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1.
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 826-832, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985993

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the efficacy and safety of letermovir in primary prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation in patients receiving haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Methods: This retrospective, cohort study was conducted using data of patients who underwent haploidentical transplantation at Peking University Institute of Hematology and received letermovir for primary prophylaxis between May 1, 2022 and August 30, 2022. The inclusion criteria of the letermovir group were as follows: letermovir initiation within 30 days after transplantation and continuation for≥90 days after transplantation. Patients who underwent haploidentical transplantation within the same time period but did not receive letermovir prophylaxis were selected in a 1∶4 ratio as controls. The main outcomes were the incidence of CMV infection and CMV disease after transplantation as well as the possible effects of letermovir on acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD), non-relapse mortality (NRM), and bone marrow suppression. Categorical variables were analyzed by chi-square test, and continuous variables were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for evaluating incidence differences. Results: Seventeen patients were included in the letermovir prophylaxis group. The median patient age in the letermovir group was significantly greater than that in the control group (43 yr vs. 15 yr; Z=-4.28, P<0.001). The two groups showed no significant difference in sex distribution and primary diseases, etc. (all P>0.05). The proportion of CMV-seronegative donors was significantly higher in the letermovir prophylaxis group in comparison with the control group (8/17 vs. 0/68, χ2=35.32, P<0.001). Three out of the 17 patients in the letermovir group experienced CMV reactivation, which was significantly lower than the incidence of CMV reactivation in the control group (3/17 vs. 40/68, χ2=9.23, P=0.002), and no CMV disease development observed in the letermovir group. Letermovir showed no significant effects on platelet engraftment (P=0.105), aGVHD (P=0.348), and 100-day NRM (P=0.474). Conclusions: Preliminary data suggest that letermovir may effectively reduce the incidence of CMV infection after haploidentical transplantation without influencing aGVHD, NRM, and bone marrow suppression. Prospective randomized controlled studies are required to further verify these findings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cytomegalovirus , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Prospective Studies , Cytomegalovirus Infections/prevention & control , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Recurrence , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
2.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 458-464, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984644

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To investigate the role of donor change in the second hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT2) for hematological relapse of malignant hematology after the first transplantation (HSCT1) . Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients with relapsed hematological malignancies who received HSCT2 at our single center between Mar 1998 and Dec 2020. A total of 70 patients were enrolled[49 males and 21 females; median age, 31.5 (3-61) yr]. Results: Forty-nine male and 21 female patients were enrolled in the trial. At the time of HSCT2, the median age was 31.5 (3-61) years old. Thirty-one patients were diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia, 23 patients with ALL, and 16 patients with MDS or other malignant hematology disease. Thirty patients had HSCT2 with donor change, and 40 patients underwent HSCT2 without donor change. The median relapse time after HSCT1 was 245.5 (26-2 905) days. After HSCT2, 70 patients had neutrophil engraftment, and 62 (88.6%) had platelet engraftment. The cumulative incidence of platelet engraftment was (93.1±4.7) % in patients with donor change and (86.0±5.7) % in patients without donor change (P=0.636). The cumulative incidence of CMV infection in patients with and without donor change was (64.0±10.3) % and (37.0±7.8) % (P=0.053), respectively. The cumulative incidence of grade Ⅱ-Ⅳ acute graft versus host disease was (19.4±7.9) % vs (31.3±7.5) %, respectively (P=0.227). The cumulative incidence of TRM 100-day post HSCT2 was (9.2±5.1) % vs (6.7±4.6) % (P=0.648), and the cumulative incidence of chronic graft versus host disease at 1-yr post-HSCT2 was (36.7±11.4) % versus (65.6±9.1) % (P=0.031). With a median follow-up of 767 (271-4 936) days, 38 patients had complete remission (CR), and three patients had persistent disease. The CR rate was 92.7%. The cumulative incidences of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) 2 yr after HSCT2 were 25.8% and 23.7%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of relapse, OS, and DFS was (52.6±11.6) % vs (62.4±11.3) % (P=0.423), (28.3±8.6) % vs (23.8±7.5) % (P=0.643), and (28.3±8.6) % vs (22.3±7.7) % (P=0.787), respectively, in patients with changed donor compared with patients with the original donor. Relapses within 6 months post-HSCT1 and with persistent disease before HSCT2 were risk factors for OS, DFS, and CIR. Disease status before HSCT2 and early relapse (within 6 months post-HSCT1) was an independent risk factor for OS, DFS, and CIR post-HSCT2. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that changing donors did not affect the clinical outcome of HSCT2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/therapy , Recurrence , Graft vs Host Disease/etiology , Chronic Disease
3.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 284-288, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984616

