Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 76
Filter
Add filters








Year range
1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-267219

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the effects of Xuebijing injection on dendritic cells (DCs) and T lymphocytes, and the potential mechanisms of its therapeutic effect on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A widely used mouse model, SLE-prone BLLF1 mice aged 8-10 weeks, was employed. Mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: a normal group, a model group and two treatment groups treated with Xuebijing Injection with a dose of 6.4 mL/kg via intraperitoneal administration for SLE-prone BLLF1 mice aged 8 weeks (treatment A group) and 10 weeks (treatment B group). Renal tissue sections were stained with Masson's trichrome and periodic acid-silver methenamine. Histopathological changes in the kidney were evaluated by a light microscopy. The capacity of the DCs isolated from the spleen to stimulate the T cell proliferation in response to concanavalin A (Con A) was determined.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the model group, levels of anti-dsDNA antibodies in the two treatment groups decreased remarkablly (P<0.01, P<0.05), and levels of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen increased (P<0.01, P<0.05). Pathological changes were found in the kidney in the model group. Histopathological abnormalities were alleviated in the two treatment groups. Treatment with Xuebijing injection also significantly upregulated the expression of CD80, CD86 and major histocompatibility class II by DCs compared with the model group (P<0.05). When splenic T lymphocytes from BLLF1 mice were co-cultured with DCs at ratios of 1:100, 1:150 and 1:200 for 3 and 5 days, the proliferation of T lymphocytes was suppressed compared with the normal group (P<0.05), but this was restored by Xuebijing Injection under the same conditions. In the model group, levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in supernatants were significantly elevated compared with the normal group (P<0.01), interleukin-2 levels decreased (P<0.05), while these changes were significantly alleviated in the Xuebijing treatment groups.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Xuebijing Injection alleviated renal injury in SLE-prone BLLF-1 mice. The mechanism might be through influencing T cell polarization mediated by DCs, and Xuebijing Injection might be a potential drug that suppresses immune dysfunction in patients with SLE.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Antinuclear , Blood , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Concanavalin A , Pharmacology , Dendritic Cells , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Injections , Interleukin-2 , Metabolism , Kidney , Pathology , Kidney Function Tests , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Blood , Drug Therapy , Allergy and Immunology , Mice , Phenotype , T-Lymphocytes , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Metabolism
2.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 97-101, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-284136

ABSTRACT

This article endeavours to reiterate the advances in six vital aspects of burn injury, i.e. shock/ischemia-hypoxia, infection/sepsis, inhalation injury, regenerative medicine/tissue engineering and wound repair, hypermetabolism after burn, and integration of early treatment and rehabilitation in the last three decades. They originated from the papers dealing with ten main episodes in the care of burn trauma as a token to commemorate the 10th anniversary of Chinese Journal of Burns, as well as the 30th anniversary of the inauguration of Chinese Burn Association.


Subject(s)
Burns , Therapeutics , China , Humans , Translational Research, Biomedical
3.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 148-151, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-284123

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the changes in plasma gelsolin (pGSN) level of patients with severe burn and to explore its relationship with sepsis and death of patients.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred and two patients with total burn area equal to or larger than 30% TBSA hospitalized from May 2010 to May 2012 were included as burn group. Twenty-five healthy volunteers were recruited as healthy control group. Peripheral venous blood of patients was harvested on post burn day (PBD) 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 to determine the pGSN level with double antibody sandwich ELISA kits, and the same maneuver was carried out in healthy volunteers. (1) Patients in burn group were divided into three groups by burn size: small burn area group (30% - 49% TBSA, n = 39), medium burn area group (larger than 49% and smaller than or equal to 69% TBSA, n = 33), and large burn area group (larger than 69% and smaller than or equal to 99% TBSA, n = 30). (2) According to diagnostic criteria of burn sepsis, patients in burn group were divided into sepsis group (n = 43) and non-sepsis group (n = 59). (3) According to the prognosis of patients with sepsis, patients in sepsis group were further divided into non-survival sepsis group (n = 14) and survival sepsis group (n = 29). The levels of pGSN in above groups were compared, and their relationship with sepsis and death of patients was analyzed. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance, LSD test and one-way Logistic regressions.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) Levels of pGSN in burn group were obviously lower than those of healthy control group on PBD 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 (with F values respectively 140.01, 369.52, 702.15, 360.14, 84.16, P values all below 0.01). (2) The mean levels of pGSN in large, medium, and small burn area groups at five time points were (43 ± 11), (85 ± 23), (124 ± 38) mg/L, showing statistically significant differences among them (F = 367.76, P < 0.01), and they were all lower than that of healthy control group [(326 ± 51) mg/L, P values all below 0.01]. (3) The mean levels of pGSN in sepsis group and non-sepsis group at the five time points were (77 ± 12), (122 ± 38) mg/L. Levels of pGSN in sepsis group were lower than those in non-sepsis group on PBD 3, 7, 14, and 21 (with F values respectively 30.35, 111.59, 209.36, 422.76, P values all below 0.01). (4) The mean levels of pGSN in non-survival sepsis group and survival sepsis group at the five time points were (53 ± 8) and (103 ± 25) mg/L. Levels of pGSN in non-survival sepsis group were lower than those in survival sepsis group on PBD 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 (with F values respectively 9.05, 18.48, 41.34, 107.11, 180.48, P values all below 0.01). (5) Logistic regression analysis showed that the level of pGSN is the independent risk factor related to the complication of sepsis (odds ratio: 5.44, 95% confidence interval: 2.35 - 12.74, P < 0.01) and death (odds ratio: 5.52, 95% confidence interval: 2.34 - 12.19, P < 0.01) in burn patients.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Severe burn injury could down-regulate the pGSN level of patients, and it decreases along with the increase in the area and severity of burn trauma. pGSN level appears to be an early prognostic marker for patients suffering from severe burns.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Burns , Blood , Case-Control Studies , Female , Gelsolin , Blood , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Sepsis , Young Adult
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-789562

