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1.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 502-506, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-994070

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of total anatomical reconstruction (TAR) during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) .Methods:The clinical data of 99 patients with RARP performed by a single doctor in our hospital from January 2018 to January 2021 were analyzed retrospectively.There were 38 patients in the TAR+ vesicourethral anastomosis (VUA) group and 61 patients in the VUA group. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the age of patients [ 65.5 (60.8, 71.0) years vs. 66.0 (61.5, 69.0) years], body mass index[ (24.92±2.65) kg/m 2 vs. (25.51±2.80) kg/m 2], prostate volume [28.13 (25.21, 36.53) ml vs. 26.33 (19.75, 47.84) ml], PSA [15.67 (9.02, 31.49) ng/ml vs. 14.58 (9.23, 30.06) ng/ml], neoadjuvant therapy [50.0% (19/38) vs. 63.9% (39/61)], Gleason score (6/7/8/9-10 scores: 8/16/5/9 cases vs. 16/25/9/11 cases) and clinical T stage (T 1/T 2/T 3 stage: 4/29/5 cases vs. 3/53/5 cases)(all P>0.05). The TAR technique was performed as follows. ①The two layers of posterior reconstruction involved the residual Denonvilliers fascia, the striated sphincter and medial dorsal raphe (MDR), and the vesicoprostatic muscle (VPM), the fascia which was 1-2 cm from the cranial side of the bladder neck and MDR. ②The one layer of anterior reconstruction involved detrusor apron, tissues around the urethra and the visceral and parietal layers of the endoplevic fascia. The VUA technique was suturing the bladder neck and urethra consecutively. Perioperative indexes were compared between the two groups. Results:All 99 operations were successfully completed. There were no statistically significant differences between the TAR+ VUA and VUA groups in operation time [ (174.16±47.21) min vs. (188.70±45.39) min], blood loss [ 50 (50, 100) ml vs. 100 (50, 100) ml], incidence of postoperative complications [10.5% (4/38) vs. 14.8% (9/61)], phathological T stage [pT 2/pT 3~4 stage: 25/12 cases vs. 42/19 cases, P=0.895], and the time of indwelling catheter [ 21.0 (19.0, 21.0) d vs. 21.0 (21.0, 21.0) d] (all P>0.05). The difference in postoperative length of stay between the two groups was statistically significant[6.0 (5.0, 6.0) d vs. 7.0 (6.0, 7.5)d, P<0.001]. Follow-up was performed for 1 year after surgery. The recovery rate of urinary continence 3 months after surgery in TAR+ VUA and VUA groups were 86.8% (33/38) vs. 65.6% (40/61), which were statistically significant( P=0.019). There were no significant differences between TAR+ VUA and VUA groups in recovery rate of urinary continence 1 months after surgery [47.4% (18/38) vs. 45.9% (28/61)], 6 months after surgery [94.7% (36/38) vs. 85.2% (52/61)], and 12 months after surgery [94.7% (36/38) vs. 93.4% (57/61)] (all P>0.05). Conclusions:TAR technique has good surgical safety, and can promote recovery of early urinary continence after RARP.

2.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 211-217, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-994006

ABSTRACT

Objective:To prepare the whole bladder acellular matrix (BAM) using the self-designed perfusion decellularization system, and evaluate the feasibility of constructing the tissue engineering bladder with the adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs).Methods:This study was conducted from October 2020 to April 2021. The self-designed perfusion decellularization system was used, and four different decellularization protocols (group A, group B, group C and group D) were formulated, according to the flow direction of the perfusate and the action time of different decellularization solutions. Among them, the urethral orifice of the bladder tissue was used as the outflow tract of the perfusion fluid in groups A and B. The top of the bladder was cut off and used as the outflow tract of the perfusion fluid in groups C and D. In groups A and C, 1% Triton X-100 was treated for 6 h, and 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was treated for 2 h. In groups B and D, 1% Triton X-100 was treated for 7 h, and 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was treated for 1 h. In addition, the tissue in the normal bladder group was directly obtained from the natural bladder tissue, which did not require perfusion, cryopreservation and thawing. The fast and efficient decellularization protocol was screened out through HE, DAPI, Masson trichrome and Alcian Blue staining and quantitative analyses to prepare the whole bladder scaffold. The prepared BAM was used as the scaffold material, and the ADSCs were used as the seeding cells to construct the tissue engineering bladder. HE and DAPI staining were used to observe the distribution of ADSCs on the BAM.Results:HE and DAPI staining showed that there was no obvious nuclear residue in the group C. Masson trichrome and Alcian Blue staining showed that the collagen structure and glycosaminoglycan were well preserved in the group C. There was no significant difference in bladder wall thickness between the group C and the normal bladder group [(975.44±158.62)μm vs.(1 064.49±168.52)μm, P > 0.05]. The DNA content in the group C [(43.59 ±4.59) ng/mg] was lower than that in the normal bladder group, group A, group B and group D [(532.50±26.69), (135.17±6.99), (182.49±13.69) and(84.00±4.38)ng/mg], and the difference was statistically significant ( P<0.05). The collagen content [(10.98 ± 0.29)μg/mg] and glycosaminoglycan content [(2.30±0.18)μg/mg] in group C were not significantly different with those in the normal bladder group [(11.69±0.49) and (2.36±0.09)μg/mg, P>0.05]. Scanning electron microscopy showed that a large number of pore structures could be observed on the surface of the prepared BAM in groups A-D and were facilitated to cell adhesion. The isolated and cultured ADSCs were identified by flow cytometry to confirm the positive expression of CD90 and CD29, and the negative expression of CD45 and CD106. Live/dead staining and CCK-8 detection confirmed that the prepared BAM in the group C had no cytotoxicity. HE and DAPI staining showed that a large number of ADSCs were distributed on the surface and inside of the tissue engineering bladder. Conclusions:The whole bladder shape BAM prepared by the self-designed perfusion decellularization system could be used as the scaffold material for bladder tissue engineering, and the constructed tissue engineering bladder could be used for bladder repair and reconstruction.