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the optimal cutoff value of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA load that can assist in the diagnosis of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) . Methods: The data of patients with EBV infection after haplo-HSCT from January to December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Through constructing the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and calculating the Youden index to determine the cutoff value of EBV-DNA load and its duration of diagnostic significance for PTLD. Results: A total of 94 patients were included, of whom 20 (21.3% ) developed PTLD, with a median onset time of 56 (40-309) d after transplantation. The median EBV value at the time of diagnosis of PTLD was 70,400 (1,710-1,370,000) copies/ml, and the median duration of EBV viremia was 23.5 (4-490) d. Binary logistic regression was used to analyze the peak EBV-DNA load (the EBV-DNA load at the time of diagnosis in the PTLD group) and duration of EBV viremia between the PTLD and non-PTLD groups. The results showed that the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P=0.018 and P=0.001) . The ROC curve was constructed to calculate the Youden index, and it was concluded that the EBV-DNA load ≥ 41 850 copies/ml after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation had diagnostic significance for PTLD (AUC=0.847) , and the sensitivity and specificity were 0.611 and 0.932, respectively. The duration of EBV viremia of ≥20.5 d had diagnostic significance for PTLD (AUC=0.833) , with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.778 and 0.795, respectively. Conclusion: Dynamic monitoring of EBV load in high-risk patients with PTLD after haplo-HSCT and attention to its duration have important clinical significance, which can help clinically predict the occurrence of PTLD in advance and take early intervention measures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/diagnosis , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Viremia , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Lymphoproliferative Disorders/etiology , DNA, Viral , Viral Load
4.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 890-899, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012253

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the feasibility of using donors with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) when there are no other available donors and allo-HSCT cannot be delayed or discontinued. Methods: Seventy-one patients with malignant hematological diseases undergoing allo-HSCT between December 8, 2022, and January 10, 2023, were included. Of these, 16 received grafts from donors with mild COVID-19 (D-COVID(+) group) and 55 received grafts from donors without COVID-19 (D-COVID(-) group). The graft compositions were compared between the two groups. Engraftment, acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), overall survival (OS), and relapse were also evaluated. Results: There were no serious side effects or adverse events in the D-COVID(+) group. The mononuclear cell dose and CD34(+) cell dose were comparable between the two groups, and no additional apheresis was required. There were no significant differences in the lymphocyte, monocyte, and T-cell subset doses between the two groups. The median natural killer cell dose in the D-COVID(+) group was significantly higher than that in the D-COVID(-) group (0.69×10(8)/kg vs. 0.53×10(8)/kg, P=0.031). The median follow-up time was 72 (33-104) days. All patients achieved primary engraftment. The 60-day platelet engraftment rates in the D-COVID(+) and D-COVID(-) groups were 100% and (96.4±0.2) %, respectively (P=0.568). There were no significant differences in neutrophil (P=0.309) and platelet (P=0.544) engraftment times. The cumulative incidence of grade 2-4 aGVHD was (37.5±1.6) % vs. (16.4±0.3) % (P=0.062), and of grade 3-4 aGVHD was 25.0% ±1.3% vs. 9.1% ±0.2% (P=0.095) in the D-COVID(+) and D-COVID(-) groups, respectively. The probabilities of 60-day OS were 100% and 98.1% ±1.8% (P=0.522) in the D-COVID(+) and D-COVID(-) groups, respectively. There was no relapse of primary disease during the study period. Conclusion: When allo-HSCT cannot be delayed or discontinued and no other donor is available, a donor with mild COVID-19 should be considered if tolerable. Larger sample sizes and longer follow-up periods are required to validate these results.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Tissue Donors , Graft vs Host Disease
5.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 221-228, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929561

