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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1145-1175, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970587

ABSTRACT

There are 500 species of Viola(Violaceae) worldwide, among which 111 species are widely distributed in China and have a long medicinal history and wide varieties. According to the authors' statistics, a total of 410 compounds have been isolated and identified from plants of this genus, including flavonoids, terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, organic acids, nitrogenous compounds, sterols, saccharides and their derivatives, volatile oils and cyclotides. The medicinal materials from these plants boast anti-microbial, anti-viral, anti-oxidant and anti-tumor activities. This study systematically reviewed the chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Viola plants to provide a basis for further research and clinical application.


Subject(s)
Viola/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Flavonoids , Terpenes/pharmacology , China
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 900-907, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970561

ABSTRACT

From the perspective of market classification of Cnidii Fructus, this paper revealed the scientific connotation of evaluating the quality grade of Cnidii Fructus by its appearance traits. Thirty batches of Cnidii Fructus in different grades were selected as the research objects. The canonical correlation analysis and principal component analysis(PCA) were used to explore the measurement values of 15 appearance traits and intrinsic content indexes. The results of correlation analysis showed that except the aspect ratio, the 5 appearance trait indexes(length, width, 1 000-grain weight, broken grain weight proportion, and chroma) and 9 internal content indexes(the content of moisture, total ash, acid insoluble ash, osthole, imperatorin, 5-methoxy psoralen, isopimpinellin, xanthotoxin, and xanthotol) showed significant correlation to varying degrees. In addition, there was a significant positive correlation between the first typical variable U_1 composed of appearance traits and the first typical variable V_1 composed of internal content indexes(CR_1=0.963, P<0.01). The results of PCA showed that the classification results of appearance traits for 30 batches of Cnidii Fructus were consistent with the actual information of the samples. Under the same analysis conditions, 30 batches of Cnidii Fructus were reclassified by 9 groups of internal content indexes, and the analysis results were consistent. From the classification standard of the appearance traits of the system study, the statistical results of 6 appearance traits of Cnidii Fructus showed a correlation with grades. There was a good correlation between the appearance and the internal content of Cnidii Fructus, and the appearance quality effectively predicted the level of the internal content. There is a certain scientific basis for the quality classification of Cnidii Fructus by main appearance traits. Appearance classification can replace quality grading to realize the "quality evaluation through morphological identification" of Cnidii Fructus.


Subject(s)
Fruit , Phenotype , Principal Component Analysis , Population Groups
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4634-4646, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008630

ABSTRACT

Dead heart is an important trait of pith-decayed Scutellariae Radix. The purpose of this study was to clarify the scientific connotation of the dead heart using multi-omics. Metabolomics and transcriptomics combined with multivariate statistical analysis such as principal component analysis(PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis(PLS-DA) were used to systematically compare the differences in chemical composition and gene expression among phloem, outer xylem and near-dead xylem of pith-decayed Scutella-riae Radix. The results revealed significant differences in the contents of flavonoid glycosides and aglycones among the three parts. Compared with phloem and outer xylem, near-dead xylem had markedly lowered content of flavonoid glycosides(including baicalin, norwogonin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, oroxylin A-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, and wogonoside) while markedly increased content of aglycones(including 3,5,7,2',6'-pentahydroxy dihydroflavone, baicalin, wogonin, and oroxylin A). The differentially expressed genes were mainly concentrated in KEGG pathways such as phenylpropanoid metabolism, flavonoid biosynthesis, ABC transporter, and plant MAPK signal transduction pathway. This study systematically elucidated the material basis of the dead heart of pith-decayed Scutellariae Radix with multiple growing years. Specifically, the content of flavonoid aglycones was significantly increased in the near-dead xylem, and the gene expression of metabolic pathways such as flavonoid glycoside hydrolysis, interxylary cork development and programmed apoptosis was significantly up-regulated. This study provided a theoretical basis for guiding the high-quality production of pith-decayed Scutellariae Radix.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Scutellaria baicalensis/chemistry , Glucuronides , Multiomics , Flavonoids/chemistry
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2919-2924, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981423

