 min, 40%A; 17.4-20.5 min, 40%-90%A), and column temperature was set at 30 ℃ with flow rate of 0.4 mL·min<sup>-1</sup>. Mass spectrometry was performed on electrospray ionization, data were collected under positive and negative ion modes, and the detection range was <italic>m</italic>/<italic>z</italic> 50-1 600. Result:Ten characteristic peaks were selected as the distinguishing features in this specific chromatograms, and eight of them were identified by comparing with the reference standards, including paeoniflorin (peak 1), liquiritin apioside (peak 2), liquiritin (peak 3), ferulic acid (peak 4), iquiritigenin (peak 6), cinnamaldehyde (peak 8), paeonol (peak 9)and glycyrrhizic acid (peak 10). By mass spectrometry analysis, 30 compounds were identified, and the source of medicinal materials were assigned. It mainly contained triterpenoid saponins and flavonoids from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, ginsenosides from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, monoterpenoid glycosides and tannins from Paeoniae Radix Alba, steroids in Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, phenolic acids in Angelicae Sinensis Radix. Conclusion:The established characteristic chromatographic analysis method of Wenjingtang is simple, stable and repeatable. The chemical composition of the freeze-dried powder of Wenjingtang is basically defined by mass spectrometry identification and source attribution, which can provide reference for the development and quality control of Wenjingtang in the future.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888053

ABSTRACT

To study the effect of mineral Chloriti Lapis on pulmonary metabolites and metabolic pathways in lung tissues of rats with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(AECOPD). The AECOPD rat model of phlegm heat syndrome was replicated by the method of smoking combined with Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. Except for using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS analysis, SPSS 18.0, SIMCA 13.0 and other software were also used for statistical analysis. Through literature search and online database comparison, the differential metabolites were identified, and the possible metabolic pathways were analyzed. After 15 days of administration, PLS-DA analysis was carried out on lung tissue samples of rats in each group. The results showed that the metabolic profiles of lung tissues of rats in each group could be well separated, which indicated that Chloriti Lapis and aminophylline had significant intervention effect on the lung metabolic profile of rats with AECOPD. Moreover, the metabolic profile of Chloriti Lapis group was closer to that of control group, and the intervention effect was better than that of aminophylline group. As a result, 15 potential differential metabolites were identified: phytosphingosine, sphinganine, tetradecanoylcarnitine, L-palmitoylcarnitine, elaidic carnitine, lysoPC[18∶2(9Z,12Z)], lysoPC(16∶0), lysoPC[18∶1(9Z)], lysoPC(18∶0), stearic acid, lysoPC(15∶0), arachidonic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, linoleic acid and palmitic acid. Among them, Chloriti Lapis could significantly improve the levels of 10 differential metabolites of phytosphingosine, tetradecanoylcarnitine, L-palmitoylcarnitine, elaidic carnitine, lysoPC[18∶2(9Z,12Z)], lysoPC(16∶0), lysoPC[18∶1(9Z)], stearic acid, lysoPC(15∶0), and palmitic acid(P<0.05). The intervention effect of Chloriti Lapis group was better than that of aminophylline group. Analysis of metabolic pathways showed that there were 8 possible metabolic pathways that could be affected, and three of the most important metabolic pathways(pathway impact>0.1) were involved: linoleic acid metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, and sphingolipid metabolism. Chloriti Lapis had obvious intervention effects on lung tissue-related metabolites and metabolic pathways in rats with AECOPD, and the effect was better than that of aminophyllinne.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lung , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Metabolomics , Minerals , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Rats
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888023