ABSTRACT

@#BACKGROUND: High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a highly conserved, ubiquitous protein in the nuclei and cytoplasm of nearly all cell types. HMGB1 is secreted into the extracellular milieu and acts as a proinflammatory cytokine. In this article we reviewed briefly the cellular immune response mediated by HMGB1 in inflammation and sepsis. METHODS: This systemic review is mainly based on our own work and other related reports. RESULTS: HMGB1 can actively affect the immune functions of many types of cells including T lymphocytes, regulatory T cells (Tregs), dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, and natural killer cells (NK cells). Various cellular responses can be mediated by HMGB1 which binds to cell-surface receptors [e.g., the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), Toll-like receptor (TLR)2, and TLR4]. Anti-HMGB1 treatment, such as anti-HMGB1 polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies, inhibitors (e.g., ethyl pyruvate) and antagonists (e.g., A box), can protect against sepsis lethality and give a wider window for the treatment opportunity. CONCLUSION: HMGB1 is an attractive target for the development of new therapeutic strategies in the treatment of patients with septic complications.

5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2260-2268, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-338560

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Patients with severe full-thickness burn injury suffer from their inability to maintain body temperature through perspiration because the complete destructed sweat glands can not be regenerated. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) represent an ideal stem-cell source for cell therapy because of their easy purification and multipotency. In this study, we attempted to induce human BM-MSCs to differentiate into sweat gland cells for sweat gland regeneration through ectodysplasin (EDA) gene transfection.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The dynamic expression of EDA and EDA receptor (EDAR) were firstly observed in the sweat gland formation during embryological development. After transfection with EDA expression vector, human BM-MSCs were transplanted into the injured areas of burn animal models. The regeneration of sweat glands was identified by perspiration test and immunohistochemical analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Endogenous expression of EDA and EDAR correlated with sweat gland development in human fetal skin. After EDA transfection, BM-MSC acquired a sweat-gland-cell phenotype, evidenced by their expression of sweat gland markers by flow cytometry analysis. Immunohistochemical staining revealed a markedly contribution of EDA-transfected BM-MSCs to the regeneration of sweat glands in the scalded paws. Positive rate for perspiration test for the paws treated with EDA-transfected BM-MSCs was significantly higher than those treated with BM-MSCs or EDA expression vector (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Our results confirmed the important role of EDA in the development of sweat gland. BM-MSCs transfected with EDA significantly improved the sweat-gland regeneration. This study suggests the potential application of EDA-modified MSCs for the repair and regeneration of injured skin and its appendages.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Blotting, Western , Bone Marrow Cells , Cell Biology , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Ectodysplasins , Genetics , Metabolism , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Nude , Pregnancy , Receptors, Ectodysplasin , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sweat Glands , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Transfection , Young Adult
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-340220

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of oral rehydration with glucose electrolyte solution(GES) on intestinal ischemia injury in 40% blood volume loss in rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>SD rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=24): oral rehydration without hemorrhage (GES), hemorrhage without oral rehydration (HS), hemorrhage resuscitated with oral GES(HS + GES). About 4% of total blood volume was bled from the right common carotid artery of rats to produce a model of hemorrhagic shock. GES, which volume was three times of blood loss was given to GES group and HS + GES group in 0.5 h, 1 h and 6 h by a gastric tube post bleeding. The intestinal blood flow(IBF) were measured by laser Doppler at 2 h, 4 h and 24 h post hemorrhage. Animals were sacrificed, and specimens of intestinal tissue was taken for evaluation of Na+ -K+ -ATPase, diamine oxidase (DAO) and the rate of tissue water content, and assessment of the intestinal pathological changes.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The IBF and the activity of Na+ -K+ -ATPase in HS+ GES group were dramatically higher than those in HS group (P < 0.05), and lower than those in GES group (P < 0.05). The water content of intestinal tissue in HS group were dramatically higher than those in GES group (P < 0.05), and lower than those at 2 h and 4 h, but dramatically higher than those at 24 h in HS + GES group. The activity of DAO at 24 h in HS+ GES group was higher than those in HS group (P < 0.05), and lower than those in GES group (P < 0.05). Less edema and hyperemia were found in HS + GES group than those in HS group at 24 h after bleeding.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>It is indicated that oral rehydration alleviate edema and ischemia injury in gut by increasing intestinal blood flow and the activity of Na+ -K+ -ATPase and DAO in the resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Fluid Therapy , Methods , Intestines , Ischemia , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion Injury , Shock , Drug Therapy , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase , Metabolism
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-340183

