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1.
Interdisciplinaria ; 39(2): 211-228, ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385927

ABSTRACT

Resumen La hipótesis organizacional sostiene que el índice digital D2:D4 (obtenido de la división entre la longitud de los dedos índice y anular) es un biomarcador que informa de la sobreexposición a la testosterona a nivel prenatal (Myers et al., 2018). El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar si el índice digital podría ser útil en el diagnóstico psicopedagógico del trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad (TDAH), dado que los trabajos previos no son concluyentes en este punto (Stevenson et al., 2007; Wang et al., 2017). La muestra estudiada estuvo conformada por 82 estudiantes de ambos sexos (Medad = 11.77 años, DE = 2.97) de la región de Andalucía (España), igualada en edad, sexo y nivel cognitivo. La mitad de los participantes tenía diagnóstico de TDAH, la otra mitad, no. Los resultados reflejan menor índice digital en participantes del grupo con diagnóstico de TDAH (.945) versus el grupo control (.995), y estas diferencias son significativas (p = .000), independientemente del sexo. Además, la presencia de determinados comportamientos en el entorno doméstico (medidos con la Escala Conners) correlaciona positivamente con un bajo valor del índice digital (r = .47; p = .001) y con el diagnóstico psicopedagógico de TDAH.


Abstract The digital ratio D2:D4 (length of the index finger between the length of the ring finger) is a biomarker that reports the presence of high levels of testosterone during the prenatal period. A differential digital pattern (D2 < D4) has been found in several disorders (ASD or Klinefelter's syndrome) although data for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are not conclusive (Stevenson et al., 2007; Wang et al., 2017). The aim of this paper was to determine whether digital ratio can be used as an indicator in the psychoeducational diagnosis of ADHD. A sample of 82 students of both sexes aged between 6 and 16 years (M = 11.77, SD = 2.97) from the Andalusian Community was taken. Among the members of the sample there were no differences in terms of sex, age, or cognitive level. The sample was divided into two groups, the group with a psycho-pedagogical diagnosis of ADHD and the control or undiagnosed group. The group with ADHD consisted of 42 subjects and the control group consisted of 46 subjects. All sessions were conducted individually for each of the subjects and their families following these guidelines: the session began with the parent signing a consent form that allowed the therapist to proceed with the intervention. After that, the TONI-2 non-verbal intelligence test was given to the child by the therapist in a quiet room. At the same time, the parents responded to the Conners Scale questions on behaviour at home to verify the existence or not of behavioural symptoms compatible with the presence of ADHD. For parents of children with ADHD diagnosis, an interview was conducted to learn about the course of the disease to have a general profile of the patient and his or her disorder. Finally, the participants' right hand was scanned at the same school with an HP DeskJet 2630 scanner printer. Using the scanner and the Adobe Photoshop® tool, the length of the index and ring fingers was measured [(from proximal line of the finger to the end of the distal phalanx of the index (D2) and ring (D4) fingers]. The digital measurements from the scanned images were taken by the two researchers who signed the work, and there was more than 90 % agreement on the measurements. The results show a lower digital index in participants in the ADHD group (.945) versus the control group (.995), these differences being significant (p = 0.000), regardless of gender. In addition, the presence of certain behaviours in the home environment (measured with the Conners Scale) correlates positively with a low value of the digital index (r = .47; p = .001) and with the psycho-pedagogical diagnosis of ADHD. Significant differences have been shown in this study. Subjects with a psychopedagogical diagnosis of ADHD have been exposed to higher levels of testosterone during pregnancy since they present a lower D2:D4 ratio compared to the participants in the control group (without a diagnosis of ADHD), in line with the work of Martel et al. (2008) and Wang et al. (2017). In addition, this study has found that the group with psychopedagogical diagnosis of ADHD has a shorter index finger than the ring finger in both boys and girls, while for the control group the digital pattern is reversed or there is no difference between the two fingers. Therefore, we consider that the digital ratio biomarker (D2:D4) may be an additional useful criterion for the psychopedagogical diagnosis of ADHD or at least as a screening method.

2.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 82(supl.1): 28-32, mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375890

ABSTRACT

Resumen El trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) ha sido estudiado por medio de resonancia magnética durante más de 30 años, superando 2200 artículos en PubMed. Sin embargo, todavía no se entienden bien las bases cerebrales del TDAH. Esto refleja la dificultad de replicar resultados, que afecta a casi todos los esfuerzos científicos. Los factores que contribuyen a resultados falsos positivos incluyen tamaños de muestra pequeños y la superabundancia de métodos analíticos. En el campo de la genética mole cular, estos retos conllevaron a la adopción del requisito de compartir los datos genéticos inmediatamente para que la comunidad pueda trabajar de forma conjunta, y que se apliquen métodos rigurosos tomando en cuenta la verdadera cantidad de pruebas estadísticas. Esto ha producido resultados más creíbles, aunque con tamaños de efecto muy reducidos respecto a los anteriores. En este breve resumen se usan dos consorcios, uno internacional llamado ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro-Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis), y el otro norteamericano llamado ABCD (Adolescent and Cognitive Behavior Development Study), para ilustrar este movimiento a la ciencia abier ta. Aquí se revisa la primera cosecha de hallazgos, aunque todavía limitados a análisis transversales. Ya que ABCD fue diseñado como esfuerzo longitudinal, la combinación con la maduración continua del campo promete transformar nuestro entendimiento de la patofisiología de TDAH (probablemente también alterando la definición diagnostica al largo plazo) para acercarnos al día en el cual la neuroimagen sea útil en la clínica.