ABSTRACT

The effects of Chloriti Lapis on metal elements in plasma and lung tissue of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease( AECOPD) rats were studied. The rat AECOPD model with phlegm heat syndrome was established by smoking combined with Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. After the rats were treated by Chloriti Lapis,the contents of metal elements in plasma and lung tissue were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy( ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry( ICP-MS). The changes in the contents of metal elements were analyzed by SPSS 18. 0. Further,the correlations of differential metal elements( including Cu/Zn ratio) with differential metabolites in plasma,lung tissue and urine of AECOPD rats treated with Chloriti Lapis were analyzed. The results showed that Chloriti Lapis significantly up-regulated the contents of Fe,Al,Mn,Cu,Zn,Sn( P<0. 05),V,Co( P< 0. 01) and Cu/Zn ratio( P< 0. 05),and significantly down-regulated the contents of Ti( P< 0. 05)and Pb( P<0. 05) in the model rat plasma. It significantly increased the content of Be( P<0. 05) and decreased the contents of Mg,Ti and Al( P<0. 01) in model rat lung tissue. The element profiles of normal group,model group and Chloriti Lapis group can be well separated. Chloriti Lapis group and other groups were clustered into two categories. The taurine in plasma and phytosphingosine in lung tissue had the strongest correlations with differential metal elements. The Fe,Al,Mg,Be,Ti,V,Mn,Cu,Zn,Sn,and Co in Chloriti Lapis may directly or indirectly participate in the intervention of AECOPD rats. This group of metal elements may be the material basis of Chloriti Lapis acting on AECOPD rats,and reduce the Cu/Zn value in vivo. It was further confirmed that Chloriti Lapis could interfere with the metabolic pathways of taurine and hypotaurine in plasma and urine as well as the sphingolipid metabolism pathway in lung tissue of AECOPD rats. In addition,this study confirmed that long-term smoking can cause high-concentration Cd accumulation in the lung and damage the lung tissue.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lung , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Minerals , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Rats , Spectrum Analysis , Trace Elements/analysis
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905373

ABSTRACT

The stiffness can respond to the function of muscle and tendon. Resistance training leads to the change of muscle-tendon stiffness, and various with the patterns and strength of contraction. This paper reviewed the impacts of mechanical load on stiffness of muscle and tendon, to explore the adaptation of muscle and tendon to mechanical load.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818950

ABSTRACT

Objective To develop a method for designing schistosomiasis surveillance sites, so as to improve the efficiency and quality of schitsosomiasis surveillance. Methods By using the minimum spanning tree-based Spatial Kluster Analysis by Tree Edge Removal (SKATER) method, spatially constrained clustering was performed upon 31 historical schistosomiasis-endemic counties (districts) in Anhui Province. A surveillance site was selected from each cluster to evaluate the representativeness and surveillance efficiency of these cluster-based surveillance sites for the endemic situation of schistosomiassi in Anhui Province, and to compare the surveillance efficiency with local national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Results There was no significant difference in the environmental factors between the cluster-based schistosomiasis surveillance sites and the whole region, showing a high homogeneity. If the same number of schistosomiasis surveillance sites was selected, there was no significant difference between the cluster-based surveillance sites and national schistosomiasis surveillance sites in the efficiency of the mean risk and long-term trend of schistosomiasis surveillance in Anhui Province; however, the cluster-based surveillance sites were superior to the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites for the prediction and estimation of the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in the unmonitored areas. Conclusion The SKATER-based selection of schistosomiasis surveillance sites may better represent the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in Anhui Province, which may serve as an effective supplement for the conventional method of selecting schistosomiasis surveillance sites.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818498

ABSTRACT

Objective To develop a method for designing schistosomiasis surveillance sites, so as to improve the efficiency and quality of schitsosomiasis surveillance. Methods By using the minimum spanning tree-based Spatial Kluster Analysis by Tree Edge Removal (SKATER) method, spatially constrained clustering was performed upon 31 historical schistosomiasis-endemic counties (districts) in Anhui Province. A surveillance site was selected from each cluster to evaluate the representativeness and surveillance efficiency of these cluster-based surveillance sites for the endemic situation of schistosomiassi in Anhui Province, and to compare the surveillance efficiency with local national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Results There was no significant difference in the environmental factors between the cluster-based schistosomiasis surveillance sites and the whole region, showing a high homogeneity. If the same number of schistosomiasis surveillance sites was selected, there was no significant difference between the cluster-based surveillance sites and national schistosomiasis surveillance sites in the efficiency of the mean risk and long-term trend of schistosomiasis surveillance in Anhui Province; however, the cluster-based surveillance sites were superior to the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites for the prediction and estimation of the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in the unmonitored areas. Conclusion The SKATER-based selection of schistosomiasis surveillance sites may better represent the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in Anhui Province, which may serve as an effective supplement for the conventional method of selecting schistosomiasis surveillance sites.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772773

