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1.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 22-28, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013244

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the current status and trends in the outcomes and care practices of extremely preterm infants at 22-25 weeks' gestation age from the Chinese Neonatal Network (CHNN) from 2019 to 2021. Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from the CHNN cohort of very preterm infants. All 963 extremely preterm infants with gestational age between 22-25 weeks who were admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICU) of the CHNN from 2019 to 2021 were included. Infants admitted after 24 hours of life or transferred to non-CHNN hospitals were excluded. Perinatal care practices, survival rates, incidences of major morbidities, and NICU treatments were described according to different gestational age groups and admission years. Comparison among gestational age groups was conducted using χ2 and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Trends by year were evaluated by Cochran-Armitage and Jonckheere-Terpstra tests for trend. Results: Of the 963 extremely preterm infants enrolled, 588 extremely preterm infants (61.1%) were male. The gestational age was 25.0 (24.4, 25.6) weeks, with 29 extremely preterm infants (3.0%), 88 extremely preterm infants (9.1%), 264 extremely preterm infants (27.4%), and 582 extremely preterm infants (60.4%) at 22, 23, 24, and 25 weeks of gestation age, respectively. The birth weight was 770 (680, 840) g. From 2019 to 2021, the number of extremely preterm infants increased each year (285, 312, and 366 extremely preterm infants, respectively). Antenatal steroids and magnesium sulfate were administered to 67.7% (615/908) and 51.1% (453/886) mothers of extremely preterm infants. In the delivery room, 20.8% (200/963) and 69.5% (669/963) extremely preterm infants received noninvasive positive end-expiratory pressure support and endotracheal intubation. Delayed cord clamping and cord milking were performed in 19.0% (149/784) and 30.4% (241/794) extremely preterm infants. From 2019 to 2021, there were significant increases in the usage of antenatal steroids, antenatal magnesium sulfate, and delivery room noninvasive positive-end expiratory pressure support (all P<0.05). Overall, 349 extremely preterm infants (36.2%) did not receive complete care, 392 extremely preterm infants (40.7%) received complete care and survived to discharge, and 222 extremely preterm infants (23.1%) received complete care but died in hospital. The survival rates for extremely preterm infants at 22, 23, 24 and 25 weeks of gestation age were 10.3% (3/29), 23.9% (21/88), 33.0% (87/264) and 48.3% (281/582), respectively. From 2019 to 2021, there were no statistically significant trends in complete care, survival, and mortality rates (all P>0.05). Only 11.5% (45/392) extremely preterm infants survived without major morbidities. Moderate to severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (67.3% (264/392)) and severe retinopathy of prematurity (61.5% (241/392)) were the most common morbidities among survivors. The incidences of severe intraventricular hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis were 15.3% (60/392), 5.9% (23/392) and 19.1% (75/392), respectively. Overall, 83.7% (328/392) survivors received invasive ventilation during hospitalization, with a duration of 22 (10, 42) days. The hospital stay for survivors was 97 (86, 116) days. Conclusions: With the increasing number of extremely preterm infants at 22-25 weeks' gestation admitted to CHNN NICU, the survival rate remained low, especially the rate of survival without major morbidities. Further quality improvement initiatives are needed to facilitate the implementation of evidence-based care practices.


Subject(s)
Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Extremely Premature , Gestational Age , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Infant, Premature, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Steroids , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , China/epidemiology
2.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 29-35, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970232

