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Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 3433-3446, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922806


RAS, a member of the small GTPase family, functions as a binary switch by shifting between inactive GDP-loaded and active GTP-loaded state. RAS gain-of-function mutations are one of the leading causes in human oncogenesis, accounting for ∼19% of the global cancer burden. As a well-recognized target in malignancy, RAS has been intensively studied in the past decades. Despite the sustained efforts, many failures occurred in the earlier exploration and resulted in an 'undruggable' feature of RAS proteins. Phosphorylation at several residues has been recently determined as regulators for wild-type and mutated RAS proteins. Therefore, the development of RAS inhibitors directly targeting the RAS mutants or towards upstream regulatory kinases supplies a novel direction for tackling the anti-RAS difficulties. A better understanding of RAS phosphorylation can contribute to future therapeutic strategies. In this review, we comprehensively summarized the current advances in RAS phosphorylation and provided mechanistic insights into the signaling transduction of associated pathways. Importantly, the preclinical and clinical success in developing anti-RAS drugs targeting the upstream kinases and potential directions of harnessing allostery to target RAS phosphorylation sites were also discussed.

Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 99-105, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-329687


The human body is now viewed as a complex ecosystem that on a cellular and gene level is mainly prokaryotic. The mammalian liver synthesizes and secretes hydrophilic primary bile acids, some of which enter the colon during the enterohepatic circulation, and are converted into numerous hydrophobic metabolites which are capable of entering the portal circulation, returned to the liver, and in humans, accumulating in the biliary pool. Bile acids are hormones that regulate their own synthesis, transport, in addition to glucose and lipid homeostasis, and energy balance. The gut microbial community through their capacity to produce bile acid metabolites distinct from the liver can be thought of as an "endocrine organ" with potential to alter host physiology, perhaps to their own favor. We propose the term "sterolbiome" to describe the genetic potential of the gut microbiome to produce endocrine molecules from endogenous and exogenous steroids in the mammalian gut. The affinity of secondary bile acid metabolites to host nuclear receptors is described, the potential of secondary bile acids to promote tumors, and the potential of bile acids to serve as therapeutic agents are discussed.