Abstract Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been the focus of magnetic resonance imaging studies for more than 30 years, with more than 2200 articles listed in PubMed. Nevertheless, the brain substrates of ADHD remain poorly understood. This reflects the crisis of replicability across nearly all scientific endeavors, deriving from factors such as small sample sizes combined with a proliferation in analytical approaches, yielding high rates of false positive results. The field of molecular genetics confronted this by adopting open and immedi ate sharing of raw data and insistence on rigorous corrections for multiple comparisons. These strategies are yielding more robust genetic findings, albeit with much smaller effect sizes than before. This brief review focuses on two recent consortium efforts, i.e., the international Enhancing Neuro-Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA), and the U.S. Adolescent Behavior & Cognitive Developm ent Study (ABCD). Both embrace the culture of open science, and are beginning to yield credible findings, despite being limited initially to cross-sectional analyses. As the field continues to mature, these and other ongoing longitudinal large-scale studies are poised to transform our understanding of the pathophysiology of ADHD to bring closer the day when neuroimaging can contribute to clinical utility.

3.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 51(1): 76-80, ene.-mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388979

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El trastorno de déficit de atención e hiperactividad no diagnosticado es una condición comórbida frecuente en los trastornos por abuso de sustancias, y tiene un importante impacto en la vida de los pacientes, pues incrementa el riesgo de abuso de sustancias y el riesgo derivado de conductas impulsivas. En el momento actual no existen trabajos que estudien la relación entre el TDAH y el fenómeno emergente del chemsex, es decir, el uso de sustancias psicoactivas en el contexto de fiestas sexuales para maximizar el tiempo de práctica sexual y de las experiencias subjetivas. En estas sesiones se usan diferentes sustancias como, por ejemplo, las catinonas sintéticas como la mefedrona, que podría inducir complicaciones médicas y psiquiátricas como psicosis, agresividad e ideación suicida. Caso: Un varón de 44 arios ingresó en la unidad de agudos de psiquiatría tras un segundo intento de suicidio de alto riesgo con el uso de metanfetamina endovenosa mezclada con un ácido queratolítico, en el contexto de un episodio depresivo y práctica activa de sesiones de chemsex con una frecuencia semanal, en las que tomaba mefedrona vía transrectal, que provoca episodios puntuales de psicosis tóxica autolimatada. Se objetivó clínica compatible con TDAH no diagnosticado, y se aplicaron ASRS-V1.1 y WURS, que indicaron TDAH. Se ajustó el tratamiento antidepresivo y remitieron los síntomas depresivos y la ideación autolítica. Discusión: La búsqueda de síntomas de TDAH «ocultos¼ en el contexto del abuso de sustancias es importante para no retrasar diagnósticos con importancia esencial y prevenir complicaciones. Complicaciones médicas y psiquiátricas relacionadas con la práctica del chemsex se han comunicado en Europa y recientemente en España, donde es un fenómeno emergente que preocupa. Se describen el intento de suicidio con metanfetamina, síntomas depresivos y psicóticos, abuso de sustancias y complicaciones médicas.


ABSTRACT Background: Undiagnosed attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequent in the substance abuse disorder population, and has an intense repercussion in the daily life of the patients. That condition increases the risk of substance abuse disorders and risk conducts derived from impulsivity. There are not yet studies linking ADHD and the new emergent phenomenon of chemsex, that is, the action of use the intravenous injection of substances in sex parties, with the objective of maximising the practising time and sexual experience. In these sessions, different types of drug are used, for example, synthetic cathinone or mephedrone, and may lead to diverse medical and psychiatric complications like psychosis, aggressiveness and suicide ideation. Case: We report the case of a 44-year-old man admitted into a psychiatric unit, presenting with 2nd time suicidal high risk attempt using intravenous methamphetamine and a dissolvent acid in the context of a depressive episode, after practising chemsex sessions almost every weekend with psychoactive substances taken orally, intravenously and intrarectally. The patient also presented psychotic symptoms from the use of these drugs. When we interviewed the patient during his hospital stay, we observed that there were symptoms of a possible attention and hyperactivity deficit, which was confirmed by study with ASRS-V1.1 and WURS scales. After three weeks, the patient improved substantially as his depressive symptoms and autolytic ideation disappeared. Discussion: Look for "hidden" symptoms in substance abuse disorder patients. It is impor-tant not to delay important diagnostic tests and to prevent complications. Psychiatric and medical conditions related to chemsex have been reported in several European cities, and recently in Spain where it is an emergent phenomenon and a problem concerning medical and political institutions. The suicide attempt with metamphetamine and acid taken intravenously in the case we report, depressive and psychotic symptoms, addiction, suicide attempts and medical complications are described.

