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1.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(2): 1-9, jun. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284417

ABSTRACT

Background:Lumbar sympathectomy through radio ablation is a useful treatment of peripheral ischemia. However, clinical efficacy with respect to lower limb ulcers is not adequately established in the Indian population. The study was conducted to evaluate the role of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the lumbar sympathetic ganglia in healing of ischemic ulcers of the lower limb.Method:The prospective study with 63 patients registered in the General surgery department with lower limb ischemic ulcers between December 2017­ July2019 were treated with RFA. Patients with cardiopulmonary disease, pregnant, congenital malformation, or skin infection at the site of intervention, or suffering from bleeding disorders, were excluded from the study. Clinical investigation of the wound was performed, and demographic data was collected. Comparative reduction in wound size was assessed through Friedman`s ANOVA (P<0.001). Difference in pain score, hospital stay, and walking distance were evaluated using Wilcoxon matched pair test (P<0.001), Unpaired t-test, and Paired t-test (P<0.05).Result:Majority of the patients were male (n=40) with a mean age of 60.93 SD14.34 years. Significant reduction in wound size, pain scores and hospital stay were observed post procedure(P<0.001). Number of RFA sessions was significantly associated with the size of the ulcer and Fontaine's classification 2 and 3 (P<0.0001).Conclusion:RFA of lumbar sympathetic ganglia is a potential treatment modality for lower limb ischemic ulcers.


Antecedentes: La simpatectomía lumbar a través de la ablación por radiofrecuencia es un tratamiento útil de la isquemia periférica. Sin embargo, la eficacia clínica con respecto a las úlceras en las extremidades inferiores no está adecuadamente establecida en la población india. El estudio se llevó a cabo para evaluar el papel de la ablación por radiofrecuencia (RFA) de los ganglios simpáticos lumbares en la curación de las úlceras isquémicas de la extremidad inferior. Método: El estudio prospectivo con 63 pacientes registrados en el departamento de cirugía general con úlceras isquémicas de las extremidades inferiores entre diciembre de 2017 y julio de 2019 fueron tratados con RFA. Los pacientes con enfermedad cardiopulmonar, malformación embarazada, congénita o infección de la piel en el lugar de la intervención, o que sufren de trastornos hemorrágicos, fueron excluidos del estudio. Se realizó una investigación clínica de la herida y se recopilaron datos demográficos. La reducción comparativa en el tamaño de la herida se evaluó a través del ANOVA de Friedman (P<0.001).Resultado: La diferencia en la puntuación del dolor, la estancia en el hospital y la distancia a pie se evaluaron mediante la prueba de par coincidente de Wilcoxon (P<0.001), la prueba t no emparejada y la prueba t emparejada (P<0.05). La mayoría de los pacientes eran varones (n-40) con una edad media de 60,93 SD14,34 años. Se observó una reducción significativa en el tamaño de la herida, las puntuaciones de dolor y la estancia hospitalaria (P<0.001). El número de sesiones de RFA se asoció significativamente con el tamaño de la úlcera y las clasificaciones 2 y 3 de Fontaine (P<0.0001).Conclusión: LA RFA de los ganglios simpáticos lumbares puede constituir una opción terapéutica para las úlceras isquémicas de las extremidades inferiores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiofrequency Ablation/methods , Leg Ulcer/therapy , Prospective Studies , Ischemia/therapy
2.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(3): 315-325, May-Jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285680

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The association between the treatment of transverse maxillary deficiency and the recovery of hearing and voice functions has gained attention in recent years. Objective This prospective controlled trial aimed to evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion on hearing and voice function in children with non-cleft lip palate and bilateral cleft lip palate with transverse maxillary deficiency Methods 53 patients (26 non-cleft and 27 bilateral cleft lip palate; mean age, 11.1 ± 1.8 years) requiring rapid maxillary expansion for correction of narrow maxillary arches were recruited for this trial. Eight sub-groups were established based on the degree of hearing loss. Pure-tone audiometric and tympanometric records were taken for each subject at four different time periods. The first records were taken before rapid maxillary expansion (T0), the second after expansion (T1) (mean, 0.8 months), the third after three months (T2) (mean, 3 months) and the fourth at the end of retention period (T3) (mean, 6 months). ANOVA and Tukey HSD post-hoc tests were used for data analysis. Additionally, voice analysis was done using an updated PRAAT software program in a computerized speech lab at T0 and T2. A paired-samplet-test was used for comparisons of mean values of T0 and T2 voice parameters within both groups. Results Rapid maxillary expansion treatment produced a significant increase in the hearing levels and middle ear volumes of all non-cleft and bilateral cleft lip palate patients with normal hearing levels and with mild conductive hearing loss, during the T0-T1, T1-T2, T0-T2, and T0-T3 observation periods (p < 0.05). The significant increase was observed in right middle ear volumes during the T0-T1, T0-T2 and T0-T3 periods in non-cleft patients with moderate hearing loss. For voice analysis, significant differences were observed only between the T0 and T2 mean fundamental frequency (F0) and jitter percentage (p < 0.05) in the non-cleft group. In the cleft group, no significant differences were observed for any voice parameter between the T0 and T2 periods. Conclusion Correction of the palatal anatomy by rapid maxillary expansion therapy has a beneficial effect on both improvements in hearing and normal function of the middle ear in both non-cleft and bilateral cleft lip palate patients. Similarly, rapid maxillary expansion significantly influences voice quality in non-cleft patients, with no significant effect in BCLP patients.