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate whether haplotype hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) is effective in the treatment of pre transplant minimal residual disease (Pre-MRD) positive acute B lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) compared with HLA- matched sibling donor transplantation (MSDT) . Methods: A total of 998 patients with B-ALL in complete remission pre-HSCT who either received haplo-HSCT (n=788) or underwent MSDT (n=210) were retrospectively analyzed. The pre-transplantation leukemia burden was evaluated according to Pre-MRD determinedusing multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) . Results: Of these patients, 997 (99.9% ) achieved sustained, full donor chimerism. The 100-day cumulative incidences of neutrophil engraftment, platelet engraftment, and grades Ⅱ-Ⅳ acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were 99.9% (997/998) , 95.3% (951/998) , and 26.6% (95% CI 23.8% -29.4% ) , respectively. The 3-year cumulative incidence of total chronic GVHD was 49.1% (95% CI 45.7% -52.4% ) . The 3-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) and non-relapse mortality (NRM) of the 998 cases were 17.3% (95% CI 15.0% -19.7% ) and 13.8% (95% CI 11.6% -16.0% ) , respectively. The 3-year probabilities of leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS) were 69.1% (95% CI 66.1% -72.1% ) and 73.0% (95% CI 70.2% -75.8% ) , respectively. In the total patient group, cases with positive Pre-MRD (n=282) experienced significantly higher CIR than that of subjects with negative Pre-MRD [n=716, 31.6% (95% CI 25.8% -37.5% ) vs 14.3% (95% CI 11.4% -17.2% ) , P<0.001]. For patients in the positive Pre-MRD subgroup, cases treated with haplo-HSCT (n=219) had a lower 3-year CIR than that of cases who underwent MSDT [n=63, 27.2% (95% CI 21.0% -33.4% ) vs 47.0% (95% CI 33.8% -60.2% ) , P=0.002]. The total 998 cases were classified as five subgroups, including cases with negative Pre-MRD group (n=716) , cases with Pre-MRD<0.01% group (n=46) , cases with Pre-MRD 0.01% -<0.1% group (n=117) , cases with Pre-MRD 0.1% -<1% group (n=87) , and cases with Pre-MRD≥1% group (n=32) . For subjects in the Pre-MRD<0.01% group, haplo-HSCT (n=40) had a lower CIR than that of MSDT [n=6, 10.0% (95% CI 0.4% -19.6% ) vs 32.3% (95% CI 0% -69.9% ) , P=0.017]. For patients in the Pre-MRD 0.01% -<0.1% group, haplo-HSCT (n=81) also had a lower 3-year CIR than that of MSDT [n=36, 20.4% (95% CI 10.4% -30.4% ) vs 47.0% (95% CI 29.2% -64.8% ) , P=0.004]. In the other three subgroups, the 3-year CIR was comparable between patients who underwent haplo-HSCT and those received MSDT. A subgroup analysis of patients with Pre-MRD<0.1% (n=163) was performed, the results showed that cases received haplo-HSCT (n=121) experienced lower 3-year CIR [16.0% (95% CI 9.4% -22.7% ) vs 40.5% (95% CI 25.2% -55.8% ) , P<0.001], better 3-year LFS [78.2% (95% CI 70.6% -85.8% ) vs 47.6% (95% CI 32.2% -63.0% ) , P<0.001] and OS [80.5% (95% CI 73.1% -87.9% ) vs 54.6% (95% CI 39.2% -70.0% ) , P<0.001] than those of MSDT (n=42) , but comparable in 3-year NRM [5.8% (95% CI 1.6% -10.0% ) vs 11.9% (95% CI 2.0% -21.8% ) , P=0.188]. Multivariate analysis showed that haplo-HSCT was associated with lower CIR (HR=0.248, 95% CI 0.131-0.472, P<0.001) , and superior LFS (HR=0.275, 95% CI 0.157-0.483, P<0.001) and OS (HR=0.286, 95% CI 0.159-0.513, P<0.001) . Conclusion: Haplo HSCT has a survival advantage over MSDT in the treatment of B-ALL patients with pre MRD<0.1% .


Subject(s)
Humans , B-Lymphocytes , Graft vs Host Disease , HLA Antigens/genetics , Haplotypes , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Leukemia, B-Cell/complications , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Neoplasm, Residual , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/therapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Siblings
6.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 833-838, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011870

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the incidence and clinical features to probe the risk factors of hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) in children and adolescents with hematological diseases post haplo-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) . Methods: Medical records of 62 children and 27 adolescents with hematological diseases treated with haplo-HSCT between 2015 and 2016 were analyzed. Results: Of 89 cases (56 boys and 33 girls) , 44 patients were diagnosed with ALL, 33 AML, 3 AHL and 9 MDS. HC occurred in 32 of the 89 patients with an incidence of 36%, including 6 with grade Ⅰ, 16 with grade Ⅱ, 8 with grade Ⅲ, 2 with grade Ⅳ HC, respectively. The median time of HC onset was 25 days (range 2-55 days) after haplo-HSCT with the median duration as 19 days (range 3-95 days) , all of them were cured. The incidence of HC was lower in the group of children than that in the group of adolescents (27.4% vs 55.6%, χ(2)=6.466, P<0.05) , and the incidence of HC was higher in the group of patients who were ≥5 years old than that in the group of patients who were <5 years old (0 vs 34%, χ(2)=4.043, P<0.05) . Conclusion: HC is one of common complications in children and adolescents with hematological diseases post haplo-HSCT, older age was associated with increased mortality.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Cystitis , Hematologic Diseases , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
7.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 444-447, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-241497