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the prevalence and the risk factors of fungal sepsis in 25 neonatal intensive care units (NICU) among preterm infants in China, and to provide a basis for preventive strategies of fungal sepsis. Methods: This was a second-analysis of the data from the "reduction of infection in neonatal intensive care units using the evidence-based practice for improving quality" study. The current status of fungal sepsis of the 24 731 preterm infants with the gestational age of <34+0 weeks, who were admitted to 25 participating NICU within 7 days of birth between May 2015 and April 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. These preterm infants were divided into the fungal sepsis group and the without fungal sepsis group according to whether they developed fungal sepsis to analyze the incidences and the microbiology of fungal sepsis. Chi-square test was used to compare the incidences of fungal sepsis in preterm infants with different gestational ages and birth weights and in different NICU. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to study the outcomes of preterm infants with fungal sepsis, which were further compared with those of preterm infants without fungal sepsis. The 144 preterm infants in the fungal sepsis group were matched with 288 preterm infants in the non-fungal sepsis group by propensity score-matched method. Univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the risk factors of fungal sepsis. Results: In all, 166 (0.7%) of the 24 731 preterm infants developed fungal sepsis, with the gestational age of (29.7±2.0) weeks and the birth weight of (1 300±293) g. The incidence of fungal sepsis increased with decreasing gestational age and birth weight (both P<0.001). The preterm infants with gestational age of <32 weeks accounted for 87.3% (145/166). The incidence of fungal sepsis was 1.0% (117/11 438) in very preterm infants and 2.0% (28/1 401) in extremely preterm infants, and was 1.3% (103/8 060) in very low birth weight infants and 1.7% (21/1 211) in extremely low birth weight infants, respectively. There was no fungal sepsis in 3 NICU, and the incidences in the other 22 NICU ranged from 0.7% (10/1 397) to 2.9% (21/724), with significant statistical difference (P<0.001). The pathogens were mainly Candida (150/166, 90.4%), including 59 cases of Candida albicans and 91 cases of non-Candida albicans, of which Candida parapsilosis was the most common (41 cases). Fungal sepsis was independently associated with increased risk of moderate to severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (adjusted OR 1.52, 95%CI 1.04-2.22, P=0.030) and severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (adjusted OR 2.55, 95%CI 1.12-5.80, P=0.025). Previous broad spectrum antibiotics exposure (adjusted OR=2.50, 95%CI 1.50-4.17, P<0.001), prolonged use of central line (adjusted OR=1.05, 95%CI 1.03-1.08, P<0.001) and previous total parenteral nutrition (TPN) duration (adjusted OR=1.04, 95%CI 1.02-1.06, P<0.001) were all independently associated with increasing risk of fungal sepsis. Conclusions: Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis are the main pathogens of fungal sepsis among preterm infants in Chinese NICU. Preterm infants with fungal sepsis are at increased risk of moderate to severe BPD and severe ROP. Previous broad spectrum antibiotics exposure, prolonged use of central line and prolonged duration of TPN will increase the risk of fungal sepsis. Ongoing initiatives are needed to reduce fungal sepsis based on these risk factors.


Subject(s)
Infant , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Birth Weight , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight , Gestational Age , Infant, Extremely Premature , Sepsis/epidemiology , Retinopathy of Prematurity/epidemiology , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/epidemiology
3.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 132-140, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928578

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the incidence of extrauterine growth retardation (EUGR) and its risk factors in very preterm infants (VPIs) during hospitalization in China.@*METHODS@#A prospective multicenter study was performed on the medical data of 2 514 VPIs who were hospitalized in the department of neonatology in 28 hospitals from 7 areas of China between September 2019 and December 2020. According to the presence or absence of EUGR based on the evaluation of body weight at the corrected gestational age of 36 weeks or at discharge, the VPIs were classified to two groups: EUGR group (n=1 189) and non-EUGR (n=1 325). The clinical features were compared between the two groups, and the incidence of EUGR and risk factors for EUGR were examined.@*RESULTS@#The incidence of EUGR was 47.30% (1 189/2 514) evaluated by weight. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that higher weight growth velocity after regaining birth weight and higher cumulative calorie intake during the first week of hospitalization were protective factors against EUGR (P<0.05), while small-for-gestational-age birth, prolonged time to the initiation of total enteral feeding, prolonged cumulative fasting time, lower breast milk intake before starting human milk fortifiers, prolonged time to the initiation of full fortified feeding, and moderate-to-severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia were risk factors for EUGR (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#It is crucial to reduce the incidence of EUGR by achieving total enteral feeding as early as possible, strengthening breastfeeding, increasing calorie intake in the first week after birth, improving the velocity of weight gain, and preventing moderate-severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia in VPIs.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Fetal Growth Retardation , Gestational Age , Hospitalization , Incidence , Infant, Premature , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
4.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 130-135, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-782450

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the efficacy and safety of caffeine used in the early (≤72 hours after birth) and late (>72 hours after birth) stage in preterm infants with a gestational age of ≤31 weeks.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed for 640 preterm infants (with a gestational age of ≤31 weeks) who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of eight hospitals in Jiangsu Province, China. Of the 640 preterm infants, 510 were given caffeine in the early stage (≤72 hours after birth; early use group) and 130 were given caffeine in the late stage (>72 hours after birth; late use group). The clinical data were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#There were no significant differences in birth weight, Apgar score, sex, gestational age, and age on admission between the two groups (P>0.05). Compared with the late use group, the early use group had a significantly younger age at the beginning and withdrawal of caffeine treatment (P0.05). Compared with the late use group, the early use group had significantly lower incidence rate of apnea (P0.05). However, significant differences were found in the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and the rate of home oxygen therapy, but there was no significant difference in the mortality rate between the two groups (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Early use of caffeine can shorten the duration of caffeine treatment, oxygen supply time, and length of hospital stay, with little adverse effect, in preterm infants with a gestational age of ≤31 weeks.

5.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 1327-1332, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279916

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the efficacy and safety of heated humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HHHFNC) in preventing extubation failure in neonates.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A literature search was performed using PubMed, Cochrane Library, FMRS, and CNKI to collect the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs which compared the clinical efficacy of HHHFNC and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) in preventing extubation failure in neonates. The identified studies were finally selected after full-text search and quality assessment and then subjected to a Meta analysis using RevMan 5.3.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Five eligible trials involving 1040 neonates were included in the Meta analysis. The Meta analysis showed that there was no significant difference in treatment failure rate between the HHHFNC and the NCPAP groups. The HHHFNC group had significantly lower incidence rates of nasal trauma (OR=0.49, 95% CI: 0.34-0.71, P=0.0001) and pneumothorax (OR=0.27, 95% CI: 0.07-0.97, P=0.04) than the NCPAP group, but there were no significant differences in the duration to reach full oral feedings and the incidence rates of serious adverse events or other complications between the two groups, such as in-hospital mortality, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, and retinopathy of prematurity.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>HHHFNC is safe and effective in preventing extubation failure in neonates.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Airway Extubation , Methods , Catheters , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Methods , Hot Temperature , Nasal Cavity , Noninvasive Ventilation , Methods
6.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 353-355, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-236802

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the application of umbilical venous catheter (UVC) combined with peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) in very low birth weight infants (VLBWIs).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A retrospective analysis was performed on the VLBWIs in the neonatal intensive care unit who received UVC combined with PICC (catheter group, n=63) or did not receive the catheter treatment (non-catheter group, n=38) to compare the differences in nosocomial infection, weight gain, and length of hospital stay between the two groups.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The rate of nosocomial infection was 17% in the catheter group and 24% in the non-catheter group (P>0.05). Compared with the non-catheter group, the catheter group had a significantly higher weight gain (11.7±2.0 g/kg•d vs 10.6±2.3 g/kg•d; P<0.05) and a significantly shorter length of hospital stay (40±11 days vs 45±14 days; P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of complications between the two groups.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Compared with those not receiving catheter treatment, the VLBWIs receiving UVC combined with PICC have a markedly higher weight gain and a markedly shorter length of hospital stay and show a declining trend in the rate of nosocomial infection.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Catheterization, Peripheral , Central Venous Catheters , Cross Infection , Epidemiology , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Retrospective Studies , Umbilical Veins
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