Resumo Introdução A associação entre o tratamento da deficiência maxilar transversa e a recuperação das funções auditivas e vocais ganhou atenção nos últimos anos. Objetivo Avaliar os efeitos da expansão rápida da maxila na função auditiva e vocal em crianças sem fissura labiopalatina e com fissura labiopalatina bilateral com deficiência maxilar transversa. Método Foram recrutados para este estudo 53 pacientes (26 sem fissura e 27 com fissura labiopalatina bilateral; média de 11,1 ± 1,8 anos) que necessitam de expansão rápida da maxila para correção de arcos maxilares estreitos. Oito subgrupos foram estabelecidos com base no grau de perda auditiva. Registros audiométricos e timpanométricos de tons puros foram obtidos para cada indivíduo em quatro períodos. Os primeiros registros foram obtidos antes da expansão rápida da maxila (T0), o segundo após a expansão (T1) (média de 0,8 meses), o terceiro após três meses (T2) (média de 3 meses) e o quarto no fim do período de retenção (T3) (média de 6 meses). Anova e o teste post-hoc de Tukey HSD foram usados para análise dos dados. Além disso, a análise da voz foi feita com um programa PRAAT atualizado em um laboratório de fala computadorizadaem T0 e T2. Foi usado um teste t de amostras pareadas para comparação dos valores médios dos parâmetros de voz em T0 e T2 nos dois grupos. Resultados O tratamento com expansão rápida da maxila produziu um aumento significativo nos níveis auditivos e nos volumes da orelha média de todos os pacientes sem fissura e pacientes com fissura labiopalatina bilateral e níveis auditivos normais e com perda auditiva condutiva leve, durante os períodos de observação T0-T1, T1-T2, T0-T2 e T0-T3 (p < 0,05). Aumento significativo foi observado nos volumes da orelha média direita durante os períodos T0-T1, T0-T2 e T0-T3 em pacientes sem fissura e com perda auditiva moderada. Para a análise de voz, diferenças significantes foram observadas apenas entre a frequência fundamental média T0 e T2 (F0) e a porcentagem de jitter (p < 0,05) no grupo sem fissura. No grupo com fissura, não foram observadas diferenças significantes para nenhum parâmetro de voz entre os períodos T0 e T2. Conclusão A correção da anatomia palatal pela expansão rápida da maxila tem um efeito benéfico tanto na melhoria da audição quanto na função normal da orelha média em pacientes sem fissura e com fissura labiopalatina bilateral. Da mesma forma, a expansão rápida da maxila influencia significativamente a qualidade da voz em pacientes sem fissura, sem efeito significativo em pacientes com fissura labiopalatina bilateral.

3.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 2020 Jul; 16(3): 445-451
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-213839

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Several studies regarding tumor-stroma ratio (TSR) in colorectal, esophageal, breast, endometrial, and cervical carcinomas have been done in the past with significant results. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to (1) study and grade TSR in buccal mucosa and tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), (2) grade inflammatory cell infiltrate surrounding the tumor, and (3) correlate the above two parameters with tumor grade, lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), and perineural invasion (PNI). Materials and Methods: Totally, 25 patients of buccal SCC and 16 cases of tongue SCC were included in the study. TSR was assessed visually on the hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections by two independent observers. Cases were categorized into two groups: One with high TSR >50% (stroma poor) and the other with low TSR <50% as the stroma-rich group. TSR was correlated with tumor size, lymph node metastasis, inflammatory cell infiltrate, LVI, and PNI. Data were analyzed by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0 (Chicago, IL, USA) for Windows. The Chi-square and Fischer's exact tests were applied in the analysis of categorical variable. Results and Conclusion: SCC of buccal mucosa showed a significant correlation between TSR and size of the tumor (P = 0.001). We found that smaller the tumor size ≤2 cm (Stage T1), lesser the TSR, and size >2 cm was found to be associated with higher TSR. Hence, higher TSR (stroma poor) was associated with an adverse pathological characteristic, i.e., advanced T significantly. There was no significant correlation between TSR and inflammatory infiltrate with grade of the tumor, lymph node metastasis, LVI, and PNI. In 16 cases of SCC of the tongue; no correlation was observed between TSR and inflammatory infiltrate with tumor size, grade of the tumor, lymph node metastasis, LVI, and PNI. TSR has been studied in various malignancies (mostly adenocarcinomas) including laryngeal SCCs; however, it has never been studied on oral SCCs