4.
Poiésis (En línea) ; 42(Ene. - Jun.): 33-42, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1381300

ABSTRACT

El trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) es una patología recurrente en el contexto escolar, la cual ha sido asociada a un bajo rendimiento académico y dificultades en la capacidad cognitiva. Sin embargo, en los últimos años, ha surgido un interés por estudiar otros factores que también parecen asociarse con este trastorno. Entre ellos, destacan la alta capacidad y la creatividad como componentes que en al-gunas ocasiones aparecen de forma conjunta con el TDAH. El objetivo de la presente revisión bibliográfica consiste en recopilar información teórica relacionada con la crea-tividad como factor que se articula con el TDAH y las altas capacidades. Para esto, se realizó la búsqueda de antecedentes investigativos, relacionados con esta temática en diferentes bases de datos, desde el año 2006 hasta el 2020. Los resultados de esta búsqueda indican que algunos de los niños con TDAH, presentan un coeficiente intelec-tual superior y un alto índice de creatividad, que puede verse alterado por los efectos del tratamiento farmacológico. Por ello, la mayoría de estas investigaciones sugiere la realización de otros estudios empíricos que soporten esta relación


Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a recurrent pathology in the school context, which has been associated with low academic performance and difficulties in cognitive ability. However, in recent years, there has been an interest in studying other factors that also seem to be associated with this disorder. Among them, high ability and creativity stand out as components that sometimes appear together with ADHD. The aim of this literature review is to compile theoretical information related to creativity as a factor that is articulated with ADHD and high abilities. For this purpose, a search of research background related to this topic was carried out in different databases, from 2006 to 2020. The results of this search indicate that some of the children with ADHD have a higher IQ and a high creativity index, which may be altered by the effects of pharmacological treatment. Therefore, most of these investigations suggest that further empirical studies should be carried out to support this relationship


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Child, Gifted/psychology , Creativity , Academic Performance/statistics & numerical data
5.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(4): 1-8, dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348217

ABSTRACT

La epilepsia engloba un conjunto de trastornos convulsivos heterogéneos, con diversas características clínicas que excluyen un mecanismo etiológico singular. Individuos con epilepsia presentan una tasa significativamente mayor de condiciones psiquiátricas y neurológicas asociadas. Niños con epilepsia tienen dos a tres veces más riesgo de desarrollar trastornos por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) cuando son comparados con individuos sanos, mientras que uno de cada cinco adultos epilépticos presentan síntomas de TDAH. En los niños con epilepsia, la gravedad y frecuencia de las crisis y una edad más temprana de inicio de las crisis son factores de riesgo comunes para padecer TDAH. Se realizó una revisión narrativa de la literatura y se seleccionaron artículos publicados en el periodo entre el año 2003 y 2021 en bases digitales del área de la salud (LILACS, Medline, Web of Science, SciELO y PubMed). La revisión evidenció que la epilepsia puede aumentar el riesgo de desarrollar TDAH en los niños, y que la epilepsia rolándica benigna es el tipo más diagnosticado en estos niños, que incluso tiene alta tasa de trastornos neuroconductuales con síntomas de TDAH asociados. El diagnóstico temprano y un manejo apropiado, llevan a mejor pronóstico en este grupo de pacientes


Epilepsy encompasses a set of heterogeneous seizure disorders, with various clinical characteristics that exclude a unique etiological mechanism. Individuals with this disease have a significantly higher rate for the development of psychiatric and neurological conditions. Children with epilepsy have two to three times increased risk of developing ADHD when compared to healthy individuals, while one in five epileptic adults have ADHD symptoms. In children with epilepsy, the severity and frequency of seizures and an earlier age at the onset of seizures are common risk factors for ADHD. A narrative review of the literature was carried out and articles published in the period between 2003 and 2021 in digital databases of the health area (LILACS, Medline, Web of Science, SciELO and PubMed) were selected. The review showed that epilepsy can increase the risk of developing ADHD in children, and that benign rolandic epilepsy is the most diagnosed type in these children, which even has a high rate of neurobehavioral disorders with associated ADHD symptoms. Early diagnosis and appropriate management lead to a better prognosis in this group of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Epilepsy
6.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(5): e3714, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1352084

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El Trastorno por déficit de atención y/o hiperactividad (TDAH) es un trastorno del neurodesarrollo que afecta la calidad de vida en niños y adolescentes, y se extiende hasta la edad adulta. La literatura señala que la práctica de actividad física y ejercicio físico establece beneficios positivos para el organismo del ser humano, a nivel físico, biológico y psicológico. Objetivo: Examinar los efectos de las intervenciones de actividad física o ejercicio físico sobre la calidad de vida en niños y adolescentes diagnosticados con TDAH. Material y Método: La búsqueda de las investigaciones fueron realizadas a través de Google Scholar, Scopus, Pubmed, Scielo, Web of Science, Dialnet y Redalyc, seleccionando solo investigaciones de libre acceso en idioma español. Se consideraron los últimos 5 años para el análisis de las investigaciones, se buscaron mediante las palabras utilizadas Actividad Física y Calidad de vida en niños y adolescentes con trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad, Ejercicio Físico y Calidad de vida en niños y adolescentes con trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad, Actividad Física y Calidad de vida en niños y adolescentes con TDAH, Ejercicio Físico y Calidad de vida en niños y adolescentes con TDAH. Desarrollo: Los 8 artículos seleccionados y extraídos de las bases de datos, concuerdan con los criterios de inclusión relacionados con los beneficios en la calidad de vida físicos, a nivel psicológicos, biológicos y sociales. Conclusiones: Intervenciones de actividad física y ejercicio físico con una duración de 15 min a 90 min en niños y adolescentes con TDAH pueden ser beneficiosas en la calidad de vida(AU)


Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects quality of life in children and adolescents, extending into adulthood. The literature indicates that the practice of physical activity and physical exercise establishes positive benefits for the human body at a physical, biological and psychological level. Objective: To examine the effects of physical activity or physical exercise interventions on quality of life in children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD. Material and Methods: The search for research was carried out through Google Scholar, Scopus, Pubmed, Scielo, Web of Science, Dialnet and Redalyc, selecting only open access research in Spanish. The last 5 years were considered for the analysis of the research; they were searched using the words: Physical Activity and Quality of life in children and adolescents with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, Physical Exercise and Quality of life in children and adolescents with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, Physical Activity and Quality of life in children and adolescents with ADHD, Physical Exercise and Quality of life in children and adolescents with ADHD. Development: The 8 articles selected and extracted from the databases agree with the inclusion criteria related to the physical, psychological, biological and social benefits on quality of life. Conclusions: Physical activity and physical exercise interventions with a duration of 15-90 minutes in children and adolescents with ADHD can be beneficial on quality of life(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/therapy , Exercise/psychology , Human Body , Neurodevelopmental Disorders
7.
Psico USF ; 26(3): 545-557, Jul.-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1351337

ABSTRACT

ADHD constitutes a developmental risk. The general aim was to identify social skills, behavior problems, academic performance and family resources of children with ADHD, with the specific aim being to compare students regarding indicators of ADHD and the use or not of medication. Participants were 43 Elementary Education I students (M=9.6 years, SD=1.5), 43 parents (M=39.1 years, SD=7.6) and 38 teachers (M=43.1 years, SD=8.4). The instruments used were the Inventory of Social Skills, Behavior Problems and Academic Competence (SSRS-BR), Conners' Scale and the Inventory of Family Resources. The collection was carried out in public schools. The results showed that the students had scores higher than the reference sample in Behavior Problems and Social Skills and lower in classes of social skills and Academic Competence; the presence of family resources; and grades above 5.0 as a school mean. We concluded that there is a need for interventions with the studied population. (AU)


TDAH constitui risco no desenvolvimento. Teve-se como objetivo geral identificar habilidades sociais, problemas de comportamento, desempenho acadêmico e recursos familiares de crianças com TDAH e, como específico, comparar alunos quanto a indicadores de TDAH e uso ou não de medicação. Participaram 43 estudantes (M = 9,6 anos, DP = 1,5) do Ensino Fundamental I, 43 responsáveis (M = 39,1 anos, DP = 7,6) e 38 professoras (M = 43,1 anos, DP = 8,4). Os instrumentos utilizados foram Inventário de Habilidades Sociais, Problemas de Comportamento e Competência Acadêmica (SSRS-BR), Escala de Conners e Inventário de Recursos Familiares. A coleta foi realizada em escolas públicas. Os resultados apontaram alunos com escores superiores à amostra de referência em Problemas de Comportamento e Habilidades Sociais, e inferiores em classes de Habilidades Sociais e Competência Acadêmica; recursos familiares presentes e; notas acima de 5,0 como média escolar. Conclui-se a necessidade de intervenções com a população estudada. (AU)


TDAH constituye riesgo de desarrollo. El objetivo general era identificar habilidades sociales, problemas de comportamiento, rendimiento académico y recursos familiares de niños con TDAH; qué tan específico es comparar estudiantes con respecto a los indicadores de TDAH y el uso de medicamentos. Participaron 43 estudiantes (M = 9.6 años, SD = 1.5) de la escuela primaria, 43 padres (M = 39.1 años, SD = 7.6) y 38 maestros (M = 43.1 años, SD = 8.4). Los instrumentos utilizados fueron: Inventario de Habilidades Sociales, Problemas de Comportamiento y Competencia Académica (SSRS-BR), Escala de Conners e Inventario de Recursos Familiares. La colección se realizó en escuelas públicas. Los resultados mostraron estudiantes con puntajes más altos que la referencia en Problemas de comportamiento y habilidades sociales y más bajos en clases de habilidades sociales y competencia académica; recursos familiares presentes; calificaciones promedio de la escuela superiores a 5.0. Concluye la necesidad de intervenciones. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adult , Middle Aged , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Family/psychology , Social Skills , Problem Behavior/psychology , Academic Performance/psychology , Students/psychology , Education, Primary and Secondary , School Teachers/psychology
8.
Actual. psicol. (Impr.) ; 35(130)jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383498

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo. Describir los estudios actuales sobre calidad de vida en adultos jóvenes con TDAH diagnosticados por primera vez en la adultez o que no recibieron ningún tipo de tratamiento para dicho trastorno. Método. Se realizó una meta-síntesis en investigaciones que reportan evidencias teóricas, metodológicas y concluyentes sobre el objeto de estudio, siguiendo recomendaciones de la red Cochrane y la declaración PRISMA. Resultados. Seis documentos seleccionados y analizados de 418 encontrados arrojaron que el TDAH afecta negativamente el bienestar personal, emocional, físico y material del adulto joven sin diagnóstico ni tratamiento durante la etapa infanto-juvenil. La gran mayoría de los adultos jóvenes con TDAH, principalmente aquellos con trastornos comórbidos, tienen una pobre valoración de su calidad de vida.