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of carbachol(CAR) on oxygen dynamic parameters and hyperlactacidemia during oral fluid resuscitation of burn shock.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Twelve male Beagle dogs were surgically prepared for cannulation of carotid and jugular vein, and enterostomy, 24 hours later they were subjected to a 50% (total body surface area, TBSA) full-thickness flame injury under a 10-15 minute anesthesia by IV injection of propofol. The dogs were randomized to gastric fluid infusion group (GI group)and gastric fluid infusion plus CAR group (GI + CAR). Either a glucose-electrolyte solution(GES) or GES containing CAR (20 microg/kg) were intragastricly given to animals in GI group or GI+ CAR groups. The delivery rate and volume of GES was in accordance with that of Parkland formula. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), intestinal mucosal blood flow (IMBF) and blood lactic acid were determined, and blood gas analysis evaluated for oxygen delivery (DO2), oxygen consumption (VO2) and oxygen uptake (O2ext) at 0, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 hours after injury.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The levels of MAP and IMBF markedly reduced, and LAC obviously increased in both groups after burn. MAP returned to 0 h level at 72 h post burn, while IMBF, and LAC were still higher or lower than 0 h levels. The level of MAP of GI + CAR group was significantly higher than that of GI group at 2 h, and those showed no significant differences between two groups after then. Carbochol administration led to a markedly higher levels of IMBF, and significant lower levels of LAC from 8 h after burn compared with those of GI group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The levels of DO2 VO2 and Oext were reduced markedly after burn in both groups. At 72 h after burn, DOQ returned to 0 h level; while VO2 and Oext though still much lower than 0 h levels. The level of DO2. VO2 and Oext of GI + CAR group were significantly higher than those of GI group from 8 h after burn (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Three of six animals died in GI+ CAR group, which was lower than two of six in GI group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The results indicates that carbachol promotes intragastric fluid resuscitative effect of burn shock by increasing oxygen delivery and decreasing hyperlactacidemia.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Burns , Therapeutics , Carbachol , Pharmacology , Dogs , Electrolytes , Fluid Therapy , Methods , Glucose , Intestinal Absorption , Male , Oxygen , Metabolism , Resuscitation , Methods , Shock , Therapeutics
8.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 1106-1109, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-360702

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the possibility of adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) for wound healing by detecting cellular phenotype conversion of ADSCs into endothelial cells (ECs).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>ADSCs were isolated and cultured from adipose tissue derived from SD rats (n = 8), and maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) in vitro. The marker antigen of P3 ADSCs was detected by analysis CD49d and CD106 antigens expression using flow cytometry, and the multipotential differentiation of P3 ADSCs were identified by specific medium inducing to differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes. And then, the ADSCs were cultured and induced for 3 days by condition culture medium (containing 30% superior of homogenating rat blood vessels in 10%FBS DMEM) as experimental group, and were cultured by 10% FBS DMEM as control group, and the expression of CD34 and von Willebrand factor (vWF) in ADSCs were analyzed by flow cytometry.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Flow cytometry analysis showed that the expression of CD49d and CD106 in ADSCs were positive (98.32 ± 0.37)% and negative (1.67 ± 0.61)%, respectively. The multipotential differentiation experiment demonstrated that the cultured P3 ADSCs can be induced to differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes in vitro. The positive rate of CD34 and vWF were (77.14 ± 0.76)% and (75.46 ± 0.37)% in condition medium group, higher than (1.38 ± 0.31)% and (1.70 ± 0.23)% in 10% FBS DMEM control group, respectively (P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The ADSCs can be induced to differentiated into ECs, suggesting that ADSCs have potential to take part in wound repair and angiogenesis.</p>


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Cell Biology , Animals , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Differentiation , Cell Transdifferentiation , Cells, Cultured , Endothelial Cells , Cell Biology , Endothelium, Vascular , Cell Biology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Stem Cells , Cell Biology
9.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 41-44, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-305622