3.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 778-785, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993919

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of tissue engineered bladder patch constructed by double-layer silk scaffold and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in the repair and reconstruction of bladder.Methods:This study was conducted from May 2020 to March 2021. The silk fibroin (SF) aqueous solution was obtained from silkworm cocoons, and a double-layer silk scaffold composed of silk fibroin film and silk fibroin sponge was further prepared. The rat ADSCs were isolated, cultured, and the ADSCs surface markers (CD29, CD90, CD45, CD106) were identified by flow cytometry. The ADSCs were planted on a double-layer silk scaffold to construct a tissue-engineered bladder patch. Thirty-six male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: tissue engineered bladder patch group (SF-ADSCs group, n=15), double-layer silk scaffold group (SF group, n=15), control group ( n=6). The tissue engineered bladder patch (SF-ADSCs group) and double-layer silk scaffold (SF group) were wrapped on the omentum to promote vascularization. The vascularization was evaluated by HE and immunofluorescence staining. The wrapped tissue engineered bladder patch and double-layer silk scaffold were used to repair the defective bladder. In the control group (six rats), the incision was closed immediately after the bladder tissue fully exposed. At 4 weeks and 12 weeks after operation, the general morphology of bladder tissue and cystography were performed to evaluate the recovery of bladder morphology. After the graft was harvested, HE and Masson's trichrome staining and immunofluorescence staining were used to observe the regeneration of bladder wall tissue. Urodynamics was used to assess the recovery of bladder function at 12 weeks after operation. Results:The flow cytometry results confirmed that the isolated cells positively expressed CD29 and CD90, and there was no significant expression of CD45 and CD106. Gross observation and scanning electron microscope confirmed that the preparation of double-layer silk scaffold not only had a pore structure that was conducive to cell planting, but also had good toughness and was facilitated to surgical suture. The number (43.50±2.66) and area (0.73±0.03)% of vascular-like structures in the SF-ADSCs group after the omentum encapsulation was significantly higher than that in the SF group [(24.50±3.51), (0.55±0.05)%], and the difference was statistically significant ( P<0.05). At 4 weeks after bladder repair, the histological staining of the grafts in the SF-ADSCs and SF groups showed a large number of degraded fragments of double-layer silk scaffold. At 12 weeks, the morphology of the graft in the SF-ADSCs group showed uniform bladder morphology, which was similar to that of normal bladder tissue. Immunofluorescence staining showed that the continuous urothelial layer, abundant smooth muscle tissue, vascular structure and regenerated neurons could be observed in the SF-ADSCs group. Urodynamic test showed that the bladder maximum volume (0.74±0.03)ml and compliance (16.68±0.44)μl/cm H 2O in the SF-ADSCs group, which were better than that in the SF group [(0.47±0.05)ml, (14.89±0.37)μl/cm H 2O], but lower than that in the control group [(1.12±0.08)ml, (19.34±0.45)μl/cm H 2O], and the difference was statistically significant ( P<0.05). Conclusions:The tissue engineered bladder patch constructed with double-layer silk scaffolds and ADSCs could promote the morphological repair of bladder tissue, the regeneration of bladder wall structure and the recovery of bladder physiological function.

4.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 518-522, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-957420