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the efficacy and adverse effects of clofarabine for relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Twenty-six pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia were treated with clofarabine. There were 22 males and 4 females, with a mean age of 9.5 years (ranging from 4 to 17 years). They received clofarabine 52 mg/m2 intravenously over 2 hours daily for 5 days. Thirteen patients received two cycles and one patient received three cycles.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In the first cycle of clofarabine, complete remission was obtained in 11 children (42%) and partial remission was obtained in 7 children (27%). Eight children (31%) were considered unresponsive. In the second cycle, 11 (85%) of the 13 children obtained complete remission, 1 (8%) partial remission and 1 (8%) was unresponsive. One child received three cycles and obtained complete remission in each cycle. The common adverse events were myelosuppression, infection, liver dysfunction and gastrointestinal adverse reactions. There were no chemotherapy-related deaths.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Clofarabine is effective in the treatment of children with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia and its adverse effects can be tolerated. Clofarabine could be a promising new treatment for relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Adenine Nucleotides , Therapeutic Uses , Antineoplastic Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Arabinonucleosides , Therapeutic Uses , Follow-Up Studies , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Drug Therapy , Recurrence
8.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24): 131-133, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-732932

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics and risk factors of childhood acute leukemia (AL) with severe neurologic complications.Methods From Jun.1991 to Mar.2011,26 AL patients with severe neurologic complications in Peking University People's Hospital were enrolled.The incidence,clinical features,and risk factors for severe neurologic complications were retrospectively analyzed.Results There 26 patients included 8 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia,17 cases of acute myeloid leukemia(AML) and 1 case of acute mixed lineage leukemia.There were 20 patients taking CT scan and 17 patients were confirmed with intracranial hemorrhage.Six cases of AML without CT scan were dead.The patients suffering from intracranial hemorrhage all had intraparenchymal hemorrhage.The AML-M5 with intracranial hemorrhage had higher white blood cell count and higher level of L-lactate dehydrogenase than those without intracranial hemorrhage.These were 5 cases(31.25%) of AML with platelet count < 20 × 109/L,12 cases(70.58%) of AML with prolonged prothrombin time,7 cases(41.17%) of AML with prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time,and 8 cases(47.06%) of AML with low fibrinogen when the severe neurologic complication occurred.Conclusions The most common type of severe neurologic complications of childhood AL is intracranial hemorrhage.The patients with AML are prone to occur intracranial hemorrhage.Intensive blood production transfusion may be beneficial to reduce the probability of intracranial hemorrhage in these patients.

9.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 536-540, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-278381

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the expression of the Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) mRNA in childhood myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and to evaluate WT1 as a tool to differentiate MDS from aplastic anemia(AA).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The quantitative expression of WT1 transcript by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) was performed in the bone marrow samples of 36 childhood MDS and 49 childhood AA, the samples were collected from September 2008 to December 2011.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) The positive rate of WT1 in severe AA (SAA) was 0, 14.3% in chronic AA (CAA), 58.6% in refractory cytopenia (RC), 100% in refractory anemia with excessive blast (RAEB) and 97.5% in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The mean level of WT1 in SAA, CAA, RC, RAEB and AML was 0.041%, 0.357%, 7.037%, 12.680% and 24.210%, respectively. The positive rate of WT1 in RC patients was higher than that of SAA (P = 0.000) and CAA (P = 0.001). (2) The positive rate of WT1 in patients with hypoplastic MDS was 66.7% and was higher than that of SAA (P = 0.000) and CAA (P = 0.001). The mean level of WT1 in patients with hypoplastic MDS was (3.022 ± 5.040)% and higher than that of SAA \[(0.041 ± 0.047)%, P = 0.000\] and CAA\[(0.351 ± 0.479)%, P = 0.002\].</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The level of WT1 in childhood MDS was higher than that of childhood AA. The degree of WT1 expression in MDS increased during disease progression. WT1 is a useful tool for differentiating the childhood hypoplastic MDS from AA.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Genetics , Metabolism , Pathology , WT1 Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism
10.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 931-935, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-272429