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the change in intestinal barrier and organ functions of burned dog after enteral administration of hypertonic electrolyte glucose solution (HEGS) in shock stage.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Twenty-four Beagle dogs inflicted with 35% TBSA full-thickness burn were divided into no-fluid group (NF), intravenous infusion with isotonic electrolyte glucose solution (IEGS) group (II group), enteral infusion with IEGS group (EI), and enteral infusion with HEGS group (EH) according to the random number table, with 6 dogs in each group. Saline, containing 50 g/L glucose, was intravenously or enterally infused into dogs in II group and EI group respectively 0.5 hour post injury (PIH) for resuscitation. Total infusion volume within PIH 24 was 4 mL x kg(-1) x %TBSA(-1) (half of the total volume was infused in the first 8 hours in a constant speed, the other half volume was infused in the rest 16 hours in a constant speed). HEGS, containing 18 g/L NaCl and 50 g/L glucose, was enterally infused into dogs in EH group. Total infusion volume within PIH 24 was 2 mL x kg(-1) x %TBSA(-1), with the same infusion speed as that in II and EI groups. Liver and kidney function indexes [activity of ALT and CK-MB, expression levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in serum], activity of diamine oxidase (DAO), and activity of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in intestinal mucosa at PIH 24 were determined.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>ALT activity in each group was close to one another. Serum levels of creatinine and BUN in II, EI, and EH groups were significantly lower than those in NF group. CK-MB activity obviously increased at PIH 2 in every group. CK-MB activity in EH group at PIH 2 to 8 was respectively lower than that in NF and II groups. DAO activity in serum in II, EI, and EH groups decreased since PIH 4 or PIH 6, respectively from (3.9 + or - 0.6) U/L to (3.6 + or - 0.5) U/L, (4.8 + or - 0.4) U/L to (2.8 + or - 0.8) U/L, (6.4 + or - 1.8) U/L to (3.5 + or - 0.8) U/L, all were significantly lower than those in NF group [from (12.5 + or - 0.4) U/L to (9.7 + or - 1.1) U/L, comparison between EH group and NF group, t value at PIH 4, 6, 8, 24 was respectively 10.25, 12.44, 17.99, 16.21, P values all below 0.05]. The order of Na(+)-k(+)-ATPase activity in intestinal mucosa at PIH 24 in each group from high to low was II group, EH group, EI group, and NF group (comparison between former 3 groups and NF group, t value was respectively 10.09, 4.96, 8.32, F value was 26.79, P values all below 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>HEGS does not cause significant harm to the barrier function of intestinal mucosa of shock dog after burn. Compared with NF, HEGS can significantly improve functions of heart, liver, and kidney, and it can achieve the same resuscitation effect as enteral or intravenous infusion of IEGS with only half of the solution volume.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Burns , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Dogs , Fluid Therapy , Glucose Solution, Hypertonic , Therapeutic Uses , Heart , Intestinal Mucosa , Metabolism , Intestine, Small , Kidney , Liver
10.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 104-108, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-305617

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the influence of high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) derived from spleen on the phenotype of regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) and HMGB1-mediated immune function in severely scalded rats after delayed resuscitation.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred and four Wistar rats were divided into normal control group (NC, n = 8), sham scald group (SS, n = 32), scald group (S, n = 32), and ethyl pyruvate (EP) treatment group (EPT, n = 32) according to the random comparison table. Rats in the latter 2 groups were subjected to 30%TBSA full-thickness scald, which were intraperitoneally injected with Ringer solution or EP solution at post scald hour (PSH) 6 (delayed antishock treatment) and administered with 4 mL Ringer solution or EP solution per 12 hours after PSH 12 till PSH 48. Rats in SS group were treated the same as that of S group except for sham scald with 37 degrees C water. Injured rats were sacrificed at post scald day (PSD) 1, 3, 5, 7 (rats in NC group were also sacrificed), and CD4(+)CD25(+)Treg were isolated from spleen with magnetic-activated cell sorting method. The content of HMGB1 in spleen and IL-2 level in supernatant were determined with ELISA. The expression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) on Treg was determined with flow cytometry, and the proliferation activity of T lymphocytes was also detected (recorded as absorbance value). Data were processed with analysis of variance among groups and independent samples t test.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) Compared with that of rats in SS group and EPT group, the expression of splenic HMGB1 in S group increased significantly on PSD 1 through PSD 7 [peaked on PSD 1: (46.7 +/- 8.3) ng/mg protein]. (2) Compared with that in SS group, the expression of CTLA-4 in S group was enhanced significantly on PSD 1 through PSD 5 (with t value respectively 10.459, 12.051, 4.029, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01); while that in EPT group decreased significantly on PSD 1 through PSD 7 as compared with that from S group (with t value respectively 2.796, 9.913, 9.581, 10.022, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). (3) Compared with that of rats in SS group, the proliferation activity of T lymphocytes in S group was markedly suppressed on PSD 1 through PSD 7 (nadir on PSD1: 0.167 +/- 0.059), and release of IL-2 was decreased significantly [nadir on PSD 5: (44 +/- 24) pg/mL]. T lymphocytes proliferation activity was restored and excretion of IL-2 increased in EPT group as compared respectively with that of S group at each time point.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The release of HMGB1 may stimulate splenic Treg to mature, thereby induce suppression of proliferation activity of T lymphocytes and immune function. EP can ameliorate immune dysfunction in animals with delayed resuscitation through inhibiting the synthesis and release of HMGB1.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigens, CD , Metabolism , Burns , Allergy and Immunology , CTLA-4 Antigen , Cell Proliferation , HMGB1 Protein , Metabolism , Interleukin-2 , Metabolism , Male , Pyruvates , Pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Spleen , Cell Biology , Allergy and Immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Cell Biology , Allergy and Immunology
11.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 109-112, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-305616