Abstract. Objective. Describe current studies on quality of life of young adults with ADHD diagnosed for the first time in adulthood, or who did not receive any type of treatment for this disorder. Method. a meta-synthesis was carried out investigations that report theoretical, methodological, and conclusive evidence of the object of study, following the recommendations on the Cochrane and PRISMA. Results. Six documents selected and analyzed out of 418 found showed that ADHD negatively affects the personal, emotional, physical, and material well-being of the young adult without diagnosis or treatment during the infant-adolescent stage. The vast majority of young adults with ADHD, mainly those with comorbid disorders, have a poor perception of their quality of life.

9.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388384

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El Trastorno por Déficit de Atención e Hiperactividad (TDAH) es un trastorno de carácter neurobiológico originado en la infancia que implica un patrón de déficit de atención, hiperactividad y/o impulsividad. El TDAH trae consecuencias negativas tanto para los jóvenes que lo padecen. Recientemente se ha propuesto que el Tiempo Cognitivo Lento (TCL) puede ser un trastorno diferente al TDAH, un mismo trastorno o bien que pueden co-existir. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión narrativa a partir de la literatura médica sobre la relación entre TCL y TDAH y sus impactos sobre rendimiento académico. Metodología: Se identificaron revisiones de tema, revisiones sistemáticas, metanálisis, ensayos clínicos y estudios de seguimiento en inglés y español sin límite de tiempo, que incluyen aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, factores asociados a hiperactividad/impulsividad, déficit de atención, funciones cognitivas y ejecutivas. Resultados: La relación entre TCL y TDAH es muy compleja. Alguna investigación científica indica que es un mismo trastorno o bien que pueden co-existir. También se sugieren que altos niveles de TCL y TDAH podrían formar parte de un nuevo trastorno atencional, sin embargo, se necesitan más investigación para comprobar su asociación con el TADH. Conclusión: Pese a los esfuerzos por mejorar la comprensión, la evaluación, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento del TDAH, aún quedan asuntos por resolver, siendo probablemente el de la evaluación y diagnóstico uno de los grandes dilemas.


Introduction: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological disorder originating in childhood that implies a pattern of attention deficit, hyperactivity and/or impulsivity. ADHD has negative consequences both for young. Recently been proposed that Slow Cognitive Time (SCT) may be a different disorder than ADHD, the same disorder or that they may co-exist. Objective: To perform a narrative review of the medical literature, seeking to collect useful information regarding the relationship between SCT and ADHD, and its impacts on academic performance. Methodology: Topic reviews, systematic reviews, meta-analyzes, clinical trials, and follow-up studies were identified in English and Spanish with no time limit, including epidemiological and clinical aspects, factors associated with hyperactivity/impulsivity, attention deficit, cognitive and executive functions. Results: The relationship between SCT and ADHD is very complex. Some scientific research indicates that it is the same disorder or that they may co-exist. It is also suggested that high levels of SCT and ADHD could be part of a new attention disorder, however more research is needed to verify its association with ADHD. Conclusion: Despite efforts to improve the understanding, evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of ADHD, there are still issues to be resolved, with evaluation and diagnosis probably being one of the great dilemmas.

10.
Psicol. pesq ; 15(1): 1-14, jan.-abr. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1287676

ABSTRACT

Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder may be more likely to have a mental disorder, both due to genetic and environmental reasons. A cross-sectional study involving 161 children, 161 mothers and 108 fathers. Diagnosis followed the criteria established in DSM-5. Symptom severity was evaluated using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. The Factorial Personality Inventory served to evaluate parents' personality traits. Several correlations were found between mothers and fathers personality traits and children symptoms. In both parents, personality traits associated with greater intransigence/less flexibility and fewer social skills were those associated with more severe autism symptoms in the children.


Os pais de crianças com transtorno do espectro do autismo podem ter maior probabilidade de ter um transtorno mental, devido a razões genéticas e ambientais. Estudo transversal envolvendo 161 crianças, 161 mães e 108 pais. O diagnóstico seguiu os critérios estabelecidos no DSM - 5. A gravidade dos sintomas foi avaliada usando a Escala de Classificação do Autismo na Infância. O Inventário Fatorial de Personalidade foi utilizado para avaliar os traços de personalidade dos pais. Várias correlações foram encontradas entre traços de personalidade de mães e pais e sintomas de crianças. Em ambos os pais, os traços de personalidade associados a maior intransigência / menor flexibilidade e menos habilidades sociais foram os associados a sintomas mais graves de autismo nas crianças.


Los padres de niños con trastorno del espectro autista pueden ser más propensos a tener un trastorno mental, tanto por razones genéticas como ambientales. Se trata de un estudio transversal con 161 niños, 161 madres y 108 padres. El diagnóstico siguió los criterios establecidos en el DSM-5. La gravedad de los síntomas se evaluó mediante la Escala de calificación de autismo infantil. El Inventario Factorial de Personalidad sirvió para evaluar los rasgos de personalidad de los padres. Se encontraron varias correlaciones entre los rasgos de personalidad de las madres y los padres y los síntomas de los niños. En ambos padres, los rasgos de personalidad asociados con una mayor intransigencia / menor flexibilidad y menos habilidades sociales fueron los asociados con síntomas de autismo más severos en los niños.

