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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879897

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the efficacy of sepsis risk calculator (SRC) in guiding antibiotic use in neonates with suspected early-onset sepsis (EOS).@*METHODS@#A total of 284 neonates with a gestational age of ≥ 35 weeks were enrolled as the control group, who were hospitalized in the Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from March to July, 2019 and were suspected of EOS. Their clinical data were retrospectively collected and the use of antibiotics was analyzed based on SRC. A total of 170 neonates with a gestational age of ≥ 35 weeks were enrolled as the study group, who were admitted to the hospital from July to November, 2020 and were suspected of EOS. SRC was used prospectively for risk scoring to assist the decision making of clinical antibiotic management. The two groups were compared in terms of the rate of use of antibiotics, blood culture test rate, clinical outcome, and adherence to the use of SRC.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the study group had a significantly higher SRC score at birth and on admission (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The use of SRC reduces the rate of empirical use of antibiotics in neonates with suspected EOS and does not increase the risk of adverse outcomes, and therefore, it holds promise for clinical application.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Neonatal Sepsis/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Sepsis/drug therapy
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781702

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the efficacy and safety of C-reactive protein (CRP)-guided antibiotic treatment strategy for neonates with suspected early-onset sepsis (EOS).@*METHODS@#A total of 428 neonates, with a gestational age of >35 weeks, who were admitted to the Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from February to July, 2019 and were suspected of EOS were enrolled as the observation group. The effect of antibiotic treatment was prospectively observed, and if clinical symptoms were improved and CRP was 35 weeks) who were admitted to this hospital from February to July, 2018 and were suspected of EOS were enrolled as the control group, and the use of antibiotics was analyzed retrospectively. The two groups were compared in terms of duration of antibiotic treatment, length of hospital stay, incidence rate of repeated infection and clinical outcome.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the observation group had significantly shorter duration of antibiotic treatment and length of hospital stay (P0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#For neonates with a gestational age of >35 weeks and a suspected diagnosis of EOS, CRP-guided antibiotic treatment strategy can shorten duration of antibiotic treatment and length of hospital stay and does not increase the incidence rate of repeated infection. Therefore, it holds promise for clinical application.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Therapeutic Uses , C-Reactive Protein , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis , Drug Therapy
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828626

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study whether pyroptosis is involved in the bilirubin-induced injury of primary cultured rat cortical microglial cells.@*METHODS@#Primary cultured rat cortical microglial cells were randomly administered with 30 μmol/L bilirubin (bilirubin group), 30 μmol/L bilirubin following 30 μmol/L VX-765 pretreatment (VX-765+bilirubin group), or an equal volume of dimethyl sulfoxide (control group). Modified MTT assay was used to measure the viability of microglial cells. Western blot was used to measure the expression of the pyroptosis-related proteins Caspase-1 and gasdermin D (GSDMD). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-release assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of microglial cells. EtBr/EthD2 with different molecular weights (394 Da/1 293 Da) was used to measure the size of plasma membrane pores. ELISA was used to measure the level of the inflammatory factor interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in culture supernatant.@*RESULTS@#After bilirubin stimulation, the viability of microglial cells decreased and LDH release increased, both in a time-dependent manner. Compared with the control group, the bilirubin group had a significantly higher positive rate of small-molecule EtBr passing through the cell membrane (P0.05). The expression of activated Caspase-1 significantly increased at 0.5 hour after bilirubin stimulation (P<0.05), and that of activated GSDMD significantly increased at 6 hours after bilirubin stimulation (P<0.05). The release of IL-1β significantly increased at 6 hours after bilirubin stimulation and reached the peak at 24 hours (P<0.001). Compared with the bilirubin group, the VX-765+bilirubin group had a significant increase in cell viability (P<0.05) and significant reductions in the expression of activated GSDMD, the pass rate of EtBr, and the release of LDH and IL-1β (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Pyroptosis is involved in bilirubin-induced injury of primary cultured microglial cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bilirubin , Caspase 1 , Cell Survival , Interleukin-1beta , Pyroptosis , Rats
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-817836

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the application of NBNA and TIMP in the follow-up of preterm infants,and to as⁃sess the value of them in early diagnosis of abnormal motor development of preterms. METHODS: Databases including Pubmed,Embase and Cochrane Library,China National knowledge internet,and Wanfang data were searched for studies about neuro-behavior or motor assessments with NBNA or TIMP. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed with COSMIN checklist,then the predictive validity of NBNA and TIMP were compared. RESULTS: Ultimately,16 studies were included,5 of which were about the application of NBNA in follow-up of preterm infants. But many fac⁃tors might pose threat to methodological quality. As for TIMP,11 studies were included,9 of which showed that with a satisfying predictive validity(sensitivity:0.50 to 1.00;specificity:0.68 to 1.00)or moderate correlation(r:0.36 to 0.44)for the neurodevelopmental scores after half a year old. TIMP is helpful in making early diagnosis for neurodevelopmental disability. CONCLUSION: With satisfying predictive validity for long-term neurological development outcomes of the pre⁃term infants,TIMP is considered as an alternative method of assessing functional movements in preterms.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690108