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the influence of the lipopolysaccharide receptor CD14-159C/T gene polymorphism on the synthesis and release of high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1), and its relation to sepsis in patients with severe burn.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Venous blood from 35 patients with burn area equal to or larger than 30% TBSA was obtained on post burn day (PBD) 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 respectively. Eleven volunteers were enrolled as healthy control group (HC).CD14-159C/T gene polymorphism was detected with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Plasma level of HMGB1 was determined with ELISA. Leukocyte HMGB1 mRNA expression was determined with RT-PCR. Data were processed with chi(2) test, analysis of variance, and t test.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Among the C-159T genotype of CD14 gene in the 35 patients, the distribution frequency of the T and the C allele was respectively 57.2% and 42.8%. Seven cases (20.0%) were homozygous for the C allele (CC), 16 cases (45.7%) were heterozygous (TC), and 12 cases (34.3%) were homozygous for the T allele (TT). Allele and genotype frequencies in cases were testified as reaching the Hard-Weinberg equilibrium. The incidence of sepsis was markedly lower in CC homozygous patients than in TC heterozygous and TT homozygous patients. Only one of the 3 septic patients in CC homozygous type died; 4 of 9 septic cases in TC heterozygous type and 4 of 7 septic cases in TT homozygous type died. Plasma levels of HMGB1 of patients were significantly elevated early on PBD 1 as compared with HC group, and higher values were found in TC heterozygous and TT homozygous patients than that in CC homozygous patients on PBD 14, 21, 28 (with F value respectively 3.5671, 4.2035, 3.8529, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Higher HMGB1 mRNA expression was found in septic patients as compared with non-sepsis patients on PBD 14 (1.5 +/- 0.5 vs. 1.2 +/- 0.4, t = -2.205, P < 0.05). Plasma level of HMGB1 was also respectively higher in septic patients than in non-sepsis patients on PBD 7, 21 [(44 +/- 29) ng/mL vs. (26 +/- 12) ng/mL, t = -2.355, P < 0.05; (25 +/- 15) ng/mL vs. (10 +/- 6) ng/mL, t = -3.872, P < 0.01)].</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>CD14C-159T gene polymorphism might markedly influence the synthesis and release of HMGB1, and it is associated with increase in susceptibility of sepsis in patients with severe burn.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Burns , Genetics , Metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Gene Frequency , Genotype , HMGB1 Protein , Metabolism , Humans , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors , Genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Genetic , Sepsis , Young Adult
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 131-136, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-266012

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), the most common type of mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, is a recently recognized tumor. The biological behavior of GIST is highly variable. Surgical resection remains the major treatment for GIST. In this study we retrospectively analyzed our surgical experience with 181 GIST patients to determine the effects of the treatment and the pathological features and prognosis factors of these GIST patients.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The clinicopathological features and follow-up data of the 181 patients with GIST who had received surgical resection between January 1999 and December 2007 at Ren Ji Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Immunohistochemical stains including CD117 (KIT), CD34, and other markers were used. Tumor size, mitotic index and other pathological parameters were recorded. According to the consensus of NIH risk-group stratification system based on maximum tumor size and mitotic index (per 50 high power field), tumors were classified into very-low-risk group (15 tumors, 8.3%), low-risk group (48, 26.5%), intermediate-risk group (52, 28.7%) and high-risk group (66, 36.5%). Prognostic factors were analyzed by Cox analysis including age, sex, tumor size, tumor site, mitotic index, NIH categories and surgical procedures.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>One hundred and seven (59.1%) of the 181 tumors were located in the stomach, 51 (28.2%) in the small intestine, 9 (5.0%) in the colon and rectum, and 14 (7.7%) in other sites including the omentum and mesentery. The median age of the patients was 58 (range, 24-84) years, and 102 patients (56.4%) were male. Tumor size ranged from 0.5 to 30 cm, while the mean size was 7.02 cm. Metastasis was found in 7 patients. One hundred and seventy-six (97.2%) of the 181 patients underwent radical resection, and among them 26 patients received extensive resection with the adjacent organ adherent to the tumors. The positive rate for the KIT protein (CD117) in immunostaining was 94.5% (171/181), while that for CD34 was 86.2% (156/181). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates of the 181 patients were estimated to be 95.2%, 87.9% and 78.5%, respectively. There was a significant difference in age, tumor size, tumor site, mitotic index, NIH categories, and presence or absence of multivisceral resection (P<0.05). But there was no significant difference in sex between the groups. Cox hazard proportional model revealed that advanced clinical stage and large tumor size contributed to worse prognosis. The patients who were treated with imatinib because of recurrence and metastasis or high recurrence risk showed stable disease.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Surgical resection is the gold standard of treatment for primary GIST. NIH categorization is simple and effective to evaluate GIST behavior and prognosis. Targeted therapy such as imatinib, a KIT tyrosine kinase inhibitor, may play an important role in the treatment of GIST.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Benzamides , Female , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , General Surgery , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Middle Aged , Piperazines , Therapeutic Uses , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Therapeutic Uses , Pyrimidines , Therapeutic Uses , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
13.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 1574-1577, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-299668