ABSTRACT

Zearalenone(ZEN) is a toxic metabolite produced by Fusarium culmorum, F. graminearum, F. tricinctum, and other fungi, with estrogenic characteristics. Exposure to or ingestion of ZEN during pregnancy can cause reproductive dysfunction, miscarriage, stillbirth, and malformation, and seriously endanger human life and health. The detection methods for ZEN in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition) are liquid chromatography(LC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC-MS), and it is stipulated that ZEN should not exceed 500 μg in 1 000 g of Coicis Semen. Although these detection methods by instruments can achieve the qualitative and quantitative analysis of ZEN in Coicis Semen, their high detection cost and long periods hinder the rapid screening of a large number of samples in the field. In this study, the synthesized ZEN hapten was conjugated with bovine serum albumin(BSA) and ovalbumin(OVA) to obtain the complete ZEN antigen. By virtue of antibody preparation techniques, ZEN monoclonal antibody 4F6 was prepared, which showed 177.5%, 137.1%, and 109.7% cross-reactivity with ZEN structural analogs zearalanol, zearalenone, and α-zearalenol, respectively, and no cross-reactivity with other fungal toxins such as aflatoxin. Direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(dcELISA) based on ZEN monoclonal antibody 4F6 was developed for the determination of ZEN in Coicis Semen with an IC_(50) of 1.3 μg·L~(-1) and a detection range of 0.22-21.92 μg·L~(-1). The recoveries were 83.91%-105.3% and the RSD was 4.4%-8.0%. The established dcELISA method was used to determine the ZEN residuals in nine batches of Coicis Semen samples, and the results were validated by LC-MS. The correlation between the two detection methods was found to be 0.993 9, indicating that the established dcELISA could be used for the rapid qualitative and quantitative detection of ZEN residuals in Coicis Semen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Zearalenone , Coix , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Mycotoxins , Antibodies, Monoclonal
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2160-2185, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981347

ABSTRACT

Starting with the relationship between mulberry leaves and silkworm droppings as food and metabolites, this study systematically compared the chemical components, screened out differential components, and quantitatively analyzed the main differential components based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and UPLC-Q-TRAP-MS combined with principal component analysis(PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA). Moreover, the in vitro enzymatic transformation of the representative differential components was studied. The results showed that(1) 95 components were identified from mulberry leaves and silkworm droppings, among which 27 components only exist in mulberry leaves and 8 components in silkworm droppings. The main differential components were flavonoid glycosides and chlorogenic acids.(2) Nineteen components with significant difference were quantitatively analyzed, and the components with significant differences and high content were neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, and rutin.(3) The crude protease in the mid-gut of silkworm significantly metabolized neochlorogenic acid and chlorogenic acid, which may be an important reason for the efficacy change in mulberry leaves and silkworm droppings. This study lays a scientific foundation for the development, utilization, and quality control of mulberry leaves and silkworm droppings. It provides references for clarifying the possible material basis and mechanism of the pungent-cool and dispersing nature of mulberry leaves transforming into the pungent-warm and dampness-resolving nature of silkworm droppings, and offers a new idea for the study of nature-effect transformation mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx , Morus/chemistry , Chlorogenic Acid/analysis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Plant Leaves/chemistry
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2358-2372, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928116

ABSTRACT

Dendrobii Caulis are commonly used tonic Chinese medicinal materials with a long history of application. As demonstrated by pharmacological results, the chemical constituents and the extracts of Dendrobii Caulis have anti-inflammatory, antibacte-rial, antioxidant, and anti-tumor effects, and can also regulate immunity, lower blood pressure, and regulate blood sugar. The active ingredients contained are widely concerned by scholars. This paper comprehensively summarized the chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Dendrobium plants reported so far. The chemical constituents isolated from Dendrobium plants are mainly alkaloids, sesquiterpenoids, flavonoids, fluorenones, coumarins, bibenzyls, phenanthrenes, lignans, steroids, phenols, and polysaccharides. This paper is expected to provide a reference for further research, development, and utilization of Dendrobium plants.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Dendrobium , Flavonoids , Polysaccharides/pharmacology
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 444-452, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927988