ABSTRACT

In 2013, two episodes of influenza emerged in China and caused worldwide concern. A new H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) first appeared in China on February 19, 2013. By August 31, 2013, the virus had spread to ten provinces and two metropolitan cities. Of 134 patients with H7N9 influenza, 45 died. From then on, epidemics emerged sporadically in China and resulted in several victims. On November 30, 2013, a 73-year-old woman presented with an influenza-like illness. She developed multiple organ failure and died 9 d after the onset of disease. A novel reassortant AIV, H10N8, was isolated from a tracheal aspirate specimen that was obtained from the patient 7 d after onset. This case was the first human case of influenza A subtype H10N8. On 4 February, 2014, another death due to H10N8 avian influenza was reported in Jiangxi Province, China.


Subject(s)
Aged , China , Epidemiology , Female , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H10N8 Subtype , Classification , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype , Classification , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Classification , Influenza, Human , Epidemiology , Virology , Phylogeny , Reassortant Viruses , Classification
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-702539

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the intra-and inter-rater reliability of MyotonPRO for Achilles tendon properties measured. Methods Twenty healthy subjects were recruited to measure Achilles tendon properties using a novel hand-held Myoton-PRO device by two testers, one of the testers re-tested five days later. The reliability was assessed using in-tra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman analysis, and minimum detectable changes (MDC) was calculated. The Achilles tendon properties of the dominant or non-dominant leg was compared. The correlation between body mass and Achilles tendon properties was examined. Results The intra-rater reliabilities of Achilles tendon properties were ICCleft=0.884 and ICCright=0.904; the inter-rater reli-abilities were ICCleft=0.883 and ICCright=0.945. The MDC was 36.64 N/m. Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement. There was no significant difference in Achilles tendon properties between dominant and non-domi-nant legs (t<1.236, P>0.05). The body mass positively correlated with Achilles tendon properties (r>0.477, P<0.05). Conclusion The intra-and inter-rater reliabilities of MyotonPRO were good in measuring Achilles tendon properties in healthy subjects. No significant difference was found between dominant and non-dominant legs. The body mass positively correlated with Achilles tendon properties in healthy subjects.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-702513

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the impact of gender and body mass on stiffness of the medial and lateral head of gastrocnemius muscle. Methods Forty healthy subjects were recruited to measure the stiffness of medial and lateral head of gastrocnemius mus-cle,using a novel hand-held device MyotonPRO.The relationships between gender,weight and muscle stiffness were examined. Results The stiffness of medial and lateral head of gastrocnemius muscle was more in males than in females(t>2.523, P<0.01),and was positively correlated with body mass(r>0.322,P<0.05).There was no significant difference in the stiffness between dominant and non-dominant legs for medial and lateral head of gastrocnemius muscle(t<0.851,P>0.05). Conclusion Gender and body mass ralate with the stiffness of medial and lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle in healthy subjects,and the stiffness of both left and right sides is symmetrical in healthy subjects.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-338205

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this article is to identify Daphne genkwa and its adulterants, Wikstroemia chamaedaphne, according to the morphological and microstructure characteristics of their stem and foliage. The root of D.genkwa was studied simultaneously. The results indicated that the crude drug and processed pieces of Genkwa Ramulus were mainly composed of stems and branches where obvious opposite petiole scars and branch marks were able to be seen on their nodes. Otherwise, foliage or peduncles generally couldn't be found. Moreover, the fine silver flocculent fibers could be observed in the bark of fracture surface. The adulterants were the plant segments which were composed of stems, foliage and peduncles with spikelet-pedicel scars. There existed microstructures differences between Genkwa Ramulus and its adulterants. In the former, single thick lignified phloem fibers were interspersed in the stem phloem of the transverse section with very thick wall and unicellular non-glandular hairs could be observed on the lower epidermis of foliage. Nevertheless, in the latter, there was no thick lignified phloem fibers in cross section of stem phloem, the outer wall of epidermal cells of foliage hadthick cuticles and no non-glandular hairs in lower epidermis of foliage. The results can be used for the identification and the quality standard of the crude drug and processed pieces of D.genkwa.The characteristics of the microstructures and the transverse section can be used to identify the radix D.genkwa.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-230970