4.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(3): 363-373, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090615

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Use of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in carcinoma prostate (CaP) has deleterious effect on bone mineral density (BMD) leading to increase incidence of osteoporosis and skeletal-related events. We evaluated bone health status and impact of bone-directed therapy (BDT) and ADT on BMD in these patients from Jan 2015-Dec 2018. Materials and Method: Baseline bone health was assessed using Tc-99 MDP Bone scan/ DEXA scan for patients on ADT. Monthly zoledronic acid (ZA) was given to high-risk candidates (T-score ≤2.5 or previous hip/vertebral fracture) or Skel et al. metastatic patients who were receiving ADT. Baseline and follow-up (at 12-months) BMD using DEXA scan at various sites (spine, femur total, femur neck and radius) and subjective improvement in bony pain using Numeric Pain Rating Score after administration of ZA were compared. Results: A total of 96-patients of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer receiving ADT with or without BDT were included in the study cohort. Mean age of presentation was 68.4±15.61 years. Median serum PSA was 32.2±13.1ng/mL. There was significant improvement in mean BMD (T-score) in 64-patients post ZA therapy at 12-months (at femoral total, femoral neck and spine; 0.95, 0.79 and 0.68, respectively) (p <0.05) while there was significant deterioration in mean BMD at 12-months (at spine, femoral neck and femoral total; −0.77, −0.55 and −0.66, respectively) in 32 patients who did not receive ZA and were on ADT (p <0.05). Pain scores significantly decreased in patients after 12-months of ZA use (−2.92±2.16, p <0.01). Conclusion: Bone-directed therapy (Zoledronic acid) leads to both subjective and objective improvement in bone health of prostate cancer patients on ADT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostatic Neoplasms , Bone Density , Androgen Antagonists , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Middle Aged
5.
J Genet ; 2020 Apr; 99: 1-10
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-215527

ABSTRACT

Meta-analysis provides a systematic access to the previously studied microarray datasets that can recognize several common signatures of stresses. Three different datasets of abiotic stresses on rice were used for meta-analysis. These microarray datasets were normalized to regulate data for technical variation, as opposed to biological differences between the samples. A t-test was performed to recognize the differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) between stressed and normal samples. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed the functional distribution of DEGs in different stressed conditions. Further analysis was carried out using software RICE NET DB and divided into three different categories: biological process (homoiothermy and protein amino acid phosphorylation), cellular component (nucleus and membrane), and molecular function (zinc ion binding ad DNA binding). The study revealed that 5686 genes were constantly expressed differentially in Oryza sativa (2089 upregulated and 3597 downregulated). The lowest P value (P = 0.003756) among upregulated DEGs was observed for naringenin, 2-oxoglutrate 3-dioxygenase protein. The lowest P value (P = 0.002866816) among the downregulated DEGs was also recorded for retrotransposon protein. The network constructed from 48 genes revealed 10 hub genes that are connected with topological genes. These hub genes are stress responsive genes that may also be regarded as the marker genes for drought stress response. Our study reported a new set of hub genes (reference genes) that have potentially significant role in development of stress tolerant rice

