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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888129

ABSTRACT

The development of quality Chinese medicine is an important way to improve the quality of Chinese medicine, and ensure the safety and effectiveness of Chinese medicine. This article systematically elaborates the definition, classification, standard and mana-gement certification strategy of quality Chinese medicine. We present the quality Chinese medicine which is higher quality than that of eligible Chinese medicine based on quality control standards. Quality Chinese medicine is strictly in accordance with management procedures, likely GAP and GMP et al, during the productive process, which quality indicators is higher than that of the current relevant national quality standards, such as Chinese Pharmacopoeia(ChP) et al; its limited indicators such as exogenous pollutants and endogenous toxic substances are lower than that of the current relevant national quality standards, likely ChP et al; meanwhile these Chinese herbal medicine, medicinal pieces, patent medicines, and health products and foods with Chinese medicine raw materials are been certificated by quality Chinese medicine. At the same time, this article systematically expounds the five major management systems of quality Chinese medicine, including technical training management for practitioners, productive process management, standard mana-gement, quality inspection and certification management, and product traceability management. And we put forward strategies to improve the supervision and management system, and promote the standardization and development of quality Chinese medicine by improving the technical management system of quality Chinese medicine, strengthening the quality management system and six sigma(6σ) management in the company. These strategies will provide a reliable basis and effective way to improve the quality of Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Food , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control , Reference Standards
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888785

ABSTRACT

The quality control of Chinese herbal medicine is a current challenge for the internationalization of traditional Chinese medicine. Traditional quality evaluation methods lack quantitative analysis, while modern quality evaluation methods ignore the origins and appearance traits. Therefore, an integrated quality evaluation method is urgent in need. Raw Rehmanniae Radix (RRR) is commonly used in Chinese herbal medicine. At present, much attention has been drwan towards its quality control, which however is limited by the existing quality evaluation methods. The present study was designed to establish a comprehensive and practical method for the quality evaluation and control of RRR pieces based on its chemical constituents, appearance traits and origins. Thirty-three batches of RRR pieces were collected from six provinces, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applied to determine the following five constituents, including catalpol, rehmannioside A, rehmannioside D, leonuride and verbascoside in RRR pieces. Their appearance traits were quantitatively observed. Furthermore, correlation analysis, principal components analysis (PCA), cluster analysis and t-test were performed to evaluate the qualities of RRR pieces. These batches of RRR pieces were divided into three categories: samples from Henan province, samples from Shandong and Shanxi provinces, and those from other provinces. Furthermore, the chemical constituents and appearance traits of RRR pieces were significantly different from diverse origins. The combined method of chemical contituents, appearance traits and origins can distinguish RRR pieces with different qualities, which provides basic reference for the quality control of Chinese herbal medicine.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Roots/chemistry , Principal Component Analysis , Quality Control , Rehmannia/chemistry
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873206

ABSTRACT

This paper, taking the formulation of national drug standards for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) dispensing granules as a case study, explores the improvement of the formation mechanism of national drug standards, and promotes the reform of streamline administration, delegate powers, and improve regulation and services of national standards management, so as to release the vitality of the research and development of standards of drug manufacturers. After nearly two decades of pilot production of TCM dispensing granules, a large number of researches and discussions have been conducted on the formulation of unified standards of TCM dispensing granules from manufacturing enterprises to national standard administration departments, it was found that this work was difficult on the basis of the original drug standard formation mechanism. The authors tried to improve and innovate the formation mechanism of national drug standards, to provide methods and ideas for the formulation and unification of national standards for TCM dispensing granules, and to provide references for the formulation of other national drug standards.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773108