ABSTRACT

<p><b>UNLABELLED</b>OBJECTIVE To study the clinical and biological characteristics and prognosis of t(8;21)/AML1-ETO-positive childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The clinical data of 55 children who were diagnosed as t (8; 21)/AML1-ETO-positive AML were retrospectively studied. Event-free survival (EFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Prognostic factors were evaluated by COX regression analysis software.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Of the 55 patients, 4 patients gave up treatment after the diagnosis was confirmed and 4 patients were lost to follow-up after the first chemotherapy course. The remaining 47 patients received a double-induction therapy. The total complete remission (CR) rate was 71% and 94% after the first and second chemotherapy course, respectively. The disease was relapsed in 10 patients (21%). The 5-year EFS, DFS and OS rates were (56.1 ± 7.9)%, (59.8 ± 8.1)%, and (72.0 ± 8.1)%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that age was an independent risk factor for the long-term prognosis. The older children had a greater risk of experiencing an accident or death (P<0.05). The 5-year OS rate in 27 patients with regular consolidation chemotherapy was significantly higher than 13 patients with irregular chemotherapy after CRz [(47.5 ± 17.1)% vs (38.9 ± 17.3)%; P<0.01].</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Childhood t(8;21)/AML1-ETO-positive AML is a highly heterogeneous disease, with a high CR rate and a good long-term prognosis. Age is one of the important factors affecting the long-term therapeutic effect. Regular consolidation chemotherapy applied after CR usually is helpful.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Bone Marrow Examination , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21 , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8 , Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Genetics , Mortality , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion , Prognosis , RUNX1 Translocation Partner 1 Protein , Translocation, Genetic
11.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 718-721, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-339550

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the clinical features and etiological spectrum of pancytopenia in children.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The clinical data of 174 children with pancytopenia between September 2003 and January 2010 were retrospectively reviewed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Pale face was the most common clinical manifestation (147 cases, 84.5%), followed by bleeding (87 cases, 50.0%) and fever (41 cases, 23.6%). Mild to moderate anemia, severe thrombocytopenia and mild leucopenia were common in complete blood count. Of the 174 children, pancytopenia was attributed to hematopoietic system diseases in 155 cases (89.1%) and non-hematopoietic system diseases (virus infections, systemic lupus erythematosus, hypersplenism and neuroblastoma) in 6 cases (3.4%). Aplastic anemia (91 cases, 52.3%) was the most common cause of pancytopenia, followed by myelodysplastic syndrome (37 cases, 21.3%), acute leukemia and other hematological tumours (11 cases, 6.3%) and hemophagocytic syndrome (6 cases, 3.4%). The cause of pancytopenia was not identified in 13 cases (7.5%).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Anemia, bleeding and fever are the main clinical manifestations of pancytopenia in children. Pancytopenia is mostly caused by aplastic anemia in children. Myelodysplastic syndrome, hematological tumours and hemophagocytic syndrome are also the common causes.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Pancytopenia , Blood , Diagnosis
12.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 908-912, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-333998

ABSTRACT

The aim of study was to investigate the application of a novel microarray approach for the eight most common leukemia translocations in children for routine molecular diagnostic hematopathology practice. Bone marrow samples from 84 children with leukemia were analyzed by multiplex nested RT-PCR combined with oligonucleotide microarray. The results showed that out of 84 leukemic samples, 31 (36. 90%) carried 8 types of fusion genes including tel/aml1, e2a/pbx1, bcr/ablp190, bcr/ablp210, mll/af4, aml1/eto, pml/raralpha, cbfbeta/myh11. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay is comparable with the RT-PCR technique. In conclusion, this multiplex nested RT-PCR could quickly screen 8 types of chromosome structural aberrations at the same time. It can provide reliable and helpful information for risk stratification, therapy evaluation and prognosis prediction in childhood leukemia. There are both advantages and disadvantages in applying this new method. The microarray-based assay will be an effective and reliable tool in the clinical screening of leukemia patients for the presence of specific gene rearrangements with important diagnostic and prognostic implications.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Gene Rearrangement , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion , Genetics , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Methods
13.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 454-458, 2008.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-239997

