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1.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 1167-1170, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-666087

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of parecoxib sodium combined with dexmedetomi-dine on postoperative levels of plasma excitatory aminoacid and beta-amyloid protein(β-AP)in jugular bulb venous of elderly patients. Methods A total of 135 patients of either sex, aged 65-79 yr, weighing 47-76 kg, of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Ⅱ or Ⅲ, undergoing elective open reduc-tion and internal fixation after tibial fracture and hip replacement, were divided into 3 groups(n=45 each) using a random number table: parecoxib sodium group(group P), dexmedetomidine group(group D)and parecoxib sodium combined with dexmedetomidine group(group PD). In group P, parecoxib sodium 40 mg (diluted to 5 ml in normal saline)was injected intravenously at 15 min before induction of anesthesia. In group D, dexmedetomidine was intravenously infused at a loading dose of 05 μg∕kg over 15 min starting from 15 min before induction of anesthesia, followed by an infusion of 05 μg·kg-1·h-1until the end of surgery. In group PD, parecoxib sodium 40 mg(diluted to 5 ml in normal saline)was intravenously injec-ted at 15 min before induction of anesthesia, and dexmedetomidine was intravenously infused at a loading dose of 05 μg∕kg over 15 min followed by an infusion of 05 μg·kg-1·h-1until the end of surgery at the same time. At 15 min before induction of anesthesia(T0), at the end of surgery(T1)and at 24, 48 and 72 h after surgery(T2-4), jugular bulb venous blood samples were taken for determination of concentrations of glutamate and aspartate in plasma(by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography)and β-AP(by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Cognitive function was assessed at 1 day before surgery and 7 days after surgery using a battery of neuropsychologic tests including Wechsler Memory Scale, Digit Span (Forward and Backward), visual recognition and associative learning, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and Trail Making Test Part A. The occurrence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction was recorded at 7 days after surgery. Results Compared with P and D groups, the concentrations of plasma glutamate at T2-3, plasma aspartate at T2and β-AP at T1and incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction were significantly decreased in group PD(P< 005). Conclusion The mechanism by which parecoxib sodium combined with dexmedetomidine decreases the occurrence of POCD may be related to inhibiting the levels of excitatory aminoacid and β-AP in brain tissues of elderly patients.

2.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 381-386, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-489310

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) combined with dexmedetomidine on lung injury during perioperative period and postoperative pulmonary complications in elderly patients with thoracotomy and pulmonary dysfunction.Methods Sixty ASA Ⅱ or Ⅲ patients aged 65-76 years [mean (70.4±6.3) years],weighing 50-75 kg,with moderate and severe pulmonary dysfunction,who were scheduled for elective radical operation for esophageal cancer,were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=20,each) by using a random number table:the control group (group C),RIPC group (group OR) and RIPC plus dexmedetomidine group (group ORD).At 10 min after endotracheal intubation,group ORD was induced by three cycles of 5 min of lower extremity ischemia followed by 5 min of reperfusion,at the same time a loading dose of dexmedetomidine 0.5 μig / kg was infused iv over 15 min,and then was infused at a rate of 0.5 μg · kg-1 · h-1 until the end of operation.Group OR was induced by three cycles of 5 min of lower extremity ischemia followed by 5min of reperfusion without dexmedetomidine.Group C received only the equal volume of normal saline.Blood samples were obtained from radial artery immediately before anesthesia induction (T0),before one lung ventilation (T1),at 1 h after one lung ventilation (T2),the end of surgery (T3) and 24 h after operation (T4).Blood gas analysis was done at T1,T2,and T3.Plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and concentration of malonyldialdehyde (MDA),matrix metallo-proteinase-9 (MMP-9),interleukin-6(IL-6) and white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil granulocyte (PMN) counts were measured at T0,T2,T3 and T4.The complications including pulmonary infection and atelectasis were recorded at 1,3 and 7 days after operation.Results At T2-3,PaO2 was higher in groups of OR and ORD than in group C Group ORD had higher PaO2 than did group OR [(265±15) mmHg,(305±23) mmHg vs.(231±17) mmHg,(273±21)mmHg,(312±24) mmHg vs.(242±18) mmHg,F=34.791 and 31.813,P<0.01].At T2-3,RI was lower in groups of OR and ORD than in group C,and group ORD had lower RI than did group OR [(1.48±0.16),(1.14 ±0.14) vs.(1.86±0.18);(1.35±0.13),(0.96±0.09) vs.(1.73±0.15),F=119.260 and 164.855,P<0.01].At T3-4,SOD activity was higher in group OR and ORD than in group C,and group ORD had higher SOD activity than did group OR [(83.6 ± 7.8) U/mg prot,(97.6± 9.5) U/mgprot vs.(70.5±7.4) U/mgprot;(73.5 ± 6.3) U/mgprot,(87.7 ± 8.9) U/mgprot vs.(61.6 ± 5.4) U/ mgprot,F=94.540 and 90.839,P<0.01].At T3-4.plasma concentration of MDA,MMP-9,WBC and PMN counts were lower in group OR and ORD than in group C,and the above indices were lower in group ORD than in group OR [(7.5 ± 1.4) nmol/mgprot,(5.8 ± 1.0) nmol/mgprot vs.(9.5 ±1.5) nmol/mgprot;(8.2± 1.5) nmol/mgprot,(6.5 ± 1.0) nmol/mgprot vs.(10.1 ±1.6) nmol/mgprot;(205±23) μg/L,(173±21) μg/L vs.(237±26) μg/L,(179±16) μg/L,(158±12) μg/L vs.(203± 20) μg/L;(8.0±0.5) ×109/L,(7.2±0.6) × 109/L vs.(9.2±0.8)×109/L;(9.4±0.7) ×109/L,(8.2±0.6)×109/Lvs.(11.2±0.8) ×109/L;(7.4±0.7) ×109/L,(6.5±0.5) ×109/Lvs.(8.3 ±0.8) ×109/L,(7.8±0.8) ×109/L,(6.7±0.6) ×109/L vs.(9.2±0.9) ×109/L,F=98.872,52.723;198.307,47.622,20.319,36.935,18.197,35.036,respectively,all P<0.01].At T2-4,IL-6 level was lower in groups of OR and ORD than in group C,and group ORD had lower IL-6 level than did group OR [(105±14) ng/L,(86±12) ng/L vs.(127±18) ng/L;(125±19) ng/L,(101±16) ng/ L vs.(156±22) ng/L;(110±16) ng/L,(89±12) ng/L vs.(132±20) ng/L,F=85.449,139.848,124.129,respectively,P<0.01].The incidences of postoperative pulmonary infection and atelectasis were lower in group OR and ORD than group C,and group ORD had lower incidences of postoperative pulmonary infection and atelectasis than did group OR (x2 =6.303 and 14.545,P < 0.05).Conclusions RIPC combined with dexmedetomidine can improve pulmonary function in elderly patients with thoracotomy and pulmonary dysfunction,may relieve the inflammatory reaction and oxidation reaction during perioperative period and finally help to improve the prognosis of patients.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-431109