11.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 43(2): 174-180, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285544

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and entrepreneurial profiles and the effects of entrepreneurial characteristics in individuals who screen positive for ADHD and self-identify as entrepreneurs. Methods: We sent 4,341 questionnaires by e-mail to applicants for a career development course for entrepreneurs. We used the propensity score covariate adjustment to balance differences between included and excluded individuals. ADHD symptoms were evaluated with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. The Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation scale was used to assess the entrepreneurial profile of the participants. Impairment from ADHD symptoms was assessed with the Barkley Functional Impairment Scale. Results: Those who screened positive for ADHD had higher risk-taking scores (p-value = 0.016) and lower proactivity (p-value = 0.001) than those who screened negative. Higher inattention scores were related to lower proactivity (p-value < 0.001), while higher hyperactive symptom scores were related to a more generalized entrepreneurial profile (p-value = 0.033). Among ADHD-positive participants, entrepreneurial profile scores were not significantly associated with company profits or impairment. Conclusions: Inattention symptoms were related to less proactivity, whereas hyperactive symptoms were positively associated with a general entrepreneurial orientation. ADHD-positive individuals had a higher risk-taking profile, and these characteristics did not negatively impact their lives.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Entrepreneurship , Self Report
12.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 43(2): 153-159, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285526

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the association of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) with autistic traits (ATs) and anxiety disorder symptoms among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: A total of 195 children with a DSM-5 diagnosis of ADHD were included. The Barkley Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Scale (BSCTS) was used to measure SCT symptoms. Other study measures included the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), Screen for Child Anxiety and Related Disorders (SCARED), Turgay DSM-IV Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S), and Conners' Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS-R). Results: The frequency of SCT was 30.3% (n=59) in the whole group. Those with SCT had higher total AQ and SCARED scores. Significant associations and correlations were also found between SCT and certain subscores of AQ and SCARED. According to the linear regression model, the total score and social skills, attention switching, and imagination scores of AQ, as well as generalized anxiety and panic/somatic scores of SCARED and the total and inattention scores of parent T-DSM-IV, were predictive of SCT total score (p < 0.05). Conclusions: SCT is associated with ATs and anxiety disorders. Children with ADHD and SCT symptoms should be screened for such conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/diagnosis , Autistic Disorder/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Cognition , Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders
13.
Estud. Interdiscip. Psicol ; 12(1): 27-51, jan-abr.2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1337693

ABSTRACT

Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo analisar as trajetórias escolares de jovens universitários diagnosticados com Transtorno de Déficit de Atenção e Hiperatividade (TDAH) e os efeitos de subjetivação decorrentes da experiência e apropriação desse diagnóstico. Foram entrevistados três estudantes matriculados em uma universidade da Grande Florianópolis (SC). A análise das narrativas foi realizada a partir da perspectiva teórico-metodológica da "análise de práticas discursivas", tal como proposta por Spink e Medrado (2013). Destacaram-se os efeitos de subjetivação dos processos de patologização e medicalização, com ênfase nas trajetórias escolares. Considerou-se que os sentidos das experiências do diagnóstico de TDAH são construídos, sobretudo, a partir de referentes discursivos típicos das racionalidades médico-psiquiátricas, que operam como um significativo regime de saber-poder subjetivante. Observou-se, também, que a medicalização da educação e da vida é um processo recorrente para adaptar os sujeitos em suas trajetórias escolares.


The goal of this study was to analyze educational trajectories of university students diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the subjectivation effects arising from the experience and appropriation of this diagnosis. Three students enrolled at a university in Greater Florianópolis (SC) were interviewed. The analyses of the narratives were carried out from the theoreticalmethodological perspective of the "discursive practices analyses", as it has been proposed by Spink and Medrado (2013). The subjectification effects of pathologization and medicalization processes were highlighted, with emphasis on educational trajectories. It was considered that the meanings of the experiences of the diagnosis of ADHD are constructed, mainly, from typical psychiatric discursive referents, which operate as a significant power-knowledge subjectivation regime. It was also observed that the medicalization of life and education is a recurrent process to adapt the subjects in their educational trajectories.


Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo analizar las trayectorias escolares de jóvenes universitarios diagnosticados con trastorno de déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) y los efectos de la subjetivación, resultantes de la experiencia y de la apropiación de este diagnóstico. Se entrevistó a tres estudiantes matriculados en una universidad en Florianópolis (SC). El análisis de las narrativas se realizó desde la perspectiva teórico-metodológica del "análisis de las prácticas discursivas", según proponen Spink y Medrado (2013). Se destacaron los efectos de subjetivación de los procesos de patologización y medicalización, con énfasis en las trayectorias escolares. Se constató que los sentidos de las experiencias del diagnóstico de TDAH se construyen, sobre todo, a partir de referentes discursivos típicos de las racionalidades médico-psiquiátricas, que operan como un significativo régimen de saber-poder subjetivante. También se observó que la medicalización de la educación y la vida es un proceso recurrente para adaptar a los sujetos en sus trayectorias escolares.


