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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 368-373, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440329

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: To investigate if the administration of boric acid (BA) would exert any protective effect against possible nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by the exposure to acrylamide (ACR) in rats. In our study, we used a total of 28 rats that were divided into four equal groups. Group 1: the control group which was not treated with any procedure. Group 2: the ACR group that was administered ACR 50 mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal (i.p) route for 14 days. Group 3: the BA group that was administered BA 200 mg/kg/ day via gavage via peroral (p.o) route for 14 days. Group 4: the ACR+BA group that was administered BA simultaneously with ACR. Total antioxidant and oxidant (TAS/TOS) capacities were measured in all groups at the end of the experiment. In addition, the specimens obtained were evaluated with histopathological examination. Studies showed that the ACR and ACr+BA groups were not significantly different in terms of hepatic TAS level while the TOS level was higher in the ACR group than the ACR+BA group. The groups did not show any significant difference regarding renal TAS and TOS levels. In the histopathological examination of the hepatic tissue, the histopathological injury score of the ACR group was significantly higher than those of the other groups whereas it was significantly lower in the ACR+BA group than the ACR group. Our study concluded that Boric acid had a protective effect against acrylamide- induced hepatotoxicity, but not against nephrotoxicity.


El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar si la administración de ácido bórico (BA) ejercería algún efecto protector frente a la posible nefrotoxicidad y hepatotoxicidad inducida por la exposición a acrilamida (ACR) en ratas. En nuestro estudio, utilizamos un total de 28 ratas que se dividieron en cuatro grupos iguales. Grupo 1: grupo control que no fue tratado. Grupo 2: grupo ACR al que se le administró ACR 50 mg/kg/día por vía intraperitoneal (i.p) durante 14 días. Grupo 3: grupo BA al que se le administró BA 200 mg/kg/día por sonda por vía peroral (p.o) durante 14 días. Grupo 4: grupo ACR+BA al que se administró BA simultáneamente con ACR. Las capacidades antioxidantes y oxidantes totales (TAS/TOS) se midieron en todos los grupos al final del experimento. Además, los especímenes obtenidos fueron evaluados con examen histopatológico. Los estudios demostraron que los grupos ACR y ACr+BA no fueron significativamente diferentes en términos del nivel hepático de TAS, mientras que el nivel de TOS fue mayor en el grupo ACR que en el grupo ACR+BA. Los grupos no mostraron ninguna diferencia significativa con respecto a los niveles renales de TAS y TOS. En el examen histopatológico del tejido hepático, la puntuación de lesión histopatológica del grupo ACR fue significativamente mayor que la de los otros grupos, mientras que fue significativamente menor en el grupo ACR+BA que en el grupo ACR. Nuestro estudio concluyó que el ácido bórico tiene un efecto protector contra la hepatotoxicidad inducida por acrilamida, pero no contra la nefrotoxicidad.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Boric Acids/administration & dosage , Acrylamide/toxicity , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Biochemistry , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/physiopathology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/physiopathology
2.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 232-247, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971483

ABSTRACT

Drastic surges in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce cell apoptosis, while most chemotherapy drugs lead to the accumulation of ROS. Here, we constructed an organic compound, arsenical N-‍(4-(1,3,2-dithiarsinan-2-yl)phenyl)acrylamide (AAZ2), which could prompt the ROS to trigger mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in gastric cancer (GC). Mechanistically, by targeting pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), AAZ2 caused metabolism alteration and the imbalance of redox homeostasis, followed by the inhibition of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and leading to the activation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2)/Bcl2-associated X (Bax)/caspase-9 (Cas9)/Cas3 cascades. Importantly, our in vivo data demonstrated that AAZ2 could inhibit the growth of GC xenograft. Overall, our data suggested that AAZ2 could contribute to metabolic abnormalities, leading to mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis by targeting PDK1 in GC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Signal Transduction , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Apoptosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Cell Line, Tumor
3.
Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences ; : 340-347, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-996581