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To retrospectively analyze the treatment outcomes and side effects of childhood acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) or ATRA + arsenic trioxide (As2O3).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>From 1992 to 2006, 45 patients with newly diagnosed APL were enrolled. All of them were PML-RAR alpha positive. 24 patients were induced with ATRA (group A) and 21 with ATRA + As2O3 (group B). The remission rate and side effects were observed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>1) 19 (79.2%) patients in group A achieved CR, while 21(100%) patients in group B achieved CR. The CR rate in group A was lower than that in group B (P=0.027). 2) The recovery time of coagulation parameters and PLT count in group B was shorter than that in group A. 3) The overall survival (OS) and event-free survival(EFS) in group A were 77.8% and 66.9% at 41 months of follow-up, and in group B were 100% and 100% respectively at 34 months of followup. Group A had a significant lower EFS (P=0.0357)than group B. 4) The time of PML-RAR alpha fusion gene converting to negative in group A was longer (P=0.026) than that in group B.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>ATRA + As2O3 for patients with newly diagnosed childhood APL is a feasible treatment with higher CR rate, less side effects and longer long-term survival.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Therapeutic Uses , Arsenicals , Follow-Up Studies , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion , Genetics , Oxides , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Tretinoin
14.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 302-305, 2006.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-243957

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the clinical significance for minimal residual disease (MRD) detection by 4 color flow cytometry in B lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>MRD was analyzed and followed up by using two panels of 4 color antibodies, mainly CD34/CD10/CD45/CD19, in 671 consecutive bone marrow specimens and 1 cerebrospinal fluid from 98 B-ALL patients. In 26 cases of them the immunophenotyping informations at diagnosis were not available.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Of 671 bone marrow samples, 579 were MRD negative with leukemic cells below 0.0001 and 93 were MRD positive with leukemic cells over 0.0001. Of 93 MRD positive samples, leukemic cells below 0.05 were found in 64 bone marrow samples, meanwhile in the other 29 samples leukemic cells were over 0.05. Twenty patients relapsed, 19 were bone marrow relapse and one center nerves system. Fifteen of them were found MRD positive 7 - 17 weeks before relapse including 6 patients having no immunophenotyping data at diagnosis. The percentages of leukemia cells in these 15 patients were all over 0.0001. Two relapsed patients were MRD negative in 3 and 9 months before relapse, respectively. Two relapsed after MRD monitoring stopped. If MRD level was > 0.0001 at the end of induction chemotherapy and 12 weeks of treatment, the rate of relapse was 50% (6/12), while, it was 7.5% (3/40) in MRD negative patients (P = 0.000).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Relapses can be predicted by MRD monitoring, if MRD was positive in the early phase of treatment, the risk of relapse was higher. Based on the characteristics of B cells ontogeny, MRD detection can be done independently of immunophenotypic information at diagnosis.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Acute Disease , Antigens, CD19 , Allergy and Immunology , Antigens, CD34 , Allergy and Immunology , Flow Cytometry , Methods , Follow-Up Studies , Immunophenotyping , Leukocyte Common Antigens , Allergy and Immunology , Neoplasm, Residual , Diagnosis , Allergy and Immunology , Neprilysin , Allergy and Immunology , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Diagnosis , Allergy and Immunology
15.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 335-338, 2006.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-243949

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To compare the leukemia-associated immunophenotypes (LAIP) in patients with B lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) at diagnosis and relapse, and investigate its implications for minimal residual disease (MRD) detection.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The immunophenotype of leukemia cells from 410 newly diagnosed and 6 relapsed patients with B-ALL were detected by four to six antibody combination, mainly CD34/CD10/CD45/CD19 of 4-color CD45/SSC gating flow cytometry (FCM).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The proportion of CD45 under-expressed or negative in relapsed patients was much higher than that in newly diagnosed patients, being 69.2% and 37.8% respectively. Immunophenotypic changes occurred in 9 relapsed patients (including 8 hematological relapse and 1 central nerves system relapse) when analyzed by paired samples analysis at diagnosis vs at relapse: 4 cases showed CD45 down-modulation and 2 up-modulation; 4 CD34 down-modulation and 2 CD10 up-modulation, while the expression of CD19 remained no change. MRD was observed in all 7 cases of hematological relapse 2 - 4 months before relapse, and the immunophenotype of MRD cells was the same as that in relapse.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>A high frequency of immunophenotypic changes occurred at relapse and even in MRD before relapse, however the accuracy of MRD monitoring seemed not affected by the FCM strategy used in this investigation.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antigens, CD19 , Allergy and Immunology , Antigens, CD34 , Allergy and Immunology , Flow Cytometry , Methods , Immunophenotyping , Methods , Leukocyte Common Antigens , Allergy and Immunology , Neoplasm, Residual , Diagnosis , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology , Neprilysin , Allergy and Immunology , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Diagnosis , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology , Recurrence
16.
Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24)2006.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-640039