ABSTRACT

Chinese medicine prescriptions are a type of medical documents written by doctors after they understand the patients' conditions for syndrome differentiation. Chinese medicine prescriptions are also the basis for pharmacy personnel to dispense medicines and guide patients to use drugs. It has the legal, technical and economic significances. Chinese medicine prescriptions contain such information of names, quantity and usage. Whether the names of drugs in Chinese medicine prescriptions are standardized or not is directly related to the safety and efficacy of the drugs. At present, nonstandard clinical prescriptions are frequently seen. With "Chinese medicine prescription", "names of drug in Chinese medicine prescription" and "standards of Chinese medicine prescription" as key words, the author searched CNKI, Wanfang and other databases, and consulted nearly 100 literatures, so as to summarize current names of drugs in traditional Chinese medicine prescription, analyze the reasons, and give suggestions, in the expectation of standardizing the names of drugs used in traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-297248

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the relationship between the degree of fever within 48 hours of admission and the prognosis in children with bacterial bloodstream infection.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of all patients diagnosed with sepsis who were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of Shengjing Hospital Affiliated to China Medical University between September 2008 and September 2016. The children with bacterial bloodstream infection were classified into 5 groups according to the maximum temperature within 48 hours of admission: <36.5°C group, ≥36.5°C group (normal control), ≥37.5°C group, ≥38.5°C group, and ≥39.5°C group. The mortality was compared between the five groups. Results A total of 213 children with bacterial bloodstream infection were enrolled, consisting of 5 cases in the <36.5°C group, 44 cases in the ≥36.5°C group, 73 cases in the ≥37.5°C group, 69 cases in the ≥38.5°C group, and 22 cases in the ≥39.5°C group. A total of 48 cases died among the 213 patients. A significant difference was observed in the mortality between the five groups (P<0.01). The <36.5°C group and ≥39.5°C group had significantly higher mortality than the normal control group. However, there were no significant differences in the mortality between the ≥37.5°C and ≥38.5°C groups and the normal control group. Conclusions In children with bacterial bloodstream infection, those with a maximum temperature below 36.5°C or above 39.5°C within 48 hours of admission have a significantly increased mortality.</p>


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Mortality , Child, Preschool , Female , Fever , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279022

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the risk factors for sepsis caused by multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumonia (MDR-KP) and to provide a reference for the prevention of MDR-KP sepsis and rational use of antibiotics.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A retrospective case-control study of 41 children with MDR-KP sepsis (case group) and 53 pediatric patients without MDR-KP sepsis (control group) between March 2010 and Febrary 2014 was conducted. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the independent risk factors for MDR-KP sepsis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the control group, the case group had a longer length of stay in the PICU before infection (P<0.05), more prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation before infection (P<0.05), a larger total number of days of mechanical ventilation (P<0.05), more days of antibiotic use before infection (P<0.05), more types of antibiotics used before infection (P<0.05), and a higher mortality (P<0.05). The logistic regression analysis showed that more types of antibiotics used before infection and use of third-generation cephalosporin and carbapenems were independent risk factors for MDR-KP sepsis (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Rational use of antibiotics is an effective measure to prevent MDR-KP sepsis.</p>


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Drug Therapy , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Female , Humans , Infant , Klebsiella Infections , Drug Therapy , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Logistic Models , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311009

ABSTRACT

The study is aimed to explore a rapid method to extract DNA from fried Chinese medicinal products. The alkaline lysis buffer was made of sodium hydroxide, 1% PVP and 1% TritonX-100 and Tris-HCl solution was neutralized, through heat cracking and neutralization two step to extract DNA from processed and prepared products of traditional Chinese medicine. Then universal primes were used to amplify PCR products for fired Chinese medicinal materials. The results indicated the optimized alkaline lysis method for extracting DNA is quick and easy. Extracting of the different processed Sophora japonica of DNA concentration was (420.61 ± 123.91) g x L(-1). Using 5% Chelex-100 resin purification can improve the DNA concentration. Our results showed that the optimized alkaline lysis method is suitable for Chinese medicinal materials for quickly DNA extraction.