ABSTRACT

@#Acrylamide (AA) is a chemical substance which is used as a soil stabilizing agent and in the production of copolymers and polymers since 1970. The presence of an AA adduct in food was observed in rats fed with fried food which led to a substantial increase in levels of hemoglobin adduct. Foods that are rich in carbohydrate when prepared at high temperature (above 120 ºC) by baking, toasting, frying, roasting or cooking results in the production of AA by the reaction of the amino acid with glucose present in it. Several studies observed AA toxicity on nervous system, reproductive system, and immune system. To justify this toxicity there is not a clear mechanism described. In this review article the mechanisms of AA toxicity on urogenital system and role of antioxidants against its toxicity has been reviewed. According to previous studies the main factor that induces AA toxicity is oxidative stress. AA treated groups revealed degeneration of the kidney’s epithelial lining and the glomerular tuft. Adverse effect on reproductive system by AA has been evidenced by sperm-head abnormalities, dominant lethal effects, and testicular epithelial tissue degeneration. Therefore, it is advised that modifying of food processing methods and consuming lot of vegetables and fruits containing antioxidants. These antioxidants give us some supports to the cells of our body organs against the AA sources which cause cell defects.

4.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(6)dic. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421796

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Acrylamide (AA) is a widely used chemical and an important monomer in various industrial and laboratory processes. In addition, AA is formed during processing of starchy food at high temperature. The aim of our study was to examine effects of subchronic AA treatment on adult rat liver using histological, stereological and biochemical methods. Adult male Wistar rats were treated with AA at doses of 25 mg/kg b.w. and 50 mg/kg b.w. for three weeks. Stereological analysis showed decrease of volume density of hepatocyte cytoplasm, and increase of volume density of hepatocyte nuclei and nucleocytoplasmic ratio in AA50mg group. Immunohistochemical analysis of the liver sections showed that treatment with AA50mg increase the percentage of PCNA positive cells, while the percentage of caspase 3 positive cells was not affected by AA. PAS-staining showed that glycogen content in hepatocytes was not affected by AA. Serological examination revealed increase of lipid peroxidation in AA50mg group, while total protein concentration, protein thiol group level, as well as, paraoxonase 1 activity were not changed in AA-exposed animals. Stereological and immunohistochemical analyses of adult liver sections suggest increase of proliferation in AA50mg group, while increase of lipid peroxidation in serum of AA50mg group indicates oxidative stress induction.


La acrilamida (AA) es un químico ampliamente utilizado y un monómero importante en varios procesos industriales y de laboratorio. Además, la AA se forma durante el procesamiento de alimentos ricos en almidón a altas temperaturas. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue examinar los efectos del tratamiento con AA subcrónica en el hígado de rata adulta utilizando métodos histológicos, estereológicos y bioquímicos. Se trataron ratas Wistar macho adultas con AA a dosis de 25 mg/kg p.v. y 50 mg/kg de peso corporal por tres semanas. El análisis estereológico mostró una disminución de la densidad del volumen del citoplasma de los hepatocitos y un aumento de la densidad del volumen de los núcleos de los hepatocitos y la relación nucleocitoplasmática en el grupo de 50 mg de AA. El análisis inmunohistoquímico de las secciones de hígado mostró que el tratamiento con 50 mg de AA aumentó el porcentaje de células positivas para PCNA, mientras que el porcentaje de células positivas para caspasa 3 no se vio afectado por AA. La tinción con PAS mostró que el contenido de glucógeno en los hepatocitos no se vio afectado por AA. El examen serológico reveló un aumento de la peroxidación de lípidos en el grupo de 50 mg de AA, mientras que la concentración de proteína total, el nivel del grupo tiol de proteína y la actividad de paraoxonasa 1 no cambiaron en los animales expuestos a AA. Los análisis estereológicos e inmunohistoquímicos de secciones de hígado adulto sugieren un aumento de la proliferación en el grupo AA50 mg, mientras que el aumento de la peroxidación lipídica en suero del grupo AA50 mg indica inducción de estrés oxidativo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Acrylamide/administration & dosage , Liver/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
5.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-219624