ABSTRACT

In order to evaluate the composition and distribution characteristics of inorganic elements in Laminaria japonica, this study employed inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS) to detect the inorganic elements and used high performance liquid chromatography tandem ICP-MS(HPLC-ICP-MS) to determine the content of different arsenic species in L. japonica from diffe-rent origins. Micro X-ray fluorescence(Micro-XRF) was used to determine micro-area distribution of inorganic elements in L. japonica. The results showed that the average content of Mn, Fe, Sr, and Al was high, and that of As and Cr exceeded the limits of the national food safety standard. According to the results of HPLC-ICP-MS, arsenobetaine(AsB) was the main species of As contained in L. japonica. The more toxic inorganic arsenic accounts for a small proportion, whereas its content was 1-4 times of the limit in the national food safety standard. The results of Micro-XRF showed that As, Pb, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni were mainly distributed on the surface of L. japonica. Among them, As and Pb had a clear tendency to diffuse from the surface to the inside. The results of the study can provide a basis for the processing as well as the medicinal and edible safety evaluation of L. japonica.


Subject(s)
Arsenic/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Laminaria , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Spectrum Analysis , Trace Elements/analysis
8.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 337-346, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940343

ABSTRACT

Through consulting the ancient herbal medicine, prescription books and medical books, combined with modern relevant literature, standards and other information, this paper made a textual research on the name, origin, producing areas, harvesting and processing methods of Astragali Radix according to different historical development periods, providing a basis for the development of famous classical formulas containing Astragali Radix. According to the textual research, the original name of Astragali Radix is Huangqi, and "Qi" originally refers to the medicinal material Zhimu. Some people began to mistake it for Huangqi in the Ming dynasty, and then gradually used Astragali Radix as a medicinal material. The mainstream basis of Astragali Radix can be determined as the dried roots of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus or A. membranaceus. In different historical periods, A. floridus, A. chrysopterus, A. emestii and other plants of Astragalus or even non-Astragalus were used as local Astragali Radix. The earliest production areas of Astragali Radix were Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Gansu, and then gradually expanded to the northeast. Since the Song dynasty, Mianqi in Shanxi province has been regarded as the genuine variety. In the Qing dynasty, besides Shanxi province, Inner Mongolia was also regarded as a genuine place. In the Republic of China, Huangqi produced in northeast China was praised highly. It is mainly produced in Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Gansu, northeast and other provinces. The main commodity is cultivated products, and the quality of wild imitation cultivation in Datong and Xinzhou is better than other places. There are many processing methods of Huangqi recorded in the materia medica and prescription books, most of which are raw products, and honey processing is the mainstream of processed products. Based on the current situation of resource cultivation and production, 11 famous classical formulas in The Catalogue of Ancient Famous Classical Formulas (The First Batch) containing Huangqi suggested that all use A. membranaceus var. mongholicus, especially those from Datong and Xinzhou in Shanxi Province. In addition to honey processing of Qingxin Lianziyin, it is suggested to use raw products for other formulas.

9.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 327-336, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940342

ABSTRACT

Through consulting the ancient and modern literature, this paper makes a textual research on the name, origin, producing area, harvesting and processing of Poria, so as to provide a basis for the development of the famous classical formulas containing this medicinal material. The description of Poria and the characteristics of the attached figures in the Chinese herbal literature of the past dynasties are consistent with Poria cocos. The medicinal parts are dried sclerotia or P. cocos peel. Poria was originally produced in Taishan, Shandong province. In the Tang dynasty, along with the change of pine forest resources, producing area of Poria was transferred to Huashan area in Shaanxi province. In the Ming dynasty, the authentic producing area was transferred to Yunnan, and has continued to now. In ancient times, the processing methods of Poria were steaming, boiling, slicing, mashing and other subsequent processing after peeling. It is suggested that Poria in famous classical formulas should be sliced according to the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia.