Subject(s)
Alkalies , Chemistry , Chemical Fractionation , Methods , DNA, Plant , Genetics , Hydrolysis , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Classification , Genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sophora , Chemistry , Classification , Genetics
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-236857

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the clinical characteristics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA)-positive children in the pediatric intensive care unit, and to provide a basis for early diagnosis and reasonable treatment of PA infection.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The clinical data of 62 children infected with PA in the pediatric intensive care unit were retrospectively reviewed,including age, affected organs, fever duration, hospital stay duration, mechanical ventilation duration, prognosis, underlying diseases, mortality, culture results and drug sensitivity test results.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Of the 62 PA-positive children, 25 (40%) were aged under 6 months and 47 (76%) under 2 years, with a median age of 28.8 months. Twenty-seven showed one positive result for sputum culture or endotracheal tube aspirates culture, 3 showed one positive result for blood culture, and 32 showed more than two positive results for blood, sputum or endotracheal tube aspirates cultures. On average, 2.8 organs were affected in each patient, with the respiratory system involved most frequently (58 patients, 94%). The mean fever duration was 7.3 days and the mean hospital stay duration was 34.2 days. In the 62 patients, 35 (57%) were cured and 17 (27%) died. Mechanical ventilation was administered to 51 patients (82%) for a mean duration of 13.4 days. Fifty-one patients (82%) had underlying diseases. The 17 (27%) children who died had a mean age of 17.4 months and a mean CRP level of 52.6 mg/L; 14 of them had increased or normal white blood cell count, and 3 had a decreased white blood cell count.The antibiotic sensitivity of PA was 72.6% for cefoperazone/sulbactam, 70.8% for meropenem, 49.1% for imipenem, 65.1% for ceftazidime, and 44.3% for piperacillin/tazobactam. There was complete resistance to cephazolin, cefuroxime and cefotaxime.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The children under 2 years are prone to PA infection. Respiratory system involvements are common. Most of children infected with PA suffer from underlying diseases.The sensitivity of PA to common antibiotics is not high.</p>


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Female , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pseudomonas Infections , Blood , Drug Therapy , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Retrospective Studies
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-274770

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To detect the spatial distribution characteristics of iodine in drinking water of residents in Shandong province with spatial autocorrelation analysis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The county-based study set Shandong province as a research site. A total of 108 164 water samples from 140 counties were collected. The drinking water iodine data in county-level city between 2008 to 2010 were obtained from Shandong Institute of Prevention and Control for Endemic Disease and was merged with an electronic map to build a spatial database. Global and local Moran's I index were calculated, respectively, and spatial autocorrelation and cluster range of iodine distribution in drinking water in Shandong province were studied by SaTScan software.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>All counties were further grouped according to the "criteria of delimitation for IDD endemic areas" and "determination and classification of the areas of high water iodine and the endemic areas of iodine excess goiter", and 90 counties were iodine deficiency (< 10 µg/L), 31 were iodine suitable (10 - 150 µg/L), and 19 (> 150 µg/L) were high iodine. For the overall study area, the iodine distribution in drinking water in Shandong province existed spatial autocorrelation (Moran's I = 0.52, Z = 7.4, P < 0.01). For the local scale, the drinking water iodine in 18 counties of Dezhou, Liaocheng and Heze city in western Shandong province was clustered, the local Moran's I were between 0.22 - 1.00 (P < 0.01), which were all high-high clusters, indicating the positive spatial correlation. Spatial analysis using SaTScan software detected two cluster areas including 20 counties, which the centers located in Xiajin and Dingtao county, the cluster radiuses were 57.47 km and 65.58 km respectively. The analysis results were consistent with the results of local spatial autocorrelation.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>There are apparent spatial autocorrelation and strong spatial heterogeneity existed in the iodine distribution in drink water in Shandong province.</p>


Subject(s)
China , Cluster Analysis , Drinking Water , Iodine , Spatial Analysis , Statistical Distributions
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