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore a new method of isolation and culture of eccrine sweat gland ductal cells from human split-thickness skin graft in vitro.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Human split-thickness skin graft which was presented by volunteer (n = 10) was digested with type II collagenase, and then sweat gland duct were isolated from the split-thickness skin graft, primary cultures were incubated at 37 degrees C in humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2, 95% O2. The cultured eccrine sweat gland ductal cells were identified by analysis CEA, CK8, CK18, CK19 antigens expression with flow cytometry, RT-PCR and Western Blot, and by detecting the electrophysiology with whole cell patch clamp technology.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The isolated eccrine sweat gland ductal cells could grow by adhering to the wall, proliferate in vitro after 48 h of adhering to the wall, and confluens after 2 - 4 weeks of adhering to the wall. The FACs analysis showed the expression of CEA was (90.26 +/- 1.12)%, (89.70 +/- 1.43)%, and CK8 was (94.41 +/- 1.84)%, (93.65 +/- 1.63)% in primary cultured sweat gland ductal cells and primary cultured eccrine sweat gland cells, respectively, and there is no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). Immunocytochemistry staining showed CEA, CK8, CK18, CK19 was positive in sweat gland duct cells, RT-PCR revealed that CEA, CK8, CK18 and CK19 gene expression in sweat gland ductal cells, and Western Blot analysis showed the expression of CEA brand, CK8 brand, CK18 brand, and CK19 brand in sweat gland ductal cells, patch clamp indicated that this cells has distinct amiloride sensitive Na(+) channels.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The cultured human eccrine sweat gland duct cells in vitro display the markers and biological characteristics of sweat gland epithelial lineage, and this method of digest the split-thickness skin graft to get the sweat gland duct cells is better than classical dissect sweat gland under dissect microscope.</p>


Subject(s)
Cell Culture Techniques , Methods , Cell Separation , Methods , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Sweat Glands , Cell Biology
14.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 617-620, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-238870

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the correlation between CD14 gene polymorphism and T cell-mediated immunity in severely burned patients.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The blood samples of 77 patients with extensive burn injury (> 30% total body surface area) were collected, and CD14-159C/T gene polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). T lymphocyte cell proliferation and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production were determined, and the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocyte as well as apoptosis of CD4(+) T lymphocyte was examined by flow cytometry.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The ability of T lymphocyte proliferation was obviously decreased in severely burned patients. Compared with CC homozygote patients, proliferative activity of T lymphocyte to mitogen stimulation was significantly depressed in TT and TC patients on post burn days 5, 21, and 28 (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). IL-2 production in TT, TC patients was constantly in low level after burns, while it was increased from post burn day 14 in CC patients. The ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocytes was markedly decreased in TC, TT patients than that in CC patients, especially on post burn days 1, 3, 14, 21, and 28 (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Meanwhile, compared with CC homozygote patients, the apoptosis rates of CD3(+)CD4(+) T lymphocytes were much higher in TT patients on post burn days 5, 7, and 21 (P < 0.05), and in TC patients on days 7, 14 (P < 0.05), respectively. However, no obvious differences in parameters of immune function of T lymphocytes were found between TT and TC patients (P > 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>CD14-159C/T polymorphism could influence the T cell-mediated immunity in extensively burned patients, which might participate in the development of septic complications secondary to major burns.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Apoptosis , Burns , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , CD4-CD8 Ratio , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Allergy and Immunology , Cell Proliferation , Female , Humans , Interleukin-2 , Allergy and Immunology , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors , Genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Genetic , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Young Adult
15.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 525-529, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311829

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Mass burn casualties are always a great challenge to a medical team because a large number of seriously injured patients were sent in within a short time. Usually a high mortality is impending. Experiences gained from successful treatment of the victims may be useful in guiding the care of mass casualties in an armed conflict.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirty-five burn victims in a single batch, being transferred nonstop by air and highway from a distant province, were admitted 48 hours post-injury. All patients were male with a mean age of (22.4 +/- 8.7) years. The burn extent ranged from 4% to 75% ((13.6 +/- 12.9)%) total body surface area. Among them, thirty-two patients were complicated by moderate and severe inhalation injury, and tracheostomy had been performed in 15 patients. Decompression incisions of burn eschar on extremities were done in 17 cases before transportation. All the thirty-five patients arrived at the destination smoothly via 4-hour airlift and road transportation. Among them, twenty-five patients were in critical condition.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>These thirty-five patients were evacuated 6 hours from the scene of the injury, and they were transferred to a local hospital for primary emergency care. The patients were in very poor condition when admitted to our hospital because of the severe injury with delayed and inadequate treatment. Examination of these patients at admission showed that one patient was suffering from sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Dysfunction of the heart, lung, liver, kidney, and coagulation were all found in the patients. Forty-eight operations were performed in the 23 patients during one month together with comprehensive treatment, and the function of various organs was ameliorated after appropriate treatment. All the 35 patients survived.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>A well-organized team consisting of several cooperative groups with specified duties is very important. As a whole, the treatment protocol should be individualized, basing on the extent of the injury and the care that the patient had received at the spot. During airlift, the stretchers should be arranged perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the cabin. The treatment protocol in our hospital consisted mainly of prompt effective relief of all life-threatening complications, followed by early closure of burn wounds, appropriate use of anti-infection therapy, emphasis on nutritional support, correction of metabolic disorders, alleviation of immunosuppression, correction of coagulopathy, and effective support and protection of organ function.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Burns , Drug Therapy , Pathology , General Surgery , Therapeutics , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors , Transportation of Patients , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
16.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 42-45, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-257447