10.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 318-326, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940341

ABSTRACT

Through consulting the ancient and modern literature, this paper makes a textual research on the name, origin, producing area, harvesting and processing methods of Asini Corii Colla, so as to provide a basis for the development of the famous classical formulas containing the medicinal material. Before the Tang dynasty, cow leather was the main source of Asini Corii Colla, and donkey was rare as an introduced species. From the end of Tang dynasty to Song dynasty, due to the development of doctors' understanding of the properties and effects of medicines, with the increase of the number of donkeys and the limitation of the use of cow leather, the source of Asini Corii Colla changed from cow leather to donkey skin. During the Ming and Qing dynasties, the theory of medicine property was further developed, and all doctors basically agreed that black donkey skin and E-well water were two essential factors for making genuine Asini Corii Colla. Therefore, it is suggested that Asini Corii Colla should take Equus asinus as the authentic origin in the development of the famous classical formulas, attach importance to the quality of water source, take Liaocheng in Shandong province as the authentic producing area, and the processing should be carried out in accordance with the requirements of the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia.

11.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 306-317, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940340

ABSTRACT

Based on the ancient literature of all dynasties, this article makes a systematic textual research on the name, origin, producing area, quality, harvesting and processing of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex used in the famous classical formulas, and clarifies its information of each link in different historical periods, so as to provide a reference and basis for the development and utilization of the related formulas. The results showed that the main varieties of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex were Magnolia officinalis or M. officinalis var. biloba. The main production areas are Hubei, Sichuan, Chongqing and other places, forming the famous authentic medicine. The processing methods of the past dynasties are mainly cleansing and processing with ginger. In the formulas clearly marked with ginger processing, ginger-processed products is suggested to choose. If not clearly marked, raw or ginger-processed products can be used as needed.

12.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 296-305, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940339

ABSTRACT

This paper made a systematic textual research on the historical evolution and changes of the name, origin, producing area, harvesting and processing methods of Jujubae Fructus used in famous classical formulas by referring to the ancient literature, so as to provide a basis for the sampling and research of the formulas containing the medicinal materials. According to textual research, there are many names of Jujubae Fructus, most of which are named by characters or producing areas, which are called Dazao. Ziziphus jujuba has always been the mainstream variety in all dynasties, and Z. jujuba var. inemmis has also been used. Considering that the differences between the two are not obvious, we can use Z. jujuba and Z. jujuba var. inemmis as the origins of Dazao. The germplasm resources of Jujubae Fructus are rich, which are distributed all over the country. Qingzhou (now Shandong), Jinzhou (now Shanxi) Jiangzhou (now Shanxi), Puzhou (now Shanxi) have been recorded as authentic producing areas of Jujubae Fructus in the past dynasties, especially in Shandong. At the beginning of the 21st century, the planting of Jujubae Fructus in Xinjiang gradually developed, and now has a high market recognition, becoming an emerging production area of high-quality samples. Harvest period of Jujubae Fructus is mostly August in the past dynasties, and this is basically the same as today. The main processing method is simple cleansing and drying. Through textual research, it is suggested that Jujubae Fructus in famous classical formulas should be mainly from Shandong, Shanxi and other traditional high-quality producing areas, the processing method should follow the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia for simple cleansing and drying.

13.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 286-295, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940338

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the name, origin, producing area, quality evaluation, harvesting and processing methods of Scrophulariae Radix used in the famous classical formulas were researched by consulting related ancient materia medica, medical books and prescription books. The results showed that the name of Scrophulariae Radix originated from its shape and color. Scrophularia ningpoensis, one of the eight flavors of Zhejiang, has been highly praised in the past as a genuine base, and its authentic production area is Zhejiang. Quality of Scrophulariae Radix is best if it has a dry body, thin skin, thick branches, firm physique, black inner color, net basal part of stem, and no fine whiskers. In ancient times, the origin processing was divided into two types, including sun-dried after steaming and directly sun-dried. While it mostly used a combination of drying and sweating in modern times. Before the Ming dynasty, the processing of Scrophulariae Radix was mainly steamed. Occasionally, the stir-frying appeared. In the Ming dynasty and after the Ming dynasty, wine processing emerged such as hot wine mixed roasting, wine washing, wine steaming, because the ancients believed that wine could enhance its efficacy and reduce its cold property. In the Qing dynasty, the method of steaming and baking appeared in the water and fire system. According to the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, the processing of Scrophulariae Radix includes removing rhizome residues and impurities, washing, moistening, cutting into thin slices, and drying, or soaking slightly, steaming thoroughly, drying slightly, cutting into thin slices, and drying. Referring to the relevant national documents, it is suggested that raw products of Scrophulariae Radix should be used in Liangditang and Simiao Yong′antang.