6.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214799

ABSTRACT

Diabetes has been a major problem in India. Its slow growth is associated with many complications, most common being peripheral neuropathy. An easy and cheap investigation to diagnose the neuropathy may help in early diagnosis and decrease the economic burden on the society. The purpose of the study was to assess the usefulness of ultrasonography (USG) in the evaluation of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN).METHODSFifty adult diabetic patients with clinically diagnosed DPN and 50 diabetics without DPN were included in the study. USG of the medial, ulnar, and common peroneal nerves was done. The mean cross-sectional area (CSA) of the involved nerves was measured in the two groups at identical positions. The CSA was compared between the two groups, and Student t-test was applied to assess statistical significance.RESULTSThe mean thickness of median nerve among diabetics without DPN was significantly less at 5 cms proximal to wrist (7.34 ± 1.24 vs 11.12 ± 1.56, p<0.0001); was significantly less at mid-forearm (6.84 ± 0.77 vs 10.36 ± 1.72, p<0.0001); and was significantly less at elbow (7.36 ± 0.75 vs 10.2 ± 1.64, p<0.0001). The mean thickness of ulnar nerve among diabetics without DPN was significantly less at wrist joint (6.98 ± 0.89 vs 8.44 ± 1.34, p<0.0001); and was significantly less behind medial epicondyle (7.44 ± 0.93 vs 9.36 ± 0.98, p<0.0001). The mean thickness of common peroneal nerve among diabetics without DPN was significantly less at neck of fibula (7.26 ± 1.34 vs 9.3 ± 1.67, P<0.0001); and the mean thickness of posterior tibial nerve was also significantly less at 5 cms above medial malleolus (7.06 ± 1.25 vs 9.16 ± 1.61, P<0.0001). There was a significant increase in the CSA of the median, ulnar, posterior tibial and common peroneal, in DPN patients as compared to diabetics without DPN (p<0.05).CONCLUSIONSUSG demonstrates a morphological change in patients with DPN in the form of an increase in CSAs, which was statistically significant. USG can objectively complement other diagnostic investigations such as nerve conduction studies. High resolution ultrasonography of peripheral nerves has the potential to become the investigation of first choice for the evaluation of DPN.

7.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-194645

ABSTRACT

Background: cirrhosis of liver is a diffuse process of fibrosis that converts the liver architecture into structurally abnormal nodules Portal hypertension leads to dilatation of portal vein, splenomegaly, and formation of portal systemic collaterals at different sites. Screening endoscopy is recommended for early detection of esophageal varices (EVs) in cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension. However, this approach is limited by its invasiveness and cost. The aim of the study was to determine if platelet count can predict the presence of EVs, especially large (grade III, IV) EVs in need of prophylactic therapy.Methods: Statistically 100 patients previously or newly diagnosed with cirrhosis of liver with portal hypertension without history of hepatic encephalopathy, variceal bleeding, EVL, use of beta blockers, were selected for the study. Ultrasonography was performed in all cases to note the spleen size. Routine blood testing including platelet count was done and UGI-Endoscopy was done to detect presence of varices with grades. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Survey (SPSS) for Windows version 17.0. The data obtained was analysed using mean, SD, Student’s t-test and chi square correlation coefficient, p value <0.05 was considered significant.Results: Among 100 patients studied ,90% patients were found to have esophageal varices. Based on endoscopic grading, incidence of grade 2 and grade 3 esophageal varices predominated, accounting to 48% and 23 % respectively. On correlation of platelet count with grades of esophageal varices it was evident that 44 patients had their platelet count less than 1 lac out of which 24 patients had grade 2 varices followed by 14 patients with grade 3 varices, p value <0.001 and was highly significant.Conclusions: The study depicts that with decrease in platelets count the chances of formation of higher grades of oesophageal varices increases and also a positive association exists.

8.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214772

ABSTRACT

Chronic liver disease develops when the functional capacity of the liver is deranged, and it is not able to maintain normal physiological conditions. This study was carried to find out the association of portal vein size with gastro-oesophageal varices in diagnosed cases of cirrhosis of liver, so that this parameters can be used in predicting propensity to oesophageal varices non-invasively, and thus help in starting prophylactic therapy earlier to prevent bleeding and other complications of varices.METHODS100 patients previously or newly diagnosed with cirrhosis of liver with portal hypertension without history of hepatic encephalopathy, variceal bleeding, EVL, use of beta blockers, were included for the study. Ultrasonography was done in all cases to find out the spleen size. Routine blood testing including platelet count was done and UGI-Endoscopy was performed to see the presence of oesophageal varices of different grades. The data obtained was analysed using mean, SD, Student’s t-test and chi square correlation coefficient. p Value of <0.05 was considered for significant.RESULTSAmong 100 patients studied, 90% patients were found to have oesophageal varices. Based on endoscopic grading, incidence of grade 2 and grade 3 oesophageal varices predominated, accounting to 48% and 23 % respectively. On correlation of splenic diameter with grades of oesophageal varices, it was found that patients with splenic diameter >13 cm had higher grades of oesophageal varices i.e. 32 patients were grade 2 and 18 patients were grade 3, with p<0.001 and was found highly significant.CONCLUSIONSIn this study, we found that with increasing spleen size there are chances of formation of higher grades of oesophageal varices and both are also having positive association.