Subject(s)
Psychology, Educational , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Medicalization
14.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 43(1): 1-8, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156991

ABSTRACT

Abstract Despite major advances in the study of the brain, investigations on neurochemistry in vivo still lack the solid ground of more established methods, such as structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a technique that might potentially fill in this gap. Nevertheless, studies using this approach feature great methodological heterogeneity, such as varying voxel of choice, differences on emphasized metabolites, and absence of a standardized unit. In this study, we present a methodology for creating a systematic review and meta-analysis for this kind of scientific evidence using the prototypical case of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Systematic review registration: International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO), CRD42018112418.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909541

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the heterogeneity of behavioral problems and cognitive function of three subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD), and to analyze the related factors of cognitive function.Methods:The outpatients with ADHD were evaluated by Wechsler children′s intelligence test (C-WISC), SNAP-Ⅳ parental rating scale (SNAP-Ⅳ), Conners parental symptom questionnaire (PSQ) and 12 online cognitive function tests. The differences of behavioral problems and cognitive function of children with different subtypes of ADHD, and the correlation between their intelligence level, PSQ, SNAP-Ⅳ and cognitive function were compared by SPSS 22.0 software.Results:The results of PSQ questionnaire showed that ADHD-C ((1.11±0.59), (1.59±0.58), (1.62±0.50)) had higher behavior problems, impulse-hyperactivity and hyperactivity index than ADHD-I ((0.64±0.27), (1.01±0.54), (1.09±0.32)) and ADHD-HI ((0.75±0.35), (1.22±0.58), (1.05±0.38)) ( F=9.374, F=7.644, F=15.176, P<0.05), while ADHD-C (2.01±0.55) had higher learning problems than ADHD-I (1.66±0.58) and ADHD-HI (1.16±0.43) ( F=11.709, P<0.05). In terms of cognitive function, there were differences in language understanding ability, digital reasoning ability, sequence relationship and short-term memory ability ( χ2=6.734, 7.192, 7.822, 8.646, all P<0.05) among the three groups of ADHD children. ADHD-HI (4.00(4.00, 5.00), 5.00(4.25, 6.00), 5.00(4.00, 7.00)) had better language understanding ability, digital reasoning ability and sequence relationship than ADHD-I (3.00(2.00, 5.00), 3.00(2.50, 6.00), 4.00(3.00, 5.50)). The short-term memory ability of ADHD-HI (5.00(4.00, 6.00)) and ADHD-C (5.00(4.00, 6.00)) were better than that of ADHD-I (4.00(3.00, 5.00)). The intellectual structure of ADHD children was positively correlated with spatial cognitive ability, sequential relationship, Raven reasoning test, short term memory span and Wisconsin card sorting test ( r=0.25-0.57, all P<0.05). Children′s learning problems and psychosomatic problems were negatively correlated with their digital comprehension ability ( r=-0.26, -0.25, both P<0.05). Conclusion:The behavioral problems and cognitive function of children with different subtypes of ADHD are different and have a certain correlation.

16.
Psicol. (Univ. Brasília, Online) ; 37: e37326, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1155128

ABSTRACT

Resumo O estudo investigou a influência de variáveis cognitivas na leitura de crianças com desenvolvimento típico e em crianças com Transtorno de Déficit de Atenção e Hiperatividade (TDAH). Participaram 70 crianças do 2° ao 7° anos do Ensino Fundamental, divididas nos grupos: TDAH e controle. Foram aplicadas tarefas de consciência fonológica, memória de trabalho fonológica, nomeação seriada rápida, vocabulário, quociente de inteligência (QI), atenção, flexibilidade cognitiva e leitura (precisão, fluência e compreensão). Análises de regressão linear múltipla indicaram que a nomeação seriada rápida e a consciência fonológica contribuíram fortemente para a precisão, a fluência e a compreensão de leitura. O TDAH influenciou somente na compreensão. Argumentou-se que provavelmente os componentes da função executiva são os responsáveis pela relação entre TDAH e compreensão de leitura.


Abstract This study investigated the influence of cognitive variables on reading in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and children with typical development. Seventy children from 2th to 7th grade took part in this study and were divided into two groups: ADHD and control. Tasks of phonological awareness, phonological work memory, rapid automatized naming, vocabulary, intelligence quotient (IQ), attention, cognitive flexibility and reading (accuracy, fluency, and comprehension) were applied. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that rapid serial naming and phonological awareness strongly contributed to reading accuracy, reading fluency, and comprehension. ADHD only influenced comprehension, probably because of its relation to executive function.

17.
Aval. psicol ; 20(4): 495-501, out.-diez. 2021. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1350181

ABSTRACT

The literature has shown that preadolescents with ADHD might benefit from specific actions such as the presence of corrective feedback during a task. In order to examine these effects, a sample of preadolescents was selected and divided into two groups: a control group and a target group with ADHD. Participants had to perform a decision-making task, with a counterbalanced design, presented in blocks with and without corrective feedback. Two different analysis procedures were carried out: the traditional student's t-test and an ex-Gaussian fit. The reaction times were much lower for in the feedback block than in the control blocks, as well as in the control group than in the adolescents with ADHD. The difference in feedback reached or approached a statistically significant level, however, the difference between the control and ADHD group did not show statistical significance (except for accuracy under feedback condition). In terms of component distribution analysis, a specific parameter, named τ, was much lower for the feedback condition and for the control group. (AU)