14.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 275-285, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940337

ABSTRACT

Through the combing of ancient books of Chinese herbal medicine in the past dynasties, a textual research of Coptidis Rhizoma involved the name, origin, medicinal parts, producing area, quality evaluation, harvesting and processing methods in famous classical formulas was conducted in this paper. After textual research, the mainstream varieties of Coptidis Rhizoma in the Ranunculaceae family before Tang and Song dynasties were Coptis chinensis and C. chinensis var. brevisepala, after the Ming and Qing dynasties, C. deltoidea, C. teeta and C. omeiensis were gradually praised. In ancient times, the authentic producing area of Coptidis Rhizoma has the characteristics of gradually moving to the west. The eastern Coptidis Rhizoma was highly praised in the early stage, while in the later stage, western Coptidis Rhizoma like chicken feet was highly praised. In the early stage, western Coptidis Rhizoma probably originated from C. chinensis and its genus, while Coptidis Rhizoma like chicken feet was cultivated, and no wild species has been found so far. As Coptidis Rhizoma has mixed use of multiple origins in ancient books of past dynasties, based on the current shortage of market resources in C. teeta and C. deltoidea, there are also endangered and protected plants of C. chinensis var. brevisepala and C. omeiensis, combined with the mainstream medicines and resources of past generations, it is recommended to choose C. chinensis as the base of the formulas. In ancient times, there were many processing methods for Coptidis Rhizoma, such as frying and wine-, ginger-, honey-processed. In the process of developing famous classical formulas, the appropriate processing specifications of Coptidis Rhizoma should be selected based on the original source records and the requirements of the medicinal material.

15.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 262-274, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940336

ABSTRACT

Based on various ancient documents such as materia medica, prescription books, classics and history, combined with relevant research materials in modern times, this paper made a textual research on the name, origin, geoherbalism, harvesting time, processing methods of Chuanxiong Rhizoma, which provides a basis for the development of famous classical formulas containing this herb. According to the textual research, the original name of Chuanxiong is Xiongqiong (芎䓖), which was first recorded in Shennong Bencaojing , there are many aliases and trade names in the past dynasties. Since the Song dynasty, doctors all take Xiongqiong produced in Sichuan as the best medicine, so they take Chuanxiong as the rectification of name. In the early stage, the origin of Chuanxiong Rhizoma was relatively complicated, and the main origin was Ligusticum chuanxiong, which was a cultivated and domesticated species of Ligusticum. However, wild related plants of Ligusticum are still used as medicine. After the Ming dynasty, new cultivated varieties appeared in various places, such as Jiangxi L. sinense cv. Fuxiong, which gradually turned to self-production and self-marketing after the Republic of China. After several changes in the authentic producing area of Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Tianshui in Gansu province was highly praised in the Tang dynasty, and Dujiangyan in Sichuan province was the best place in the Song dynasty and later dynasties. Chuanxiong Rhizoma has been widely used in the past dynasties as raw products, and it has also been processed with excipients. For example, wine-processed products can enhance the effect of promoting blood circulation, promoting Qi circulation and relieving pain. There are other processing methods such as stir-frying and vinegar processing. Chuanxiong Rhizoma in the famous classical formulas can be selected according to this research conclusion.