9.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-215304

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus is a major global health problem. It is classified as type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The disease and its complications also cause a heavy financial burden on diabetic patients, their families and the society. Mean platelet volume is a measurement of the average size of platelets and varies between 7.5 and 10.5 fl. We wanted to study the correlation of MPV and HbA1c.METHODSThe present study was conducted in the Department of Pathology, SSMC and SGMH, Rewa (MP) over a period of 18 months on 210 cases. Glucose was measured by GOD-POD method, MPV by cell counter and HbA1c by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Unpaired t test is used to find out p value by using GraphPad software.RESULTSA total 210 cases were included. 60 cases were non-diabetic (Control Group) and 150 cases were of DMT2. The DMT2 group was further divided into DMT2 (controlled) and DMT2 (uncontrolled) on the basis of levels of HbA1c. MPV in DMT2 vs. non-diabetic was 10.80 ± 1.32 fl vs. 10.01 ± 1.12 fl respectively. MPV in DMT2 (uncontrolled) vs. DMT2 (controlled) was 11.07 ± 1.53 fl vs. 10.39 ± 0.75 fl respectively.CONCLUSIONSMPV in DMT2 patients was significantly higher than non-diabetic group. MPV in uncontrolled diabetic group (HbA1c >7%) was significantly higher than controlled diabetic group (HbA1c <7%). Hence MPV along with HbA1c can be a useful diagnostic test as well as prognostic marker of vascular complications in DMT2 patients.

10.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-209298

ABSTRACT

Background: Airway management is considered as an integral part of general anesthesia. Use of Baska mask, since asupraglottic airway device, could result in the low incidence of hemodynamic alterations and post-operative pharyngolaryngealcomplications. We conducted this study to compare the hemodynamic parameters, i.e., systolic blood pressure (SBP),diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), ease of insertion, time of insertion, and post-operativepharyngolaryngeal complications during Baska mask and endotracheal tube (ETT) insertion.Materials and Methods: It was a prospective randomized study which was conducted on 80 adult patients admitted for electivesurgery under general anesthesia (GA) of 60–90 min duration. A total of 80 patients were randomly allocated into two groups,i.e., Group B and Group E of 40 each. Group B patients underwent Baska mask insertion and Group E patients underwent ETTinsertion. The statistical analysis was done by Student’s t-test and Chi-square test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: There was a statistically significant rise in SBP, diastolic blood pressure, MAP, and HR during ETT insertion as comparedto Baska mask insertion. The mean time of insertion of Baska mask was 12.8 ± 1.36 s and of ETT was 15.93 ± 1.51 s. Insertionof Baska mask was easy in 85% whereas insertion of ETT was easy in 65%.Conclusion: Baska mask can be used as an alternative to ETT in adult patients undergoing surgeries under GA of 60–90 minduration with minimal hemodynamic alterations and post-operative pharyngolaryngeal complications.

11.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-202800

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Severe strokes, particularly subarachnoid bloodloss is frequently seen with a variety of electrocardiographicalterations. Also, various primary cardiac conditions, likemyxoma, endocarditis, mural thrombus and atrial septal defectalong with deep vein thrombosis, could also lead to cerebralemboli; heart block, arrhythmias and decrease in cardiacreturn, that may lead to cerebral ischemia. The present studywas conducted with the aim to determine association betweenECG abnormalities and intracranial lesions.Materials and methods: The present prospective studyincluded 50 subjects with raised intracranial pressure ofvarious intracranial lesions admitted to the Rajindra hospitaland visiting OPD of medicine/ neurology department. Astandard 12 lead ECG consisting of three bipolar limb leads,three unipolar limb leads and 6 unipolar chest leads was taken.ECG was first recorded within 24 hours of hospitalization andthen repeated on alternate days during first week and thereafterweekly till discharge. Probability value of more than 0.05 wasregarded as non significant.Results: There were only 1 case of p wave variationamongst 21 patients of CVA. There was no case of P wavevariation amongst patients of meningitis, ICSOL, TIH andhydrocephalous. There were 20% (n=10) cases with STsegment abnormality and rest 80% (n=40) did not demonstrateany ST segment abnormality. There were 3 cases of CVA outof 21 that had abnormal T wave. 1 out of 6 cases of meningitishad abnormal T waveConclusion: In our study, p wave, q wave showed nosignificant difference in intracerebral lesions. There were only20% cases with ST segment abnormality

