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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887992

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate metabolic activities of psoralidin in human liver microsomes( HLM) and intestinal microsomes( HIM),and to identify cytochrome P450 enzymes( CYPs) and UDP-glucuronosyl transferases( UGTs) involved in psoralidin metabolism as well as species differences in the in vitro metabolism of psoralen. First,after incubation serial of psoralidin solutions with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate( NADPH) or uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucuronic acid( UDPGA)-supplemented HLM or HIM,two oxidic products( M1 and M2) and two conjugated glucuronides( G1 and G2) were produced in HLM-mediated incubation system,while only M1 and G1 were detected in HIM-supplemented system. The CLintfor M1 in HLM and HIM were 104. 3,and57. 6 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1),respectively,while those for G1 were 543. 3,and 75. 9 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1),respectively. Furthermore,reaction phenotyping was performed to identify the main contributors to psoralidin metabolism after incubation of psoralidin with NADPH-supplemented twelve CYP isozymes( or UDPGA-supplemented twelve UGT enzymes),respectively. The results showed that CYP1 A1( 39. 5 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)),CYP2 C8( 88. 0 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)),CYP2 C19( 166. 7 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)),and CYP2 D6( 9. 1 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)) were identified as the main CYP isoforms for M1,whereas CYP2 C19( 42. 0 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)) participated more in producing M2. In addition,UGT1 A1( 1 184. 4 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)),UGT1 A7( 922. 8 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)),UGT1 A8( 133. 0 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)),UGT1 A9( 348. 6 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)) and UGT2 B7( 118. 7 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)) played important roles in the generation of G1,while UGT1 A9( 111. 3 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)) was regarded as the key UGT isozyme for G2. Moreover,different concentrations of psoralidin were incubated with monkey liver microsomes( MkLM),rat liver microsomes( RLM),mice liver microsomes( MLM),dog liver microsomes( DLM) and mini-pig liver microsomes( MpLM),respectively. The obtained CLintwere used to evaluate the species differences.Phase Ⅰ metabolism and glucuronidation of psoralidinby liver microsomes showed significant species differences. In general,psoralidin underwent efficient hepatic and intestinal metabolisms. CYP1 A1,CYP2 C8,CYP2 C19,CYP2 D6 and UGT1 A1,UGT1 A7,UGT1 A8,UGT1 A9,UGT2 B7 were identified as the main contributors responsible for phase Ⅰ metabolism and glucuronidation,respectively. Rat and mini-pig were considered as the appropriate model animals to investigate phase Ⅰ metabolism and glucuronidation,respectively.


Subject(s)
Animals , Benzofurans , Coumarins , Dogs , Glucuronides , Glucuronosyltransferase/metabolism , Kinetics , Mice , Microsomes, Liver/metabolism , Phenotype , Rats , Species Specificity , Swine , Swine, Miniature/metabolism
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-824004

ABSTRACT

The human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1), one of the most essential conjugative enzymes, is responsible for the metabolism and detoxification of bilirubin and other endogenous substances, as well as many different xenobiotic compounds. Deciphering UGT1A1 relevance to human diseases and characterizing the effects of small molecules on the activities of UGT1A1 requires reliable tools for probing the function of this key enzyme in complex biological matrices. Herein, an easy-to-use assay for highly-selective and sensitive monitoring of UGT1A1 activities in various biological matrices, using liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FD), has been developed and validated. The newly developed LC-FD based assay has been confirmed in terms of sensitivity, specificity, precision, quanti-tative linear range and stability. One of its main advantages is lowering the limits of detection and quantification by about 100-fold in comparison to the previous assay that used the same probe substrate, enabling reliable quantification of lower amounts of active enzyme than any other method. The precision test demonstrated that both intra- and inter-day variations for this assay were less than 5.5%. Further-more, the newly developed assay has also been successfully used to screen and characterize the regu-latory effects of small molecules on the expression level of UGT1A1 in living cells. Overall, an easy-to-use LC-FD based assay has been developed for ultra-sensitive UGT1A1 activities measurements in various biological systems, providing an inexpensive and practical approach for exploring the role of UGT1A1 in human diseases, interactions with xenobiotics, and characterization modulatory effects of small mole-cules on this conjugative enzyme.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812598

ABSTRACT

Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus (Xiebai in Chinese), as a famous traditional Chinese medicine, has great medicinal and dietary values since ancient times. In China, the dry bulbs of Allium macrostemon and Allium chinense are both used as its original plants. Pharmacological studies have revealed that both of them could increase plasminogen activator activity and prolong the effect of coagulation to achieve antiplatelet aggregation which validates their traditional uses for the treatment of thoracic obstruction and cardialgia in clinics. Besides, several other significant activities, including lipid-lowering, anti-atherosclerosis, antitumor, antispasmodic, antibacterial, antioxidant, and insecticidal activities, have already been reported. The volatile oils, nitrogenous compounds, and steroidal saponins are the major beneficial compounds. Among them, steroidal saponins are considered as the characteristic constituents. In this review, the current information concerning the phytochemistry and pharmacology of Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus is summarized comprehensively. In addition, several research future perspectives are presented, especially the mechanism of bioactive components and fraction from the bulbs of Allium macrostemon and Allium chinense.


Subject(s)
Allium , Chemistry , Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Humans , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship
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