ABSTRACT

Background: Acrylamide input on gastric mucosa lesion is known but not fully elucidated. In this study the impact of dietary acrylamide on gastric acid secretion; an aggressive factor capable of causing erosion of the stomach tissue was evaluated to explain possible reason why acrylamide could induce gastric mucosa lesion. Thus, the study focuses on the impact of dietary acrylamide on gastric acid secretion and its association with mucosa lesion. Materials and Methods: Fifteen (15) male Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped into three groups (n = 5). Group 1 (control) was fed with standard rat diet, Group 2 and 3 were fed with standard rat diet contaminated with acrylamide doses (7.5mg/kg and 15mg/kg respectively) reported to compromise gastric mucosa integrity. The experimental animals were allowed free access to their various feed and drinking water ad libitum for 4 weeks. Impact of the dietary acrylamide on gastric acid secretion, gastric acidity and stomach tissue oxidative stress biomarkers (lipid peroxidation (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and Catalase, CAT) were determined. Results: Average dietary consumption across the groups was 90.88% per week. Acrylamide contaminated diet significantly increased gastric acid secretion and gastric acidity in a dose dependent manner when compared to control, P<0.01. Dietary acrylamide also induced oxidative stress on stomach tissues by significantly increasing MDA as well as decreasing SOD, GPx, and CAT of the stomach in a dose dependent manner when compared to control, P<0.01. Conclusion: Findings from the study suggests that oxidative stress induced on stomach tissue by dietary acrylamide could be as a result of the increase in gastric acid secretion and gastric acidity observed.

6.
Rev. medica electron ; 44(2)abr. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1409734

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN En abril de 2002, un grupo de investigadores suecos dio a conocer que algunos alimentos ricos en almidón y pobres en proteínas, sometidos a procesos con temperaturas mayores a 120 °C (fritura, horneado, asado y tostado) contenían el procancerígeno conocido como acrilamida, un "probable carcinógeno para los humanos" -mutágeno de categoría 2 y tóxico para la reproducción de categoría 3 según la Unión Europea-, comportándose como neurotóxico tras exposiciones agudas. La revisión tiene como objetivo mostrar una actualización de los avances en investigaciones sobre la toxicidad de la acrilamida como un aspecto preocupante en el tema alimentario, y exponer los mecanismos de la formación de este compuesto en los alimentos, sus efectos tóxicos, los métodos analíticos usados en su determinación, los niveles detectados en distintos alimentos y estudios recientes sobre su ingesta. Para ello se realizaron búsquedas en las bases de datos PubMed, SciELO, LILACS y ClinicalKey. Los estudios epidemiológicos llevan poco tiempo, y en su mayoría son inconsistentes respecto al cáncer en humanos, no obstante, se complementan con el empleo de biomarcadores, donde se obtienen resultados en cuanto a la toxicidad cancerígena y no cancerígena más fiables, con menor margen de error. Por el momento, la única recomendación para mitigar su exposición es la divulgación sobre los riesgos del consumo excesivo de alimentos fritos, demasiado tostados o procesados, y seguir una dieta equilibrada y saludable.