12.
J Environ Biol ; 2020 Jan; 41(1): 139-146
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214485

ABSTRACT

Aim: To investigate the effect of nitrogen application through urea and Azolla on yield, nutrient uptake of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cv. Shasharang and to assess the improvement in soil acidity indices in acidic soil of Meghalaya.Methodology: A field experiment was conducted with six treatments viz., control (T1), Azolla incorporation @ 1.6 tonnes ha-1 (T2), 30 kg N ha-1 through urea (T3), 60 kg N ha-1 through urea (T4), 30 kg N ha-1 through urea + Azolla incorporation @ 1.6 tonnes ha-1 (T5) and 60 kg N ha-1 through urea with Azolla incorporation @ 1.6 tonnes ha-1 (T6). The experiment was laid out in RBD and replicated four times. The physico-chemical properties of the experimental soil were pH 5.1, SOC 1.75 percent, available N, P and K as 288.62, 17.23 and 201.46 kg ha-1, respectively. Results: The application of 60 kg N ha-1 through urea along with Azolla incorporation @ 1.6 tonnes ha-1 (T6) recorded highest dry matter i.e. 58. 15 g hill-1 at maturity of rice. Similarly, 60 kg N ha-1 through urea with Azolla incorporation @ 1.6 tonnes ha-1 produced highest grain and straw yield i.e. 4.2 t ha-1 and 7.68 t ha-1 followed by T5 and T4. The magnitude of increase in N, P and K concentration and uptake in grain was 28.57, 97.02; 26.09, 84.21 and 15.69, 76.47 percent in T6 over T1. The analysis of soil acidity indices indicated that highest improvement in pH was observed in T2 over all other treatments. Further, pH increased significantly in the treatments receiving Azolla incorporation (T2, T5 and T6) compared with the sole application of urea/control (T1, T3 and T4). The exchangeable calcium and magnesium (meq 100 g-1), CEC (meq 100 g-1) and base saturation percentage also showed the same trends and the highest values were observed as 1.92, 7.90 and 24.30 in T2. However, in contrast to this, the lowest values of exchangeable aluminium, exchangeable acidity and acidity saturation percentage were observed in T2 indicating that the sole application of Azolla improved soil acidity indices. Interpretation: It may be concluded from the present study that Azolla-urea nitrogen system may be suitable for getting optimum production of rice under tropical conditions and improving soil acidity indices because of its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen.

13.
J Environ Biol ; 2020 Jan; 41(1): 111-117
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214481

ABSTRACT

Aim: The objective of the present study was to identify economically viable, profitable and resource efficient vegetables embedded rice-based cropping sequences under organic management for marginal and small farmers of Sikkim Himalayas, India.Methodology: Three-year fixed plot study was conducted to evaluate seven rice–based cropping sequences viz., rice–fallow (farmers’ practice), rice–fenugreek (leafy vegetable), rice–coriander (leaves), rice–radish, rice–broccoli, rice–potato and rice–vegetable pea were replicated four-times in a completely randomized block design. Results: Among the various rice – based cropping sequences, cultivation of rice–coriander (leaves) recorded higher production (67.3 kg ha-1 day-1), system productivity (24.6 t ha-1), relative economic efficiency (1040%) and net returns (376.1x103). However, rice-broccoli and rice–vegetable pea sequences recorded 8.6 and 4.4% higher B: C ratio, respectively, over the rice–coriander system. With regards to soil health, rice – vegetable pea cropping sequences resulted in maximum improvement in soil organic carbon (SOC) (1.26%), available soil N (415.2 kg ha-1), P (22.8 kg ha-1) and K (411.5 kg ha-1), soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) (344.7 µg MBC g-1 soil), dehydrogenase activity (DHA) (24.0 µg TPFg-1 soil h-1) and fluorescin di acetate (FDA) (38.8 µg FDAg-1 soil h-1) among the cropping sequences. Interpretation: Induction of vegetables in rice–fallow system under assured irrigation condition of Sikkim Himalayas, India not only enhances the farm productivity and profitability but also sustain the soil health on long term basis. Thus, rice-vegetable pea/coriander/broccoli based production systems under organic management hold great promises for sustaining livelihood of organic growers in Sikkim Himalayas over conventional rice– fallow system.

14.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-204407

ABSTRACT

Background: Exclusive breastfeeding is considered a major public health intervention to promote both child and maternal health. Introduction and awareness of infant milk substitutes among mothers appear as a threat to this important practice.Methods: The study is an observational cross-sectional study using a questionnaire containing socio-demographic variables. The study was conducted among 300 mothers who reported to immunization clinic and paediatrics OPD of a BFHI accredited hospital in Delhi. Data collected in the study has been analysed using SPSS version 21.0 and MS-Excel. Student 't' test for quantitative variables and 'chi square test' for categorical variable have been used for statistical significance. p-value <0.05 was considered to be significant.Results: In this study 78.7% mothers intended to breastfeed. 71.3% knew that breastfeeding should be continued up to 2 years and 96.3% knew exclusive breastfeed should be given till 6months. Major source of knowledge were doctors and elders of society. However, 49.6% mothers started breastmilk substitutes before 6 months of age. Major causes that appeared as barriers against exclusive breastfeeding were insufficient quantity of milk (23.4%), child refusal (61%) and maternal health problems (15.6%).Conclusions: Despite good knowledge about breastfeeding among upper middle-class mothers, practice of exclusive breastfeeding remains suboptimal. There is a need for more reinforcement upon importance of breastfeeding, its benefits for both mother and baby so as to foster the practice.