ABSTRACT

The excessive pesticide residues and heavy metals in traditional Chinese medicine seriously endanger human health and the sustainable development of Chinese medicine industry. In order to improve the quality of traditional Chinese medicine and establish a general standard for maximum residue limits(MRL) of pesticides in pollution-free traditional Chinese medicine and decoction pieces, and to ensure the safety of clinical medication from its origin, MRLs were calculated based on the formula(MRL=A×W/100M) from Chinese Pharmacopeia, comparing it with the current Chinese and international standards as well as literature review, the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method(RAM) was applied to determine the categories and MRLs of pesticides in pollution-free traditional Chinese medicine and decoction pieces. Two questionnaires were drafted for expert panel and appropriateness analysis was carried out with the 9-point Likert scale to determine the general standard for MRLs of pollution-free traditional Chinese medicine and decoction pieces. The results showed that a total of nine experts from different fields scored the necessity of standard-setting and 206 pesticide residue limits respectively. The appropriateness scores of 206 pesticides were greater than 7, and appropriateness rate was 100%, which signifies that the expert panel has reached consensus. In summary, based on the RAM, the general standard for maximum residue limits of pesticides in pollution-free Chinese medicines and decoction pieces has reached an expert consensus. Comparing with the MRLs of medicinal plants and plant-sourced food from CAC, Europe Union, the United States, South Korea, Japan, Australia, New Zealand and Canada, 206 MRLs from this general standard share 88.8% in common, 4.4% of which is higher and 6.8% lower than those international standards. This has provided a basis for standardizing the use of pesticides in pollution-free traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pesticide Residues , Pesticides
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350170

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the status of adjuvant standard for Chinese materia medica processing in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2015 edition, the National Specification of Chinese Materia Medica Processing, and the 29 provincial specification of Chinese materia medica was summarized, and the the status including general requirements, specific requirements, and quality standard in the three grade official specifications was collected and analyzed according to the "medicine-adjuvant homology" and "food-adjuvant homology" features of adjuvants. This paper also introduced the research situation of adjuvant standard for Chinese materia medica processing in China; In addition, analyzed and discussed the problems existing in the standard system of adjuvant for Chinese materia medica processing, such as lack of general requirements, low level of standard, inconsistent standard references, and lack of research on the standard, and provided suggestions for the further establishment of the national standards system of adjuvant for Chinese materia medica processing.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-231002

ABSTRACT

The current situation, bottleneck problems and severe challenges in quality control technology of Chinese Medicine (CM) are briefly described. It is presented to change the phenomenon related to the post-test as the main means and contempt for process control in drug regulation, reverse the situation of neglecting the development of process control and management technology for pharmaceutical manufacture and reconstruct the technological system for quality control of CM products. The regulation and technology system based on process control and management for controlling CM quality should be established to solve weighty realistic problems of CM industry from the root causes, including backwardness of quality control technology, weakness of quality risk control measures, poor reputation of product quality and so on. By this way, the obstacles from poor controllability of CM product quality could be broken. Concentrating on those difficult problems and weak links in the technical field of CM quality control, it is proposed to build CMC (Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls) regulation for CM products with Chinese characteristics and promote the regulation international recognition as soon as possible. The CMC technical framework, which is clinical efficacy-oriented, manufacturing manner-centered and process control-focused, was designed. To address the clinical characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the production feature of CM manufacture, it is suggested to establish quality control engineering for CM manufacturing by integrating pharmaceutical analysis, TCM chemistry, TCM pharmacology, pharmaceutical engineering, control engineering, management engineering and other disciplines. Further, a theoretical model of quality control engineering for CM manufacturing and the methodology of digital pharmaceutical engineering are proposed. A technology pathway for promoting CM standard and realizing the strategic goal of CM internationalization is elaborated.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-272718

ABSTRACT

Using the latest 454 GS FLX platform and Titanium regent, a substantial expressed sequence tag (ESTs) dataset of Ephedra sinica was produced, and the profile of gene expression and function gene of which were investigated. A total of 48 389 reads with an average length of 373 bp were generated. These 454 reads were assembled into 18 801 unigenes, which were all 454 sequencing identified. A total number of 10 531 unigenes(56.0%) were annotated using BLAST searches (E-value≤1×10⁻⁵) against the Nr, Nt, TAIR, SwissProt and KEGG databases. With respect to genes related to ephedrine biosynthesis, 19 unigenes(encoding 9 enzymes) were found. A total of 97 putative genes encoding cytochrome P450s were also discovered. Data presented in this study will provide an important resource for the scientific community that is interested in the functional genomics and secondary metabolism of E. sinica.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237703

ABSTRACT

The evolution of the quality control concepts of medical products within the global context and the development of the quality control technology of Chinese medicine are briefly described. Aimed at the bottlenecks in the regulation and quality control of Chinese medicine, using Big Data technology to address the significant challenges in Chinese medicine industry is proposed. For quality standard refinements and internationalization of Chinese medicine, a technological innovation strategy encompassing its methodology, and the R&D direction of the subsequent core technology are also presented.


