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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906250

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the factors affecting the quality of post-harvest Angelicae Dahuricae Radix (Baizhi) and to provide the corresponding suggestions according to these factors. Method:A series of factors affecting the quality of Baizhi were analyzed comprehensively by visiting several origins, medicinal material markets, pharmacies, supermarkets and storehouses combined with plenty of literature reports. Result:The rot of Baizhi was the most common phenomenon after harvest, and mildew, discoloration and moth could occur during the processes of processing, storage and packaging. So the quality of Baizhi should be controlled strictly through the whole process. The roots of Baizhi should be harvested on sunny days to avoid mining damage and dried as soon as possible to prevent rotting. The drying methods included both traditional lime burial and modern ways such as sulfur fumigation, saline dehydration, sun drying method, and oven drying method. However, the water content should be strictly controlled. Furthermore, the storehouses should be disinfected firstly. The temperature and humidity of the storehouses should be controlled strictly. Some suitable ways could be adopted to prevent moth and discoloration during storage, which included airtight fumigation of aluminum phosphide, cold storage, air conditioning maintenance, antagonism storage with other Chinese medicinal materials, dry ice storage at room temperature, etc. Large quantities of Baizhi were generally packaged in woven bags. Otherwise, kraft paper bags, polyvinyl chloride plastic bags, glass bottles, aluminum foil composite film bags, and other packaging materials had been adopted for the retail. However, the packaging specification should be selected according to the situation. Conclusion:The quality of Baizhi can be directly affected by harvesting, drying, processing, storage and packaging. Scientific and reasonable methods should be adopted to ensure the quality of Baizhi.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905905

ABSTRACT

Objective:According to the GB/T 15000.3-2008, to develop a fucosterol certified reference material based on the project approved by Standardization Administration. Method:Fucosterol was isolated from <italic>Laminaria japonica</italic> dried thallus via 95% ethanol extraction, vacuum concentration, repeated column chromatography separation, recrystallization in petroleum ether-ethyl acetate, and residual solvent removal. Its chemical structure was identified by elemental analysis (EA), infrared spectrum (IR), mass spectrometry (MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Its homogeneity, stability, and cooperative certification conducted by 8 laboratories were carried out by high performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detector. Result:For the fucosterol reference material, the certified value of purity was 99.54% with expanded uncertainty of 0.16% in confidence interval of 95%, the stability was good within 24 months storage period at 2-4 ℃, which met the technical requirements of reference material and passed the acceptance organized by Standardization Administration. Conclusion:The national standard materials of fucosterol has been successfully developed, which can be used for the determination of this component, the evaluation of detection methods, and the detection and quality control of related products.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802179

ABSTRACT

Objective:Fresh tubers of Gastrodiae Rhizoma were harvested at the right time. A saline water salting and drying technology was developed for obtaining the medicinal materials of Gastrodiae Rhizoma in the place of origin and avoiding rot and mildew. Method:Fresh tubers of Gastrodiae Rhizoma were dug in Yiliang,Yunnan,Dejiang,Guizhou,and Chenggu,Shaanxi,the experiments of natural drying,and saline water salting and drying were carried out in the place of origin and Beijing. After the dirt was removed,the samples were tiled in a container immediately,added with varied proportions of saline water (0.03-0.10 g·mL-1 NaCl in water),hermetically pickled for 6-15 d. after being soaked and rinsed with water,the samples were put in a cool ventilated place or under sunshine to prepare dried medicinal materials of Gastrodiae Rhizoma. We described the appearance characteristics,measured the moisture content,gastrodin and nitrite. And the appearance was observed after storage in a simple warehouse for one year later. Result:Fresh tubers of Gastrodiae Rhizoma from three origins were naturally dried,the surface of gastrodia tubers became black,decayed and moldy,then we could not get dried medicinal materials. The appearance and the content of gastrodins in the medicinal materials of Gastrodiae Rhizoma processed by saline water salting and drying technology met the requirements for Gastrodiae Rhizoma in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China 2015 and relevant standards of nitrite in salted food in National Food Safety Standard Determination of Nitrite and Nitrate in Foods,Hygienic Standard for Preserved Vegetables,Green Food-Soybean Paste and Salted Vegetable. Conclusion:The saline water salting and drying technology is developed to make medicinal materials of Gastrodiae Rhizoma quickly from fresh tubers of Gastrodia elata in the place of origin and Beijing. The metamorphism had not been observed after being stored in simple warehouses for one year. This technology can guarantee the quality of Gastrodiae Rhizoma, and provide a new method for the filed processing of Gastrodiae Rhizoma.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801878