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate changes in apoptosis-related ligands in serum in rats with severe scald and the effect of intensive insulin therapy on the changes.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred and fifty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham burn (SB), scald (S) and treatment (T) groups. Rats in S and T groups were inflicted with 40% TBSA full-thickness burn, followed by intraperitoneal injection with 40 mL/kg of isotonic saline for resuscitation. Rats in T group were subcutaneously injected insulin in a dose of 0.25 U/100 g 24 hours after burn injury, and every 12 hours for 5 days (0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25 U/100 g each day, respectively) to control the level of blood glucose between 3 and 6 mmol/L. Rats in SB group were sham scalded at 37 degrees C without resuscitation. Blood was drawn from abdominal aorta on 1, 4, 7, 10, 14 post burn day (PBD) for determination of serum levels of TNF-alpha, soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) and soluble Fas receptor (sFas) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and insulin by radioimmunity assay (RIA).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The serum level of TNF-alpha in S group peaked on 1 PBD (30.9 +/- 8.7) ng/L, which showed statistically significant difference when compared with that of SB and T groups (12.7 +/- 2.8) ng/L, (16.8 +/- 4.7) ng/L, respectively, P < 0.01), then lowered gradually to become similar to that of SB group on 7 PBD. The level of TNF-alpha in T group increased gradually, but was obviously lower than that of S group on 1, 4, 7 PBD (P < 0.01). The level of sFasL in S (on 7-14 PBD) and T (4-10 PBD) groups was significantly higher than that in SB group (P < 0.05), then lowered to normal level. The levels of sFas on 4-10 PBD in T group were obviously higher than that in S and SB group (P < 0.05). Ratio of sFasL to sFas in serum of S group was higher than that in SB group on 7, 10 PBD, which was higher than that in T group on 7 PBD (P < 0.05). There was significant decrease in serum level of insulin in S group compared with that of SB group on 4-10 PBD (P < 0.05). The level of insulin in T group increased on 1 PBD, peaked on 4 PBD (327 +/- 15 microU/mL), which was significantly higher than that in SB and S groups (42 +/- 15, 28 +/- 10 microU/mL, respectively, P < 0.01), then decreased gradually to normal level.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Insulin may inhibit apoptosis after burn by down-regulating secretion of apoptotic ligands.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Blood Glucose , Burns , Blood , Drug Therapy , Fas Ligand Protein , Blood , Insulin , Therapeutic Uses , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Blood , fas Receptor , Blood
17.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 115-118, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-257433

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate association of CD14-159C/T polymorphism with expression of leukocyte CD14 mRNA and plasma soluble CD14 (sCDI4) level in severe burn patients.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Seventy-seven patients with total burn surface area equal to or over 30% TBSA were hospitalized in the First Hospital Affiliated to the PLA General Hospital and Beijing You'anmen Hospital from June 2004 to June 2006. Blood samples were collected on 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th postburn day (PBD) for determination of CD14-159C/T polymorphism by PCR-subsequent restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis,plasma level of sCD14 and leukocyte CD14 mRNA expression were measured by ELISA and RT-PCR.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Frequency of the T and C allele was 59.1%, 40.9%, respectively. Seven cases (9.1%) were homozygote (CC genotype), 49 cases (63.6%) were heterozygote (TC genotype), and 2 cases (27.3%) were TT homozygous allele,which reached the Hard-Weinberg equilibrium. Three cases with CC homozygote, 38 cases with TC heterozygote, and 15 cases with TT homozygous allele were complicated with sepsis, ending in MODS in 1, 19, 10 cases, respectively. Expression of leukocyte CD14 mRNA +/- 35, re- spectively), which were markedly higher than that in patients with CC homozygote during 7th-21st PBD (P < 0.05 or 0.01). The plasma level of sCD14 in patients with CC homozygote was significantly lower than that in patients with TC heterozygote on 5 PBD (85 +/- 46 microg/L vs 134 +/-43 mmicrog/L, P < 0.01), which were higher in patients with TC heterozygote and TT homozygous allele than that in patients with CC homozygote on 21st, 28thh PBD (P < 0.01). Conclusions In CD14 gene promoter-159C/T polymorphism, the gene and protein expression of CD14 in patients with TT, TC genotype are much higher than those in patients with CC homozygote. CD14 gene promoter-159 C/T polymorphism with TT homozygote may be one of the major markers in extensive burn patients in whom infection may progress to MODS. Compared with other genetypes, the incidence of MODS in sepsis patients with TT genotype increase markedly.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Alleles , Burns , Genetics , Metabolism , Female , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Humans , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors , Blood , Genetics , Metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Genetic , Prognosis , Sepsis , Genetics , Metabolism , Young Adult
18.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 1581-1584, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-291078