16.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 247-261, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940335

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the name, varieties, raw materials and manufacturing technology of maltose in the famous classical formulas were researched by consulting the herbal medicines, medical books, prescription books and modern literature of past dynasties, which provided the basis for the development and utilization of formulas containing maltose. Through textual research, it can be seen that the name of maltose has been derived from its shape, texture, preparation method, raw materials and producing area. In ancient times, maltose was mainly divided into soft and hard types according to the texture. Those who are wet and soft as honey are called "syrup" or "jelly", while those who are hard and white are called "malt" and "sugar". In modern times, they are mostly called malt sugar, only jelly is used as medicine, and malt is mostly used as food. Throughout the ages, medicinal maltose were made of Oryza sativa var. glutinosa as the raw material and Hordeum vulgare as malt, prepared by fermenting, decocting and concentrating. The maltose made from other cereals such as Setaria italica var. germanica, Panicum miliaceum is slightly inferior in quality. The 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia did not include maltose, but included malt sugar, a pharmaceutical excipient, which was a crystal powder with high purity. But maltose was included in the national food standard and the local processing specification. Based on the textual research results, it is suggested that malt syrup in GB/T 20883-2017 can be used as the reference for the development of formulas containing maltose, and O. sativa var. glutinosa, H. vulgare are clearly used as raw materials.

17.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 238-246, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940334

ABSTRACT

By consulting the ancient herbal and medical books, combined with modern literature, the name, origin, geoherbalism, harvesting and processing changes of Bambusae Caulis in Taenias in famous classical formulas were sorted out. According to the research, ancient doctors only approved three kinds of bamboo medicinal materials, namely, Jinzhu (䈽竹), Kuzhu (苦竹) and Danzhu (淡竹), and took bamboo leaves, made Bambusae Caulis in Taenias and Zhuli (竹沥) for medicine. Bamboo medicinal materials with different origins have different properties, tastes and effects, after clinical optimization, it is gradually considered that Danzhu is the best source of Bambusae Caulis in Taenias and Zhuli. According to the morphological description of the original plants and the attached drawings, it is considered that the Danzhu in ancient Chinese materia medica should be Phyllostachys nigra var. henonis, which has been included in the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia as one of the genuine sources of Bambusae Caulis in Taenias. Therefore, It is suggested that P. nigra var. henonis can be added as the source of Bambusae Caulis in Taenias in famous classical formulas, and the medicinal part is the dry middle layer of its stem. Ginger-processed can increase the anti emetic effect of Bambusae Caulis in Taenias, and the three formulas involving Bambusae Caulis in Taenias from The Catalogue of Ancient Famous Classical Formulas (The First Batch) all contain ginger, and the processing method of Bambusae Caulis in Taenias is not marked in the original formula, so it is suggested to use raw products in the three formulas of Jupi Zhurutang, Wendantang and Zhurutang.

18.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 229-237, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940333

ABSTRACT

In this study, name, origin, producing areas, harvesting time and processing methods of ancient Alismatis Rhizoma were systematically researched by consulting the literature of ancient herbs, medical and prescription books, so as to provide a basis for the development of famous classical formula containing this herb. According to textual research, the main base of ancient Alismatis Rhizoma was Alisma plantago-aquatica and A. orientale. A. canaliculatum and A. gramineum and other genera were sometimes used as the source of Alismatis Rhizoma, there was a confusion of medicinal varieties. The earliest producing area of Alismatis Rhizoma was in today's Henan province, and later Hanzhong, Shaanxi province, became the high-quality producing area of Alismatis Rhizoma. Since the Ming dynasty, its production area expanded to Fujian. In the Qing dynasty, Jian'ou in Fujian was the authentic production area of Alismatis Rhizoma. In the period of the Republic of China, Sichuan and Jiangxi were added to the production areas of Alismatis Rhizoma. Based on the research results, it is suggested that the dried tubers of A. orientale from Fujian and Jiangxi or A. plantago-aquatica from Sichuan should be used in the famous classical formulas. In ancient times, Alismatis Rhizoma was processed by wine, but most of the standards and specifications in modern times are no longer included the processing specifications of Alismatis Rhizoma with wine. Although salt-processed Alismatis Rhizoma is commonly used in modern times, it didn't become one of the main processing methods until the Qing dynasty. According to the relevant national documents, it is suggested that Alismatis Rhizoma without clear processing requirements in famous classical formulas should be used as raw products, and the formulas with processing requirements should be selected as processed products such as salt and wine according to the meaning of the formulas.

19.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 215-228, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940332

ABSTRACT

Through consulting the ancient herbal and medical books, combined with the field investigation, the name, origin, collection and processing of Dendrobium medicinal materials were researched, which provided a basis for the development of famous classical formulas containing this kind of herbs. Due to the wide distribution of D. officinale, the Dendrobium species represented by D. officinale and D. huoshanense, which are short, fleshy and rich in mucus, should be the most mainstream of Dendrobium medicinal materials in previous dynasties. Compared with Shihu, Muhu with loose texture, long and hollow is born on trees. According to the characteristic description, it should be D. nobile, D. fimbriatum and so on, of which D. nobile was the mainstream. The Chinese meaning of Jinchai was confused in the past dynasties, so it was not suitable to be treated as a plant name. The production areas of Dendrobium medicinal materials in the past dynasties have changed with the discovery of varieties, artificial cultivation and other factors. Lu'an, Anhui province, was the earliest recorded in the Han and Wei dynasties. Since the Tang and Song dynasties, it had been extended to Guangdong and Guangxi, and it was considered that "Dendrobii Caulis in Guangnan was the best". In the Ming dynasty, Sichuan and Zhejiang products were highly praised, and in the Qing dynasty, Huoshan products were highly praised. Dendrobium medicinal materials had been used as medicine by stems in all dynasties. The medicinal materials were divided into fresh products and dry products. The fresh products can be used immediately after removing the sediment from the roots. The dry products need further processing, most of them used wine as auxiliary materials for steaming, simmer to paste or decoction into medicine. D. officinale and D. huoshanense have special processing specifications since the middle of Qing dynasty, that is, "Fengdou". According to the research results, in Ganluyin, the effect of Dendrobium medicinal materials is mainly heat clearing, and D. nobile with bitter taste can be selected. The main effect of Dendrobium medicinal materials in Dihuang Yinzi is tonic, D. officinale or D. huoshanense can be selected.

20.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 207-214, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940331

ABSTRACT

By consulting ancient Chinese herbal medicines and medical books, the textual research of Armeniacae Semen Amarum has been conducted to verify the name, origin, producing area, quality evaluation, harvesting and processing changes. Through textual research, Shennong Bencaojing began to contain Xinghe. After Xinxiu Bencao, Xingheren were gradually taken as the mainstream name, Xingren was first used as the correct name since Leigong Paozhilun, and gradually became the mainstream rectifying in the Ming and Qing dynasties. Before the Qing dynasty, there was no distinction between Armeniacae Semen Amarum and Armeniacae Semen Dulcis in the materia medica works, while the differences between them were clearly defined in some works of the Qing dynasty, but did not record them separately. In order to make them more accurate in clinical application, Armeniacae Semen Amarum was recorded as the correct name in the 1953 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, and Armeniacae Semen Dulcis was included in the provincial standards. The original plants of Armeniacae Semen Amarum from Prunus armeniaca (Armeniaca vulgaris in Flora of China) and its cultivated varieties with bitter seeds were taken as the mainstream, which are reflected in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Its yellow ripe fruit was generally harvested in May, the seed kernel was taken out for drying or baking, finally the seed coat was removed to use. It is recorded that the production area of Armeniacae Semen Amarum is Taihang Mountain area of Shanxi province in ancient times. At present, its producing area is mainly concentrated in Shanxi, Shandong, Hebei and other places in north China. Historical literature pointed out that Armeniacae Semen Amarum had small toxicity, and heat treatment could reduce toxicity and increase efficiency, its main processing method was blanching and stir-frying. In addition, it is generally believed that raw products with seed coat can enhance its sweating effect since the Ming and Qing dynasties. Until now, three processed products are stipulated in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, namely raw products, boiled and fried products. Based on textual research, it is recommended that A. vulgaris should be used as the original plant of Armeniacae Semen Amarum in famous classical formulas, and the use of processed products should follow the processing requirements marked in the formulas.

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