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the stability of immunophenotyping in the course of relapse or at treatment failure of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia(ALL) and that of immunophenotyping of positive minimal residual disease(MRD).Methods From Aug.2000 to Dec.2007,33 children with ALL who relapsed or treated failure were enrolled. These children were detected MRD by flow cytometry. The immunophenotyping of children who relapsed or treated failure were compared with that of initial therapy;the immunophenotyping of MRD relapsed was compared with that of initial therapy.Results 1.In 23 out of 27 cases (85.18%) with B-ALL,changed at least 1 antigen between diagnosis and relapse.Six children with CD45 down-modulation and 2 children with CD45 up-modulation.Two children with CD19 down-modulation and 1 child with CD19 up-modulation.Six children with CD34 down-modulation and 4 children with CD34 up-modulation. Five children with CD10 down-modulation and 7 children with CD10 up-modulation.2.Six children with T-ALL had the same expression in CD45 between relapse and treatment failure. 3.These were 15 children had the least 1 case MRD,25 cases MRD were detected,these was 1 case up-modulation in CD45,1 case down-modulation in CD19,2 cases up-modulation and 8 cases down-modulation in CD34,3 cases up-modulation and 6 cases down-modulation in CD10.Conclusions Immunophenotyping of children with ALL may change at relapse and treatment failure. The frequency of change in B-ALL is higher than that of in T-ALL,but the change can not impact the detection of MRD.

17.
Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24)2006.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-639705

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the clinical value of minimal residual disease(MRD) of acute myeloblastic leukemia(AML) with AML 1-ETO by using the real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction(RQ-RT-PCR).Methods From Jan.2001 to Jan.2007,the MRD of 32 AML1-ETO-positive AML patients were analyzed by using PQ-RT-PCR.The detection of the AML1-ETO was taken after the induced chemotherapy every 1.5-2.0 months during the consolidation therapy.The survival of different stages in children with AML was analyzed by SPSS 10.0 software and calculated by using Kaplan-Meier analysis.Results Thirty-two patients received the induced chemotherapy and 29 patients with complete remission morphologically,3 patients had no complete remission morphologically and then gave up.Patients with molecular remission were associated with a high probability of survival(P=0.001 8).Patients with high transcript levels at diagnosis had no difference in event free survival with patients with low transcript levels.The quality of molecular response after induction,6 months in the chemotherapy as well as consolidation period,has significant impact on the event free survival(P=0.023,0.000 1,0.004 9).Conclusion The current study demonstrate that quantitative evaluation of AML1-ETO transcript levels is important and may be helpful for therapeutic decisions in future.

18.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 327-331, 2005.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-255884

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the method and value of detecting bone marrow minimal residual disease (MRD) in B lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) by multiparameter flow cytometry (FCM).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The FCM immunophenotyping of B-lymphocyte precursors in regenerating stage and MRD was analyzed by using two sets of 4-color antibody panels, including mainly CD34, CD10, CD45, CD19, in 26 regenerating bone marrow samples after chemotherapy and 297 consecutive bone marrow specimens from 50 patients with B-ALL, respectively. The immunophenotype of leukemia cells of B-ALL was also detected by four to six antibodies combination of 4-color CD45/SSC gating FCM. The CD19, CD10, CD34 fluorescence intensity of B-cell precursors in normal and leukemic bone marrow was compared by relatively quantitative method.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Twelve patients were MRD positive (MRD(+)) among 50 patients during MRD monitoring, the percentages of residual leukemia cells were 0.06% to 7.73%. Eleven cases displayed CD45, CD34, CD19, CD10 antigens aberrant expression. Five patients were bone marrow relapsed and 4 of them were MRD (+) 7-17 weeks before relapse. The percentages of leukemia cells in all the 4 patients were over 0.1%. Only one patient relapsed with MRD negative. The regenerated B precursors could be divided into 3 stages according to the expression of CD45, CD34, CD19, CD10, CD22, and CD20 antigens. Abnormal expression of CD45, CD34, CD19, and CD10 were detected in 71.8% of 213 patients with B-ALL, the percentage of only aberrant expression of CD38 and myeloid antigen was 8.1%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Detection of MRD by multiparameter flow cytometry is a rapid, quantitative and sensitive approach, and has a higher predictability for relapse.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Flow Cytometry , Methods , Immunophenotyping , Methods , Leukemia, B-Cell , Diagnosis , Neoplasm, Residual , Diagnosis
19.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 170-173, 2005.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-289286

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Hematologic relapse remains the greatest obstacle to the cure of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), especially T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) in children. Recent studies have shown that patients with increased risk of relapse can be identified by measuring residual leukemic cells, called minimal residual disease (MRD), during clinical remission. Current polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, however, for measuring MRD are cumbersome and time-consuming. To improve and simplify MRD assessment, the author developed a real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) assay for the detection of leukemic cells that harbor the tal-1 deletion. In addition, the author discussed the significance of MRD levels at different stages in treatment and prognosis of children with T-ALL.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 50 consecutively enrolled patients with T-ALL were analysed for detection of leukemic cells harboring the most common tal-1 deletion. Serial dilutions of leukemic DNA were studied to find the sensitivity of detection with RQ-PCR assay. The MRD of 28 samples in clinical remission from 10 patients were quantified by RQ-PCR assay and limiting dilution assay. The results detected by both methods were compared statistically with correlation analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) A total of 10 patients presented tal-1 deletion involving the sildb1 breakpoint rearranged to tal1db1 in 50 cases with T-ALL. The breakpoints of relapsed samples are the same as those of the corresponding diagnostic samples; (2) The RQ-PCR assay had a sensitivity of detection of one leukemic cell among 100,000 normal cells. In 24 samples, MRD levels > 10(-5) could be detected with both methods. The percentages of leukemic cells measured by the two methods correlated well (r = 0.898, P < 0.001); (3) The MRD levels of 3 patients out of the 8 cases undergoing disciplinary regimen were over 10(-4) at the end of induction chemotherapy. They all relapsed in bone marrow during chemotherapy. The higher the MRD levels, the earlier the relapse. The other 5 patients with MRD levels < 10(-4) had been relapse-free survival (RFS) for 4-59 months, one of whom with increased MRD levels > 10(-4) for twice at the continuation stage had been RFS for 27 months till now.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The sildb1-taldb1 deletion presents in 20% of T-ALL, and is an ideal PCR marker for its specificity, uniform and stability; The tal-1 RQ-PCR can be used for the rapidly, sensitively and accurately quantitative assessment of MRD in T-ALL with the tal-1 deletion. MRD levels at different stages of chemotherapy have different significance in prognosis and treatment.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Base Sequence , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors , Genetics , Gene Deletion , Molecular Sequence Data , Neoplasm, Residual , Diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Methods , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Diagnosis , Genetics , Mortality , Prognosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins , Genetics , T-Cell Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Protein 1
20.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 76-82, 2005.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-347823

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to investigate the clinical value of quantification of AML1/ETO fusion transcripts using real-time reverse transcription PCR. Fourteen AML1/ETO positive children out of 52 AML children were selected. A serial dilution of AML1/ETO plasmid was used as a template for the AML1/ETO real-time PCR. AML1/ETO was quantified according to the expression of the GAPDH housekeeping gene at new diagnosis and during/after chemotherapy and transplantation. SPSS statistics was used to analyze the data. The results showed that the ratio of AML1/ETO: GAPDH expression level at new diagnosis varied in the range 0.219-2.080 (median 0.648) among the patients, without relevance with percentage of blasts. The detection sensitivity was up to the dilution of 1:10(5). Six patients showed a slight decline of AML1/ETO (higher than 5 x 10(-2)) at 1 month, three of whom relapsed in the early stage and one later. Five patients had a higher level than 5 x 10(-3) at 3 months, three of whom relapsed. Four patients with always a higher level than 5 x 10(-3) all relapsed in early stage. After six months, four out of them with constant low-level expression (10(-4) - 10(-6)) were in continuous complete hematological remission (CCR). In another patient, a rapid rise of AML1/ETO transcripts could be detected at CR stage and he relapsed 5 months later. The AML1/ETO gene expression leveling off by 10(-5) - 10(-6) could be detected in 3 patients at their complete remission after 9 months. It is concluded that real-time RT-PCR is a suitable approach for quantifying AML1/ETO transcripts in monitoring of AML patients with t(8;21) during/after chemotherapy and provides data of diagnostic relevance.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Acute Disease , Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit , Genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic , Leukemia, Myeloid , Diagnosis , Genetics , Therapeutics , Neoplasm, Residual , Diagnosis , Genetics , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion , Genetics , RUNX1 Translocation Partner 1 Protein , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Methods , Transcription, Genetic
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