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the resuscitative effect of hypertonic electrolyte glucose solution (HEGS) in enteral resuscitation of burn shock.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Eighteen Beagle dogs with 35% TBSA full-thickness flame injury were used in this study. They were randomized to a control group (no-fluid resuscitation, N group), a HEGS resuscitation group (H group) or an isotonic electrolyte glucose solution (IEGS) resuscitation group (I group). The solution enterally was given for resuscitation from half an hour after burn. The volumes and rates of fluid infusion in the H group were basically in accordance with 2 ml/(kg x 1%TBSA), those in the I group were basically in accordance with parkland formula [4 ml/(kg x 1%TBSA)]. The haemodynamic parameters, global end-diastolic volume index, plasma volume, osmotic pressure of plasma, intestinal absorptive rates of water and Na(+), and intestine mucosa blood flow were continuously assessed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The cardiac output index, global end-diastolic volume index, plasma volume and intestine blood mucosa flow reduced markedly after burn in the three groups, and then gradually returned from 2 h after burn in two resuscitation groups, which were higher than that in the N group (P < 0.05). The activities of diamine oxidase in plasma in the two resuscitation groups were higher than that in N group (P < 0.05). The intestinal absorption rates of water and Na(+) reduced markedly after burn in two resuscitation groups with the lowest levels, and then returned from 6 h after burn. The rates of water in H group were lower than that in I group (P < 0.05); the rates of Na(+) in H group were higher than in I group (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The results indicated that 35%TBSA III degrees burn-injury dogs be resuscitated effectively with 1.8% hypertonic electrolyte-glucose solution by enteral, which 1/2 volume of an isotonic electrolyte glucose solution.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Burns , Therapeutics , Disease Models, Animal , Dogs , Enteral Nutrition , Fluid Therapy , Methods , Glucose Solution, Hypertonic , Therapeutic Uses , Random Allocation , Resuscitation , Methods , Saline Solution, Hypertonic , Therapeutic Uses
19.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 1499-1502, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-291064

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of early oral fluid resuscitation on hemodynamic and tissue perfusion in dogs with severe burn shock.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Eighteen male Beagle dogs with intubation of carotid artery, jugular vein, stomach, jejunum and bladder for 24 h were subjected to a 50%TBSA full-thickness burn, then were equally divided into non fluid resuscitation (NR), oral resuscitation (OR) and intravenous resuscitation(IR) groups, (each n = 6). Dogs in IR and OR groups were given glucose-electrolyte solution (GES) by gastric tube or intravenous infusion according to Parkland formula within 24 h after burn, while those in NR group were not given any treatment. Dogs in each group were given intravenous fluid resuscitation from 24 h after burn. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), dp/dt max of left ventricular contractility (dp/dt(max)), gastric carbon dioxide pressure (PgCO2), intestinal mucosal blood flow (IMBF), and urinary output were determined before burn (0 h) and 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h after burn at no anaesthesia state. Mortality rate of 72 h after burn was also recorded.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>MAP, CO, dp/dt(max), IMBF greatly decreased, and SVR and PgCO2 obviously increased from 2 h after burn in each group (P < 0.01). The measurements except IMBF of IR group returned to pre-injury levels at 72 h after burn, while CO, SVR, PgCO2 and IMBF of OR group still worse compared with 0 h (P < 0.01). All measurements of NR group kept on worsen, and died with anuria within 24 h after burn. Parameters of hemodynamic and tissue perfusion of OR group were significantly superior to those of NR group, but it inferior to those of IR group. At 72 h after burn, 6 (6/6) survived in IR group, 3 (3/6) in OR group and 0 (0/6) in NR group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Although oral resuscitation with GES is not as efficient as intravenous resuscitation in a 50%TBSA burn injury, it still can promote hemodynamic, improve the tissue perfusion and reduce the mortality comparing to no resuscitation. Oral resuscitation might be an ideal alternative way of intravenous resuscitation, especially in wars or other site of mass casualties.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Surface Area , Burns , Disease Models, Animal , Dogs , Fluid Therapy , Hemodynamics , Resuscitation
20.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 1245-1248, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-280582

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the changing regular of specific cytokeratin (CK) markers expressing in human pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia (PEH), keloids (Ke) and hypertrophic scar (HS) lesion, and to explore the correlation between such changes and the different outcomes of wound repair.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) double staining methods were used in samples of human PEH, Ke, HS and NS to determine the distribution characteristics and changing regularity of CKs in epidermal tissues.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>No CK8&18 and CK17 expressed in epidermis of NS group, while CK8&18(+) cells and CK17(+) cells were detected in epidermis of active-stage Ke, HS and PEH. The quantities of CK8&18(+) cells and CK17(+) cells ranked as follows: PEH > Ke > HS and HS > Ke > PEH (P < 0.05). CK19(+) cells and CK5&6(+) cells expressed similar changing trend, while reverse trend of CK10(+) cells was detected in epidermal cells, with local epidermal hyperplasia, cells morphological changes and sub-epidermal inflammatory reaction.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Different degree of de-differentiation and terminal differentiation imbalance are found in epidermal cells of active-stage PEH, Ke and HS, which hint the correlation between the abnormal proliferation and differentiation of epidermal cells and the different outcomes of wound repair.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Child , Child, Preschool , Cicatrix , Metabolism , Pathology , Epidermis , Metabolism , Pathology , Epithelial Cells , Metabolism , Pathology , Female , Humans , Hyperplasia , Metabolism , Pathology , Infant , Keratins , Metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Wound Healing , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL