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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912083

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the whole genome traceability and variation analysis of SARS-CoV-2 in local COVID-19 outbreaks in Binhai New Area, Tianjin.Methods:The whole-genome high-throughput sequencing was performed on throat swab samples collected from one local asymptomatic infected person and five confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Binhai New Area of Tianjin from November 7 to December 5, 2020. The sequencing data were assembled by De novo. MAFFT v7.0 multiple sequence alignment program and MEGA X software were used to compare the above data and construct phylogenetic tree (Neighbor-joining method).Results:The genetic similarity between the sequences of 6 SARS-CoV-2 strains and Wuhan reference sequence (Wuhan-Hu-1) was greater than 99.9%. Two of six strains were genetically identical, conform to the L-Lineage European Branch Ⅱ.1(America Branch)/B.1; The other four strains had the same genes and were in line with the characteristics of L-Lineage European Branch Ⅰ/B.1.1.These six strains belonged to different evolutionary branches and two different transmission chains. There were 18 nucleotide mutation sites in sequences of six SARS-CoV-2 strains, eight of which were synonymous mutation sites, nine of which were missense mutation sites, resulting in nine amino acid mutation sites, and important mutation sites of RDRP-P323L and S-D614G were found in all of the six samples.Conclusions:In this study, there were two COVID-19 outbreaks in Binhai New Area of Tianjin, and the sequences of six SARS-CoV-2 strains belonged to different evolutionary branches and two different transmission chains. It might come from porters′ contact with imported cold chain items contaminated with SARS-CoV-2 from different sources. All the sequences of six SARS-CoV-2 strains had P323L and D614G mutations, which indicated that the virus mutation and transmission ability were stronger. The surveillance of important employees of the cold chain in Tianjin and local and imported cases should be continuously strengthened.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-798755

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the immune responses and protection against human metapneumovirus (hMPV) conveyed by influenza virus vectors carrying multiple epitope antigens of hMPV.@*Methods@#Two recombinant influenza viruses (rFLU/hMPV/B and rFLU/hMPV/CTL+ Th) carrying hMPV multi-epitope gene segments in NS gene were generated by reverse genetic techniques of eight-plasmid system. BALB/c mice were immunized intranasally with rFLU/hMPV/B and rFLU/hMPV/CTL+ Th twice at a two-week interval. Virus-specific antibody titers and splenocyte cytokines were detected two weeks after the boost immunization. Viral loads in lung tissues and turbinates were detected with digital PCR after the immunized mice were challenged with hMPV and influenza virus. Moreover, HE staining was used to observe lung injuries.@*Results@#Specific antibodies against both the influenza virus and hMPV were induced in mice immunized intranasally with rFLU/hMPV/B, while the influenza virus-specific antibody response and hMPV-specific cytotoxic lymphocyte response (significant IFN-γ secretion) were detected in mice immunized with rFLU/hMPV/CTL+ Th. Additionally, balanced Th1/Th2 responses were elicited by rFLU/hMPV/B and rFLU/hMPV/CTL+ Th. Both rFLU/hMPV/B and rFLU/hMPV/CTL+ Th conveyed effective protection against subsequent influenza virus and hMPV challenges with significantly alleviated histopathological damages and reduced viral loads.@*Conclusions@#Both rFLU/hMPV/B and rFLU/hMPV/CTL+ Th can induce specific humoral immune response against hMPV and/or the influenza virus. Moreover, rFLU/hMPV/CTL+ Th can also elicit hMPV-specific CTL immune response. These two recombinant strains can also protect BALB/c mice from the challenges with hMPV and influenza virus, suggesting that they are promising vaccine candidates.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-824818

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the immune responses and protection against human metapneu-movirus ( hMPV) conveyed by influenza virus vectors carrying multiple epitope antigens of hMPV. Methods Two recombinant influenza viruses ( rFLU/hMPV/B and rFLU/hMPV/CTL+Th ) carrying hMPV multi-epitope gene segments in NS gene were generated by reverse genetic techniques of eight-plasmid system. BALB/c mice were immunized intranasally with rFLU/hMPV/B and rFLU/hMPV/CTL+Th twice at a two-week interval. Virus-specific antibody titers and splenocyte cytokines were detected two weeks after the boost immunization. Viral loads in lung tissues and turbinates were detected with digital PCR after the immunized mice were challenged with hMPV and influenza virus. Moreover, HE staining was used to observe lung inju-ries. Results Specific antibodies against both the influenza virus and hMPV were induced in mice immu-nized intranasally with rFLU/hMPV/B, while the influenza virus-specific antibody response and hMPV-spe-cific cytotoxic lymphocyte response ( significant IFN-γ secretion ) were detected in mice immunized with rFLU/hMPV/CTL+Th. Additionally, balanced Th1/Th2 responses were elicited by rFLU/hMPV/B and rFLU/hMPV/CTL+Th. Both rFLU/hMPV/B and rFLU/hMPV/CTL+Th conveyed effective protection against subsequent influenza virus and hMPV challenges with significantly alleviated histopathological dama-ges and reduced viral loads. Conclusions Both rFLU/hMPV/B and rFLU/hMPV/CTL+Th can induce spe-cific humoral immune response against hMPV and/or the influenza virus. Moreover, rFLU/hMPV/CTL+Th can also elicit hMPV-specific CTL immune response. These two recombinant strains can also protect BALB/c mice from the challenges with hMPV and influenza virus, suggesting that they are promising vaccine candi-dates.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-618734

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the degree of cell injury induced by 3D protein (SDLY11 and SDLY107) of enterovirus 71 (EV71) strains.Methods EV71 strains SDLY11 and SDLY107 were respectively isolated from children with mild and severe hand foot mouth disease.The target genes 11-3D-Flag and 107-3D-Flag were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reation (RT-PCR) and inserted into the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1.The recombinant plasmids 11-3D-Flag-pcDNA3.1 and 107-3D-Flag-pcDNA3.1 were transformed into Escherichia.coli DH5α, respectively, and were identified by enzyme digestion and sequencing.The recombinant plasmids were transfected into rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells, respectively.Expression of 3D protein was detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay and western blot.Cell injury induced by 3D protein was detected with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) test, cell proliferation was detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenylthiazolium bromide (MTT) test, and cell apoptosis was detected with Annexin-V and PI.Multiple comparisons among groups were analyzed using LSD-t test if multiple sets of variables were consistent with homogeneity of variance.If not, Dunnett T3 test was used.Results The 1 400 bp fragments were amplified by reverse tramscription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the recombinant plasmids were digested by enzyme and the 1 400 bp and 5 400 bp fragments were obtained and identified.Gene sequencing showed that the sequences were consistent with the target genes.The specific fluorescence was observed by indirect immunofluorescence assay, and the western blot showed that the molecular weight of the target protein was 55×103.The LDH test showed that the A490 of SDLY11 3D protein transfection group (0.790±0.048) was higher than that of SDLY107 3D protein transfection group (0.641±0.018).The difference was statistically significant (t=5.14, P<0.05).The cell membrane damage caused by SDLY11 3D protein was more severe than SDLY107 3D protein.The MTT test showed that the A570 of SDLY11 3D protein transfection group (1.028±0.020) was lower than that of SDLY107 3D protein transfection group (1.081±0.002), and the difference was statistically significant (t=3.31, P<0.05).The effect on cell proliferation activity of SDLY11 3D protein was greater than SDLY107 3D protein.The results of Annexin-V/PI showed that the percentage of apoptotic cells of SDLY11 3D protein transfection group and SDLY107 3D protein transfection group were (1.471±0.246)% and (1.465±0.237)%, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (t=0.04, P=0.973).Conclusions Compared with the SDLY11 3D protein, SDLY107 3D protein induces slighter cell injury, has weaker effect on cell proliferation activity, and is more favorable for virus replication in cells.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-672125

ABSTRACT

Objective To construct a chimeric infectious clone of the fatal virulent strain SDLY 107, containing the gene fragments encoding 2A and 3B proteins of the mild virulent strain SDLY 1, and to establish a reverse genetic system platform for further investigation on virulence of enterovirus 71 strains. Methods The overlap PCR analysis was performed to obtain the gene fragments encoding 2A and 3B pro-teins of the mild virulent strain SDLY 1.The obtained gene fragments were digested and then cloned into a plasmid pMD19-T containing the full-length gene of SDLY 107 strain by using gene replacement strategy. The recombinant RNA was transfected into Vero cells for the preparation of recombinant virus particles.Sev-eral assays including the PCR, indirect immunofluorescence ( IFA) , Western blot and sequencing were per-formed for virus identification.Virus titers were measured by 50%cell culture infective dose ( CCID50 ) and plaque assay.Results The infectious clones of SDLY 107-2A-1 and SDLY 107-3B-1 chimeric virus strains were constructed successfully.Typical cytopathic effect was observed in Vero cells after viral transfection. Identification of the rescued viruses by PCR, IFA, Western blot and sequencing further confirmed the suc-cessful construction of infectious virus strains.The virus titers of SDLY 107-2A-1 and SDLY 107-3B-1 strains detected by CCID50 and plaque assay were 1.25 ×105 PFU/ml and 0.7 ×105 PFU/ml, respectively. Conclusion The chimeric viruses SDLY 107-2A-1 and SDLY 107-3B-1 were rescued successfully, causing cytopathic effects similar to those by using the parental virus strain SDLY 107.This study might pave the way for further investigation on in vitro and in vivo virulence of enterovirus 71 strains.

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