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the correlation between colors and contents of water and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma Rubra (GRRR). Method:The colors were observed under sunlight on a sheet of white paper. The chroma value and color difference were determined and calculated by a colorimeter. Water content was determined by the oven-drying method. An HPLC method was established and used to determine the content of 5-HMF. The correlation was analyzed by the Spearman and Pearson analysis. Result:The colors of GRRR were yellowish-white,ocher-yellow,and yellowish-brown. The values of L*,a*,b*,and ΔE* had a certain range, and could reflect the colors of GRRR. The content of water ranged from 4.01%to 8.31%and was in accordance with the requirement the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The content of 5-HMF ranged from below the limit of detection (1.985×10-4 μg) to 78.97 μg·g-1. The results of correlation analysis shows significant correlations between L*,a*,b*, ΔE* values and water content, that is to say,the deeper the color was, the higher the content of water was,but with no significant correlation with 5-HMF content. Conclusion:The color of processed GRRR was related to water content but not related to 5-HMF content,which was not consistent with the correlation between color and 5-HMF content that generally existed in a series of raw Chinese medicinal materials. It indicated an essential difference between the color shade of processed Chinese medicinal materials and the cause of color change of raw Chinese medicinal materials. Therefore,it was significant to control water content for ensuring the stability of GRRR. This study determined the colors of GRRR by a colorimeter, systematically determined 5-HMF content,and proposed the effect of water contents on the color of GRRR.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801778

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the current harvest,processing,packaging and storage of Lilii Bulbus due to the great difference in quality of commercially available products,in order to realize the factors affecting the quality after harvest and provide reference for the standardized production. Method: A series of factors affecting Lilii Bulbus quality were analyzed comprehensively on the basis of both field survey in main producing areas and medicinal material markets and literature retrieval. Result: The current situation and problems in harvest,initial processing,drying technologies,packaging,and storage were summarized. Conclusion: The harvest link of Lilii Bulbus involves growing years,harvesting time,and collecting methods. The initial processing link involves stripping,cleaning,sulfur fumigation,and many cooking and drying methods. The hot-air,vacuum-freeze,far-infrared,and microwave methods are applied in drying Lilii Bulbus. The main metamorphic phenomena are brown staining,moth biting,and decay in the packaging and storage links. Lilii Bulbus are packed mainly in bulk,and a few of them are packed in plastic bags or vacuum bags for fresh bulbus. Because the operation process is not standard,the cooking and drying methods are the key factors affecting the quality of Lilli Bulbus. It is necessary to establish a scientific and unified standard operating procedure (SOP) for controlling the whole process of Lilii Bulbus in multiple links.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771510

ABSTRACT

Some samples of Asparagi Radix were collected from medical markets.Colors of Asparagi Radix were observed by human vision and recorded to judge whether samples were degenerative.Water content of Asparagi Radix was determined by a drying method.The chroma value and color difference were determined and calculated by a colorimeter.With the deepening of color,the L*value was decreased and a*and ΔE*values were increased.It showed that the results determined by colorimeter can replace the results of visual observation.An HPLC method was established and used to determine the contents of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural(5-HMF) in Asparagi Radix.The results showed the 5-HMF contents were from 0.002 255 to 0.049 14 mg·g-1 in some samples with yellowish-white or yellowish-brown color,significantly increased from 0.080 80 to 0.105 1 mg·g-1 in some samples with brown color,and up to 1.033 mg·g-1 in an oil-spilling sample with dark brown color.This result demonstrated that the 5-HMF contents were significantly increased by accompanied with the deepening of color.There were the significant negatively correlation between the 5-HMF content and the L*value(P<0.01) and positively correlation between the 5-HMF content and the a*or ΔE*value(P<0.01) by the spearman analysis.The oil-spilling and qualified samples were clustered into two alone categories by the cluster analysis.That the limited standards of the 5-HMF content is not higher than 0.02% by HPLC method and of the L*value is not less than 50 by colorimeter method were suggested for Asparagi Radix.It is firstly reported the multiple-factor analysis about oil-spilling and discoloration and the establishment of limited standard of Asparagi Radix.