Subject(s)
Data Mining , Databases, Factual , Drug Industry , Reference Standards , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Reference Standards , Humans , Quality Control
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-318703

ABSTRACT

Since the research of molecular identification of Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) using DNA barcode is rapidly developing and popularizing, the principle of this method is approved to be listed in the Supplement of the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China. Based on the study on comprehensive samples, the DNA barcoding systems have been established to identify CMM, i.e. ITS2 as a core barcode and psbA-trnH as a complementary locus for identification of planta medica, and COI as a core barcode and ITS2 as a complementary locus for identification of animal medica. This article introduced the principle of molecular identification of CMM using DNA barcoding and its drafting instructions. Furthermore, its application perspective was discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , China , DNA , Genetics , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Methods , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Genetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Classification , Electron Transport Complex IV , Genetics , Materia Medica , Classification , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Proteins , Genetics , Plants, Medicinal
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-318617

ABSTRACT

Through systemically sorting and studying literature of Chinese medicine, this article pointed out that leech used by the traditional Chinese medicine in ancient time has the features of small, living in water, able to suck blood of animal and people. The species of leeches having these features were Hirudo nipponia Whitman, H. pulchra Song, Poecilobdella nanjingensis sp. Nov. , P. manillensis (Lesson) and P. hubeiensis Yang, which were not fully coincidence with the species recorded in Chinese Pharmacopeia of 2010 edition. We suggests that species of leech in Chinese Pharmacopeia be revised: H. nipponica Whitman should be kept, P. manillensis (Lesson) should be added in, Whitmania pigra Whitman and W. acranulata Whitma should be temporarily reserved, and H. pulchra Song, P. nanjingensis sp. Nov. , and P. hubeiensis Yang should be considered.


Subject(s)
Animals , Conservation of Natural Resources , Humans , Leeches , Classification , Medicine in Literature , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-295402

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish a molecular method for the authentication of Pinellia pedatisecta and its adulterants.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>DNA sequences of some species from P. tenore, Typhonium and Arisaema were downloaded from GenBank, the sequences were aligned using DNAMAN. Allele-specific primers for P. pedatisecta and P. tenore were designed according to their SNPs in rpl 20 sequence. The designed primers were used to amplify 10 samples of P. pedatisecta, P. ternata and T. flagelliforme.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>A 351 bp band was amplified from P. pedatisecta but not form P. ternata and T. flagelliforme by primer Pprpl149F and Pprpl484R. A 630 bp band was amplified from P. ternate and P. pedatisecta but not from T. flagelliforme by primer Ptrpl94F and Ptrpl699R.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>AS-PCR has the advantages of highly specific and good reproducibility, by which P. pedatisecta can be identified from part of its adulterants quickly. It is a potential method to be used in the molecular identification of other materia medica.</p>


Subject(s)
Alleles , China , Consumer Product Safety , DNA Primers , Genetics , Pinellia , Genetics , Plants, Medicinal , Genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Methods , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Quality Control
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-356704

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To develop a convenient and effective method for the identification of Bungarus multicinctus.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Based on the sequence of Cyt b gene fragment of B. multicinctus and its adulterants, a pair of highly specific primer (HJL- and HJH-) were designed for distinguishing B. ulticinctus from other species of snake. To establish specific PCR reaction condition, the primers were employed to amplify the DNA templates extracted from B. multicinctus and 6 other species of snake, under different annealing temperature. Using this method, B. multicinctus was identified from 18 samples bought from many drugstores.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>A 230 bp DNA fragment was amplified from B. multicinctus in PCR with annealed temperature at 67 degrees C, whereas no DNA fragment was amplified from other snake samples under the same reaction condition, B. multicinctus could be clearly distinguished from others by PCR reaction with the highly specific primers. In the present study, 18 sample, bought from different drugstores, were also identified by the highly specific PCR with the primers. The results indicated that 14 samples were B. multicinctus and the other 4 were adulterant, which was consistent with the conclusion of authentication based on morphological.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The primers designed in the present study were highly specific for B. multicinctus.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Base Sequence , Bungarus , Classification , Genetics , Cytochromes b , Genetics , DNA , Genetics , DNA Primers , Drug Contamination , Materia Medica , Molecular Sequence Data , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Methods , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Snakes , Classification , Genetics , Species Specificity
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