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the relationship between the positive surgical margin and clinical factors such as neoadjuvant hormonal therapy after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RARP) in high-risk patients with prostate cancer.Methods:The clinical data of 164 patients with high-risk prostate cancer being performed RARP by one surgeon were analyzed retrospectively in our hospital from January 2016 to January 2022. The mean patient’s age was (65.3±6.2) years old, mean body mass index (BMI) was (25.6±3.0) kg/m 2, the median value of total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) before operation was 18.6(11.3, 31.3)ng/ml, the median value of Gleason score before operation was 7 (7, 8), the median value of prostate volume was 29.3 (22.4, 40.2) ml, and the clinical stage was T 2aN 0M 0-T 4N 0M 0. 80 patients with prostate cancer were treated with neoadjuvant endocrine therapy. All of them were treated with complete androgen blockade with a median course of 3 months. Univariate analysis was used to analyze the correlation between age, BMI, prostate volume, neoadjuvant hormonal therapy, preoperative tPSA, clinical stage, Gleason score before operation and positive surgical margin. Then multivariate logistic regression was used to further analyze the independent risk factor of positive surgical margin after RARP. Results:The postoperative pathological diagnosis included pT 2 stage in 111 cases (67.7%), pT 3a stage in 15 cases (9.1%), pT 3b stage in 25 cases (15.2%), pT 4 stage in 13 cases (7.9%). No lymph node metastasis was noticed in all patients. The Gleason scores included 6 in 11 cases (6.7%), 3+ 4 in 26 cases (15.9%), 4+ 3 in 36 cases (22.0%), 8 in 17 cases (10.4%), 9-10 in 24 cases (14.6%), un-evaluation due to endocrine therapy in 50 (30.5%). The positive surgical margin of high-risk patients with prostate cancer was 44.5% (73/164). Univariate analysis showed that the neoadjuvant hormonal therapy, tPSA and clinical stage were correlated with positive surgical margin ( P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that non-neoadjuvant hormonal therapy, preoperative tPSA>20ng/ml and clinical stage>T 2b were independent risk factors for positive surgical margin of high-risk patients with prostate cancer. Stratified analysis showed that when the preoperative tPSA was 10-20 ng/ml(21.1% vs.55.9%, P=0.014), the clinical stage was T 2c(29.6% vs.49.1%, P=0.040), the Gleason score before operation was 7(19.4% vs.54.1%, P=0.003), the positive surgical margin of high-risk patients in the neoadjuvant hormonal therapy group was significantly lower than that in the non-neoadjuvant hormonal therapy group ( P<0.05). Conclusions:Non-neoadjuvant hormonal therapy, preoperative tPSA>20 ng/ml and clinical stage>T 2b were independent risk factors for positive surgical margin of RARP in the high-risk patients with prostate cancer. For high-risk patients with preoperative tPSA of 10-20 ng/ml, clinical stage of T 2c and Gleason score before operation of 7, neoadjuvant hormonal therapy has important clinical significance in reducing the positive surgical margin of RARP.

5.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 834-838, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911129

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the technical points and clinical effect of thulium fiber laser lobes-enucleation of the prostate (ThuLLEP).Methods:A total of 90 patients underwent ThuLLEP and plasmakinetic enucleation of prostate (PKEP) in our hospital from November 2018 to December 2020 were collected. The age of patients in the two groups was (67.7±6.8) years and (65.7±7.1) years, the prostate volume was 56.0 (46.0-83.5) ml and 61.0 (53.5-79.5) ml, the serum PSA was 3.6 (2.2-6.0) ng/ml and 4.4 (1.8-7.3) ng/ml, the international prostate symptom score (IPSS) was 27 (22-31) and 28 (23-30), the quality of life score (QOL) was 5 (5-6) and 5 (5-6), the maximum urinary flow rate (Q max) was (8.5±5.7) ml/s and (7.8±3.8) ml/s, the post-void residual volume (PVR) was 127 (47-250) ml and 100 (27-209) ml. The differences had no statistical significance ( P>0.05). The glands were bluntly dissected to establish the surgical capsule plane on both sides of the verumontanum after the verumontanum being located. And then the middle lobe was removed. The glands formed grooves at 12 o'clock after vaporization, which served as anatomical marker. The left and right lobes were removed step by step. Finally, tissue crushing was performed. The PKEP group was enucleated by three lobes enucleation. Perioperative indicators were compared between the two groups. Results:All the operations were completed successfully. The median operative time in ThuLLEP and PKEP groups was 60 (50-73) minutes and 75 (60-100) minutes, the postoperative bladder irrigation time was 2.8 (2.3-3.6) d and 3.8 (2.6-4.7) d, the catheter indwelling time was 4.1 (3.7-4.9) d and 4.9 (4.7-6.0) d, the postoperative hospital stay was 5 (4-6) d and 6 (5-7) d. The decreased hemoglobin was 8.0 (1.5-14.5) g/L and 15.0 (6.5-21.0) g/L. The differences had statistical significance ( P<0.05). Follow-up was performed for 6 months after surgery. The median IPSS score of the two groups was 5 (2-11) and 6 (3-9), the QOL score was 1 (1-2) and 1 (1-2) respectively, which had statistical significance compared with the preoperative parameters ( P<0.05), but no statistical significance between the two groups ( P>0.05). The ThuLLEP group had 1 case of postoperative blood transfusion, 1 case of transient urinary incontinence and 2 cases of urethral stricture. The PKEP group had 1 case of fever and blood transfusion, 3 cases of transient urinary incontinence and 3 cases of urethral stricture. Conclusions:ThuLLEP has definite clinical effect because of less bleeding, quicker recovery and fewer complications. The relatively simple operation steps are beneficial for beginners to master.

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