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the efficacy of different doses of ropivacaine for ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block in children.Methods One hundred and twenty ASA Ⅰ or Ⅱ children,aged 5-12 yr,scheduled for elective surgery for hand injury,were equally and randomly divided into 4 groups according to the doses of ropivacaine:0.35,0.3,0.25 and 0.20 ml/kg groups.The children received oral midazolam 30 min before surgery.Propofol was given by target-control infusion after admission to the operating room.When the pediatric patients lost consciousness and had no response to verbal command,axillary brachial plexus block was performed under the guidance of ultrasound.0.25 % ropivacaine 0.35,0.3,0.25 and 0.20 ml/kg were injected to block the radial,median,ulnar,musculocutaneous and medial antebrachial cutaneous nerves.Additional ketamine was given when needed during operation.The duration of block and consumption of general anesthesia and complications were recorded.The degree of sensory block of the region innervated by each nerve and effectiveness of block were assessed.Results The rate of effective block of the radial nerve,median nerve and musculocutaneous nerve was significantly lower,the number of patients requiring ketamine was larger and the duration of block was shorter in group 0.2 ml/kg than in 0.35,0.30 and 0.25 ml/kg groups (P < 0.05).There was no significant difference in the parameters mentioned above between 0.35,0.30 and 0.25 ml/kg groups (P > 0.05).No pediatric patients developed block-related complications in each group.Conclusion Ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block with 0.25 % ropivacaine 0.25 ml/kg can provide better block in children.

4.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 1236-1238, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-440394

ABSTRACT

Objective To determine the median effective target plasma concentration (Cp50) of remifentainil inhibiting body movement evoked by puncture during brachial plexus block in pediatric patients.Methods Pediatric patients of both sexes,aged 5-12 yr,who grown normally,scheduled for elective forearm or hand surgery,were enrolled in this study.Children were premedicated with oral midazolam 0.2 mg/kg at 30 min before anesthesia.The initial target Cp of remifentainil was 5.0 ng/ml.The target Cp was determined by up-and-down sequential method.Each time Cp increased/decreased by 20% in the next patient depending on the response of the previous patient to puncture.The ratio between the two successive concentrations was 1.2.The puncture was performed after the target effect-site and plasma concentrations were balanced.Body movement was defined as puncture-induced movement of truncus,limbs and/or head and neck.The Cp50 and 95 % confidence interval of remifentainil were calculated by Dixon method.Results Cp50 of remifentainil inhibiting body movement evoked by puncture during brachial plexus block was 3.9 ng/ml,and 95 % confidence interval was 3.6-4.2 ng/ml.Conclusion Cp50 of remifentainil inhibiting body movement evoked by puncture during brachial plexus block is 3.9 ng/ml in pediatric patients.

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