15.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-203525

ABSTRACT

Background: Carotid Intima Media Thickness (CIMT) andCRP (C Reactive Protein) are have been used for measuringAtherosclerotic Risk in Diabetics. However there is paucity ofdata regarding their importance in Statin Naïve Diabetics.Aim: To study Correlation of CIMT with glycaemic control andhsCRP in Statin Naïve Diabetics.Materials and Methods: 80 Cases (Patient suffering from type2 Diabetes Mellitus) and 20 controls (non- diabetic healthpatients) presenting in outpatient department of a tertiaryHospital were included in this observational cross sectionalobservational study. Complete Blood Count, urine Routine andMicroscopy, urine for microalbuminuria, fasting plasma glucose(FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPPG), glycatedhaemoglobin (HbA1C), lipid profile, renal function test, hs-CRPand CIMT were evaluated in each individual. Independentsamples T-test was used to compare CIMT and hs-CRP bothcases and controls. Test of proportion and chi-square test wasused for association between categorical variables.Spearman’s method was used to assess correlation betweenhsCRP and CIMT.Results: 80 cases (Statin naïve and Non-smoker Diabeticpatients and 20 healthy controls were included in this study.Average CIMT in cases was significantly higher in Diabeticcases than Control (0.66 + 0.14 vs 0.56±0.05, difference= 0.10 mm, 95% C.I. (0.1 - 0.17), p < 0.0001). HsCRP wassignificantly correlated with average CIMT in Diabetic cases.(r=0.512, 95% C.I. 0.33-0.658, p<0.0001). Fasting Blood Sugarwas correlated with average CIMT in Diabetic cases. (r=0.234,95% C.I. 0.015-0.432, p=0.0366). Post Prandial Blood Sugarwas also correlated with average CIMT (r=0.300, 95% C.I.0.086-0.488, p=0.00677).Conclusion: Cardiovascular risk factors like glycaemic controland inflammatory markers like hsCRP are significantlyassociated with CIMT even in non-smoking and statin naïveDiabetics.

16.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Jan; 68(1): 118-122
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197721

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The aim of this study is to report the prevalence, clinical and swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) characteristics of pachydrusen in eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) and their fellow eyes. Methods: A total of 264 eyes of 132 patients with a diagnosis of CSCR (acute/persistent/recurrent/chronic/inactive) in atleast one eye, were analyzed in this retrospective, cross-sectional study. SS-OCT parameters including choroidal thickness (CT), large choroidal vessel layer thickness (LCVT) at fovea and the site of pachydrusen were recorded. Paired t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare CT in eyes with CSCR (subfoveal and site of pachydrusen) and multiple groups respectively. Results: The mean age of the study patients was 42.9 � 9.5 years with 119 males (90.15%). Bilateral CSCR was present in 31 patients. Nine eyes (chronic, 4; persistent, 2; and inactive/resolved CSCR, 3) showed presence of pachydrusen with an overall prevalence of 6.82% (9 eyes of 9 patients out of 132 patients). There was no significant difference of subfoveal CT (SFCT) in eyes with CSCR (422.4 � 107.8 ?) vs fellow eyes (407.0 � 96.5 ?) and eyes with CSCR associated with pachydrusen (413.7 � 101.5 ?) vs fellow eyes of CSCR eyes with pachydrusen (431.6 � 188.8 ?) (P = 0.71). LCVT as a percentage of CT was higher at the site of pachydrusen compared to SFCT (69.8% vs. 50.8%). Conclusion: CSCR can be associated with pachydrusen with a lower prevalence rate than previously reported. Whether the thickened large choroidal vessels at site of pachydrusen play any role in formation in pachydrusen needs further evaluation.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832083

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Schizophrenia is a serious disease characterized by impairment in the perception or expression of reality, leading to occupational and social dysfunction. The use of antipsychotic medication is now universal in the first-line treatment of schizophrenia. This study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of asenapine with a standard atypical antipsychotic, olanzapine in treating this disease. @*Methods@#It was designed as a single blind, randomized, controlled, parallel group, single centre Phase IV trial of a newer atypical antipsychotic, asenapine versus existing standard atypical antipsychotic, olanzapine. Total 80 subjects were enrolled as per eligibility criteria.Each recruited subject received daily treatment with the trial medication (Olanzapine 10 mg or Asenapine 10 mg daily) for duration of 12 weeks. BPRS, CGI-S, CGI-I, Laboratory parameters and compliance was assessed and analyzed. Continuous variables were compared by t test and non-parametric data was analyzed by Mann−Whitney U test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Likely categorical variables were analyzed by chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test, as appropriate. @*Results@#The duration of schizophrenia at presentation was comparable in both the treatment groups. There was significant reduction of BPRS score between any two visits of each treatment groups. The decline in CGI-S and CGI-I scores was statistically significant (p < 0.001) when compared between visits of any of the both treatment arms.Adherence to treatment was excellent for all patients. @*Conclusion@#Newer atypical antipsychotic asenapine is more effective than standard olanzapine in reducing the symptoms of schizophrenia in this study and further larger studies are to be done.

18.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 2019 Oct; 22(4): 407-411
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-185852

ABSTRACT

Student's t test (t test), analysis of variance (ANOVA), and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) are statistical methods used in the testing of hypothesis for comparison of means between the groups. The Student's t test is used to compare the means between two groups, whereas ANOVA is used to compare the means among three or more groups. In ANOVA, first gets a common P value. A significant P value of the ANOVA test indicates for at least one pair, between which the mean difference was statistically significant. To identify that significant pair(s), we use multiple comparisons. In ANOVA, when using one categorical independent variable, it is called one-way ANOVA, whereas for two categorical independent variables, it is called two-way ANOVA. When using at least one covariate to adjust with dependent variable, ANOVA becomes ANCOVA. When the size of the sample is small, mean is very much affected by the outliers, so it is necessary to keep sufficient sample size while using these methods.

19.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-211712

ABSTRACT

Background: Central venous cannulation is a commonly performed procedure in neurosurgical patients to maintain the hemodynamic stability in the intraoperative period. It is used for infusion of intravenous fluids, vasopressors central venous pressure monitoring and detection of air embolism. Subclavian vein is commonly performed as there are minimal effects of positioning on it. Supraclavicular approach to subclavian vein cannulation is not as frequently employed as the infraclavicular approach. The purpose of this study was to compare the supraclavicular approach versus the infraclavicular approach in terms of number of attempts, success rate of catheterization and complications associated with the procedure.Methods: About 150 patients undergoing various neurosurgical procedures were enrolled in the study. They were divided into two groups. 75 patients underwent right supraclavicular catheterization of subclavian vein while as 75 patients underwent right infraclavicular catheterisation of the subclavian vein. The number of attempts for cannulation, success or failure of catheterization and any complications associated with the procedure or in the postoperative period were noted in each group. The data was compared between the two groups by using Chi-square test and Student’s Independent Samples T-test.Results: The right supraclavicular vein was successfully cannulated in 90.66% while as the right infraclaviclar vein was successfully cannulated in 96% of the patients (p >0.05). Malpositioning of catheter (threaded in contralateral subclavian) was noted in 4 patients in Group S and ipsilateral internal jugular vein in 2 patients. Pneumothorax was encountered in 1 patient in the group S undergoing supraclavicular subclavian vein cannulations while as subclavian arterial puncture was seen in 4 patients who underwent infraclavicular arterial puncture.Conclusions: There was no difference in successive cannulations between right the supraclavicular and right infraclaviclar veins. The rate of complications between the two approaches was comparable.

20.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-207014

ABSTRACT

Background: Accurate estimation of fetal weight is of paramount importance in the management of labour and childbirth. In developing countries including India, estimation of fetal weight by clinical method is important as ultrasound is not available in all health care settings. In view of this, the present study was conducted to estimate the fetal weight assessed by clinical and ultrasound method and correlating with the birth weight.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate fetal weight clinically by using Johnson’s formula and sonographically based on Hadlock’s formula in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in collaboration with Department of Radiodiagnosis, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal from October 2016 to March 2018. The study consisted of 525 pregnant women between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation in whom delivery was anticipated within one week of fetal weight estimation by clinical and ultrasound method and correlating it with the baby’s birth weight measured immediately after delivery. Analysis was done using Chi-square and Student’s t-test and p-value of <0.05 was taken as significant.Results: Both methods showed positive correlation with birth weight but clinical method (r=0.925) had stronger correlation compared with ultrasound method (r=0.508).Conclusions: Fetal weight estimation using Johnson’s formula had stronger correlation with the birth weight than ultrasound method and hence, useful for developing countries and all health care workers may be sensitized about the method.

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