ABSTRACT

The Evidence-based Practice for Improving Quality (EPIQ) method was proposed by Canadian Neonatal Network for high quality health care. The method is characterized by evidence-based, targeted, collaborative and continuous concept. At present it is applied in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This review article focuses on the application of the method in NICUs.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690429

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the role of caspase-1 activation in bilirubin-induced neuronal injury and the protective effect of VX-765 against bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity in cultured primary rat hippocampal neurons.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Cultured primary rat hippocampal neurons were exposed to DMSO (control group), 50 µmol/L bilirubin, or 50 µmol/L bilirubin 1 h after 50 µmol/L VX-765 treatment. The expressions of NLRP3 and caspase-1 in the neurons were detected by Western blotting, and the relative cell survival and death rates were assessed with a modified MTT assay, lactate dehydrogenase assay and Typan blue staining. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) concentration in the culture supernatant was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In cultured primary rat hippocampal neurons, bilirubin exposure for 3 and 6 h caused significant increases in the expressions of NLRP3 and activated caspase-1 compared with those in the control group (P<0.05). Pretreatment of the cells with VX-765 obviously suppressed bilirubin-induced activation of caspase-1 (P<0.05). The relative survival rate of the neurons was (84.02∓2.31)% in VX-765 intervention group, significantly higher than that in bilirubin group (P<0.05) but lower than that in the control group (P<0.05); LDH release rate in VX-765 intervention group was (10.78∓1.58)%, significantly lower than that in bilirubin group (P<0.05) but higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). The cell death rate in VX-765 intervention group was (5.58∓1.23)%, significantly lower than that in bilirubin group (P<0.05) but higher than that in the control group (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>In cultured primary rat hippocampal neurons, caspase-1 activation plays a role in bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity, and VX-765 treatment provides protection against bilirubin-induced neuronal injury by inhibiting caspase-1 activation.</p>

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-340617

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of antibiotic stewardship on the pathogen and clinical outcome of neonatal bloodstream infections (BSIs).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A retrospective study was performed on neonates with BSIs who were admitted to the neonatal ward in the years of 2010 (pre-stewardship) and 2013 (post-stewardship) for pathogens, antibiotic resistance, antibiotic use, and clinical outcomes.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The admission rate of BSIs (6.47% vs 2.78%) and the incidence of nosocomial BSIs (0.70% vs 0.30%) in 2013 were significantly higher than in 2010 (P<0.01). However, there were no signicant differences in the clinical outcomes between the years of 2010 and 2013 (P>0.05). The four most common pathogens isolated from blood cultures, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp pneumoniae and E.coli, were similar between the two years. There were no significant differences in the detection rates of extended spectrum β-lactamase-positve Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp pneumoniae or E.coli between the two years. The detection rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus/β-lactamase-positive Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus epidermidis were similar between the two years (P>0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Since the implementation of antibiotic stewardship, there has been no marked variation in the common pathogens and their antibacterial resistance in neonatal BSIs. The antibiotic stewardship could promote the recovery of patients with BSIs.</p>


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Bacteria , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Neonatal Sepsis , Drug Therapy , Microbiology , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320632

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>The efficacy of pulmonary surfactant (PS) replacement therapy for meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) remains controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of PS therapy in neonates with MAS by a meta-analysis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the treatment of MAS with PS were searched electronically in medical debases including PubMed, Science Citation Index, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid, EBSCOhost, BIOSIS previews, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, Wanfang Database and VIP Chinese Sci-Tech Periodical Database. The Cochrane Handbook 5.0.2 was employed to evaluate methodological quality. RevMan 5.0.25 software was used for the meta-analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Eight RCTs including 512 MAS neonates (257 cases in the PS treatment group and 255 cases in the control group) were enrolled in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed that PS treatment reduced oxygenation index (MD=-2.59; 95%CI: -4.33, -0.86; P=0.003), increased arterial oxygen/alveolar oxygen ratio (MD=0.05; 95%CI: 0.05, 0.06; P<0.00001), shortened hospitalization days (MD=-4.94; 95%CI: -7.44, -2.44; P=0.0001) and decreased mortality rate (OR=0.47; 95%CI: 0.24, 0.93; P=0.03) significantly. There were no statistical differences in the durations of mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy, and the incidences of air leak, pulmonary hemorrhage and intracranial hemorrhage between the PS treatment and control groups.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Currently published evidence from RCTs suggests that PS replacement therapy is effective for MAS, however because of the limited quantity and quality of trials enrolled in the study, further evidence from RCTs is needed to prove the efficacy.</p>


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Meconium Aspiration Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Pulmonary Surfactants , Therapeutic Uses , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-686747

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare and evaluate the effect of PBL in clinical teaching of Pediatrics.Methods Among students of Grade 2002 in our university,two types of PBL,pre-learning and case-discussion,were used in their clinical learning of Pediatrics. And then,their effects were evaluated and compared with those of traditional learning method.Results More than 60% of the students agreed with PBL methods,and they considered PBL favorable to practice scientific logical thinking of clinical affairs,to increase their capabilities of learning,oral expression,communication and cooperation.The teachers agreed with PBL methods too for the better learning effect resulting from PBL.Conclusion PBL fits the needs of medical learning reformation.To train new type of doctors in century 21st,it is necessary to use kinds of new learning methods,including PBL methods and standardized patient (SP)in clinical teaching.

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