Subject(s)
Asparagus Plant , Chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Color , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Plant Roots , Chemistry
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-327906

ABSTRACT

The contents of coumarins in the sulfur fumigated Angelicae Dahuricae Radix (Baizhi, ADR) were reduced significantly. To achieve the quality control of ADR, the qualitative identification of sulfur fumigated ADR and quantitative model of imperatorin content should be established. The near-infrared (NIR) spectrograms of non-sulfur and sulfur fumigated ADR were collected by NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy technology and pretreated by the method of first derivative derivation and vector normalization. The Ward's Algorithm method was used for the cluster analysis. The non-sulfur and sulfur fumigated ADR can be quickly identified in the range of 8,806. 0-3 811.0 cm(-1) based on the cluster analysis. The NIR quantitative model of imperatorin was established by the contents of imperatorin determined by HPLC in combination with partial least squares regression analysis. According to the calibration model established in this study, correlation coefficients (R2), the root-mean-square error of cross-validation (RMSECV), and the root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) for imperatorin were 0.982 8, 0.006 8, 0.011 8, respectively. The quantitative model of imperatorin can be applied to determine the content of imperatorin in ADR accurately.


Subject(s)
Angelica , Chemistry , Classification , China , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Quality Control , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Methods , Sulfur , Chemistry
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-308606

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the chemical constituents contained in the seeds of Cucumis sativus.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The fatty oil was extracted by heating and refluxing with petroleum ether. Potassium hydroxide-methanol solution was used for saponification. An unsaponifiable matter was extracted by EtOAc and separated with various chromatographic methods. Its structure was identified on the basis of their physicochemical properties and spectral data. The fatty acid fraction was methyl-esterified and determined by GC. The composition and relative content of fatty acid were determined with normalization method of peak area.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>24-ethylcholesta-7, 22, 25-trienol (1), 24-ethylcholesta-7, 25-dienol (2) ,avenasterol (3), spinasterol (4), karounidiol (5) and isokarounidiol (6) were separated and identified from the unsaponifiable matter. Myristic acid (7, 0.12%), palmitic acid (8, 12.04%), palmitoleic acid (9, 0.09%), heptadecanoic acid (10, 0.06%), stearic acid (11, 5.64%), oleic acid (12, 6.95%), linoleic acid (13, 74.40%), arachidic acid (14, 0.19%), and alpha-linolenic acid (15, 0.51%) were identified from the fatty acids part.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Compounds 5, 6, 9, 10, 14,and 15 were first reported in C. sativus.</p>


Subject(s)
Cucumis sativus , Chemistry , Fatty Acids , Plant Oils , Seeds , Chemistry
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-283832

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analysis the changes of two chemical constituents, namely 2, 3-dihydro-3, 5- dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one (DDMP) and 5-hydryoxymethyl-furfural (5-HMF) produced in Radix Polygoni Multiflori after processing, with processing time, and to determine the contents of 5-HMF in samples of Radix Polygoni Multiflori and Radix Polygoni Multiflori preparata.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>An HPLC method was applied with a Zobax SB-C18 (3.9 mm x 150 mm, 5 microm) column by a elution using methanol-water (10: 90) as the mobile phase. The detection was set at UV 280 nm.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The contents of DDMP were increasing with the processing time until 24 hour, followed by a decrease until 60 hour process. The contents of 5-HMF were increasing gradually throughout the 60 hour steaming process. The contents of 5-HMF in 11 samples of Radix Polygoni Multiflori preparata were from 0.013% to 0.101%, and only one in 4 samples of Radix Polygoni Multiflori containing trace amount of 5-HMF.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The chemical components in Radix Polygoni Multiflori were changed during the processing procedures. Therefore, the processing of Radix Polygoni Multiflori should be controlled and standardized.</p>


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Polygonaceae , Chemistry , Reproducibility of Results
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-283809

ABSTRACT

It review the structure-function relationship of natural anthraquinone derivatives from Radix et Rhizoma Rhei. The anthraquinone derivatives had many identical activities because they have the identical mother nucleus; but the strength of their activities were different, because they have different substitution groups. The anthraquinone derivatives shown the obvious structure-function relationship in many respects, such as antioxygenation, antibiosis, anticancer, the influence of immunity and so on.


Subject(s)
Anthraquinones , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Molecular Structure , Rheum , Chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-324364

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the chemical constituents of unsaponifiable matter from the seed oil of Trichosanthes hupehensis.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The fatty oil from the seeds of T. hupehensis was extracted with petroleum ether. The saponification was carried out with potassium hydroxide. The unsaponifiable matter was isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography. Their structures were elucidated by means of MS, IR, UV, and 1H-NMR.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Karounidiol, isokarounidiol, 5-dehydrokarounidiol, 7-oxodihydrokarounidiol, stigmast-7-en-3beta-ol, stigmast-7, 22-dien-3beta-ol, 10alpha-Cucurbitadienol, beta-sitosterol, stigmast-7, 22-dien-3beta-O-beta-D-glucoside were elucidated.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>All of these compounds were found in this plant for the first time.</p>


Subject(s)
Oleanolic Acid , Chemistry , Plant Oils , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Seeds , Chemistry , Sitosterols , Chemistry , Trichosanthes , Chemistry , Triterpenes , Chemistry
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287914

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the endogenous hormone of testosterone and cortisol that secretes volume and rhythm in sports fatigued human bodies and animals. To determine secretory volume and rhythm in sports fatigued human bodies and animals when Shixiang yaofa's drug are used.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Radio-immunity method was used to determine secretory volume and rhythm in sports fatigued human bodies and animals and to analyze secretory volume and rhythm. According to the secretory volume and rhythm of testosterone and cortisol, the Shixiang Yaofa's drugs were used. Doses: wenyang jihuo bead 10 g/sack 2 sack, ziyin xiuyang capsule 0.5 g/pill 8 pill pd in human bodies for 28 days. Wenyang jihuo bead 10 g x kg(-1) of crude drug, ziyin xiuyang capsule 4 g x kg(-1) of crude drug pd for hight doses in animals. Other groups for low doses 5 g x kg(-1) and 2 g x kg(-1) of crude drug pd for 15 days. The blood samples were collected for determination.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>(1) In human bodies the peak value of testosterone was appeared in 8:00 and valley value was appeared in 18:00, ranges: 176.93-281.73 x 10(-5) mg x L(-1). The peak value of cortisol was appeared in 8:00 and valley value was appeared in 22:00, ranges: 1.31-16.13 x 10(-3) mg x L(-1). In the same condition, the mouse peak value of testosterone was appeared in 20:00 and valley value was appeared in 0:00, ranges: (0.56 x 10(-5) - 124.0 x 10(-5)) mg x L(-1). The rhythm in animals was compatible with human bodies, howerer, the peak value was delayed for 12 hours. (2) The testosterone was step up and the cortisol was cut down in sports fatigued human bodies and animals when shixiang yaofa's drug were used (P < 0.05, P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The secretion of testosterone and cortisol in sports fatigued human bodies and animals are existed conclusive biologic rhythm. The secretory volume can be available accommodation by shixiang yaofa's drugs.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Chronotherapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Fatigue , Female , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Bodily Secretions , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sports , Testosterone , Bodily Secretions
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-316028

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the chemical constituents of unsaponifiable matter from the seed oil of Momordica cochinchinensis.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The fatty oil from the seeds of M. cochinchinensis was extracted with petroleum ether, and the saponification was carried out with potassium hydroxide. The unsaponifiable matter was isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography, and the structures of their constituents were elucidated by means of IR, MS, 1H-NMR, and authentic chemicals.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Karounidiol (1), isokarounidiol (2), 5-dehydrokarounidiol (3), 7-oxodihydrokarounidiol (4), beta-sitosterol (5), stigmast-7-en-3beta-ol (6), and stigmast-7,22-dien-3beta-ol (7) were elucidated.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>These compounds were found in this plant for the first time.</p>


Subject(s)
Molecular Structure , Momordica , Chemistry , Oleanolic Acid , Chemistry , Plant Oils , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Seeds , Chemistry , Triterpenes , Chemistry
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