Pré-adolescentes com TDAH podem se beneficiar com feedback corretivo durante uma tarefa. Para examinar esses efeitos, selecionou-se uma amostra de pré-adolescentes dividida em dois grupos: um controle e um experimental com TDAH. Os participantes realizaram uma tarefa de tomada de decisão com e sem feedback corretivo. Dois procedimentos de análise foram realizados: o teste t de Student e um modelo gaussiano. Os tempos de reação foram menores para o grupo que recebeu o feedback corretivo, bem como para o grupo de adolescentes com TDAH. A diferença no feedback atingiu o nível estatístico ou se aproximou dele, porém a diferença entre o grupo controle e de pré-adolescentes com TDAH não atingiu a significância estatística (exceto para a precisão na condição feedback). Quanto à análise de distribuição de componentes, o parâmetro τ foi muito inferior para a condição de feedback e para o grupo controle. (AU)


Preadolescentes con TDAH pueden beneficiarse de variables específicas, como la retroalimentación correctiva durante una tarea. Se seleccionó una muestra de preadolescentes dividida en dos grupos para examinar estos efectos. Los participantes realizaron una tarea de toma de decisiones, presentado en bloques con y sin retroalimentación correctiva. Se llevaron a cabo dos procedimientos de análisis diferentes: la prueba t de Student y un modelo gaussiano. Los tiempos de reacción fueron más bajos para el bloque con retroalimentación correctiva, así como para el grupo de adolescentes con TDAH. La diferencia en la retroalimentación alcanzó o se acercó al nivel estadístico, pero la diferencia entre el grupo de control y los preadolescentes con TDAH no alcanzó la significación estadística (excepto por la precisión en la condición de retroalimentación). En términos del análisis de distribución de componentes, un parámetro τ fue menor para los grupos de retroalimentación y control. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Cognition , Feedback, Psychological , Pilot Projects , Control Groups , Decision Making
18.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352749

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: La familia ha sido considerada el contexto social que más influencia ejerce para la formación y desarrollo de cualquier individuo. El objetivo de este trabajo es destacar la importancia de la calidad de vida de las familias que experimentan la presencia de un integrante con Trastorno por Déficit de Atención e Hiperactividad (TDAH) y cómo, desde las áreas profesionales de educación física y trabajo social, se puede plantear una propuesta para su tratamiento integral. Para ello, se revisan diversos estudios publicados en los últimos años, analizando las diferentes formas en las que han abordado la calidad de vida en el contexto familiar. Se espera que el análisis de estos aportes incite en la innovación y promoción de nuevas formas de abordar la calidad de vida familiar en infantes con TDAH.


ABSTRACT: Family has been identified as the most influential social context for the formation and development of any individual. The objective of this work is to highlight the importance of the quality of life of families that experience the presence of a member with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and through the professional areas of physical education and social work, an approach for its comprehensive treatment is given. To do this, several studies published in recent years were reviewed, analyzing the different ways in which they have addressed the quality of life in the family context. The analysis of these contributions is expected to influence the innovation and promotion of new ways by addressing the quality of family life in infants with ADHD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Physical Education and Training , Quality of Life , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/therapy , Family Health , Exercise Therapy , Social Work , Exercise
19.
Clin. biomed. res ; 41(2): 100-106, 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1293189

ABSTRACT

Este artigo apresenta o processo de ideação e prototipação de um aplicativo para auxílio de pacientes com TDAH no autogerenciamento de hábitos diários para uma maior adesão ao tratamento e no gerenciamento de tempo, agregando assim muito valor à sociedade. Este processo foi proposto na primeira edição do evento "Experiência HCPA ­ TDAH Hackathon". O método usado foi a pesquisa de campo com pacientes com TDAH e validação de hipóteses. Justifica-se pela necessidade de uma ferramenta confiável, permitindo que os pacientes com TDAH possam centralizar as ações em apenas um aplicativo no celular: seus compromissos, lembretes de medicação e gerenciamento de tempo, entre outras facilidades, sendo o meio mais viável e efetivo para a adesão ao tratamento. (AU)


This article presents the process of ideation and prototyping of an application to helppatients with ADHD in self-management of daily habits to a greater adherence to treatment and time management, thus adding a lot of value to society. This process was proposed in the first edition of the HCPA Experience ­ ADHD Hackathon event. The method used was field research of patients with ADHD and validation of hypotheses. The need for a reliable tool is justified, where ADHD patients will be able to centralize their appointments, medication reminders, time management, among other facilities in just one mobile application, being the most viable and effective means of adhering to treatment. (AU)


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Mobile Applications , Treatment Adherence and Compliance
20.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 42(4): 340-347, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145185

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Deficits in executive functioning, especially in inhibitory control, are present in children born very premature and/or with very low birth weight (VP/VLBW) and in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objective To evaluate whether ADHD imposes additional inhibitory control (IC) deficits in preschoolers born VP/VLBW. Methods 79 VP/VLBW (4 to 7 years) children were assessed for ADHD using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children - Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). IC was measured with Conners' Kiddie Continuous Performance Test (K-CPT 2) and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Preschool Version (BRIEF-P).Results: No significant differences were found between ADHD (n = 24) and non-ADHD children (n = 55) for any of the measures (p = 0.062 to p = 0.903). Both groups had deficits in most K-CPT 2 scores compared to normative samples, indicating poor IC and inconsistent reaction times. Conclusions ADHD does not aggravate IC deficits in VP/VLBW children. Either neuropsychological tasks and parent reports of executive functions (EFs) may not be sensitive enough to differentiate VP/VLBW preschoolers with and without ADHD, or these children's EFs are already so impaired that there is not much room for additional impairments imposed by ADHD.

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