ABSTRACT In April 2002, a group of Swedish researchers revealed that some foods rich in starch and poor in protein, subjected to processes with temperatures above 120 °C (frying, baking, roasting and toasting) contained the procancerogen known as acrylamide, a "probable carcinogen for human"-mutagen of category 2 and toxic to category 3 reproduction according to European Union-behaving as neurotoxic after acute exposures. The review aims to show an update of the advances in research on the toxicity of acrylamide as a worrying aspect in the food issue, and to expose the mechanisms of formation of this compound in food, its toxic effects, the analytical methods used in its determination, the levels detected in different foods, and recent studies on its intake. For that, searches were conducted in PubMed, SciELO, LILACS and ClinicalKey. Epidemiological studies take a short time, and are mostly inconsistent with respect to cancer in human. However, they are complemented using biomarkers where results are obtained in terms of the most reliable carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic toxicity, with less margins of error. For now, the only recommendation to mitigate exposition is to divulge the risk of excessive consumption of fried, very roasted or processed foods, and to follow an equilibrated and healthy diet.

7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e21010, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420430

ABSTRACT

Abstract Acrylamide is a neurotoxic compound. Moreover, anakinra is an interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist used in rheumatoid arthritis treatment. This study investigated the effect of anakinra on acrylamide-related neuropathy and neuropathic pain. Acrylamide exposure caused a significant decrease in the pain threshold; an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß) levels; and a decrease in total glutathione (tGSH) values in the sciatic nerve. This indicates hyperalgesia presence, oxidative stress, and peripheral nerve tissue inflammation. Anakinra treatment significantly reduced the MDA, IL-1ß, and TNF-α levels, and increased the pain threshold and mean tGSH values. The analgesic effect of anakinra was 67.9% at the first hour, increasing to 74.9% and 76.7% at the second and third hours, respectively. The group receiving acrylamide exhibited histopathological changes (e.g., swollen and degenerated axons, hypertrophic and hyperplasic Schwann cells, and congested vessels). The use of anakinra significantly improved these morphological changes. Anakinra is concluded to reduce neuropathic pain and prevent neurotoxic effect of acrylamide on peripheral nerves due to its analgesic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Acrylamide/adverse effects , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , Inflammation/classification , Peripheral Nerves/abnormalities , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/pathology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Pain Threshold/classification , Oxidative Stress/drug effects
8.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 35: e210079, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387496

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Acrylamide is a toxic compound widely used in industrial sectors. Acrylamide causes reactive oxygen species formation and the subsequent lipid peroxidation reaction, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of oxidative damage. Taxifolin is a flavonoid with antioxidant properties that inhibit reactive oxygen species formation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the preventive effect of taxifolin on acrylamide-induced oxidative heart damage. Methods The rats were divided into three groups: Acrylamide, Acrylamide+Taxifolin , and Healthy group. Water and food intake and body weight alterations were recorded daily. Malondialdehyde, total glutathione, nuclear factor kappa-B, total oxidant status, and total antioxidant status levels were analyzed from the heart tissue. Troponin-I levels, the parameter known as a cardiac biomarker, were analyzed from the blood sample. The cardiac histopathologic examination was also performed. Results In the Acrylamide group animals, the malondialdehyde, nuclear factor kappa-B, total oxidant status, and troponin-I levels were significantly higher compared to the ones of Acrylamide+Taxifolin and Healthy groups. The levels of total glutathione and total antioxidant status were significantly lower compared to Acrylamide+Taxifolin and Healthy groups'. Additionally, in the Acrylamide group, body weight gain, food and water intake, significantly declined compared to the Acrylamide+Taxifolin and Healthy groups. However, in the Acrylamide+Taxifolin group, taxifolin supplementation brought these values close to Healthy group ones. Furthermore, taxifolin treatment ameliorated structural myocardial damage signs induced by acrylamide. Conclusion Acrylamide exposure significantly induced oxidative damage to rat heart tissue. Taxifolin was able to improve the toxic consequences of acrylamide biochemically and histopathologically, possibly due to its antioxidant properties.


RESUMO Objetivo A acrilamida é um composto tóxico amplamente utilizado em setores industriais. Ela causa a formação de reativas de oxigênio e subsequente reação de peroxidação lipídica, que desempenham um papel importante na patogênese do dano oxidativo. A taxifolina é um flavonóide com propriedades antioxidantes que inibe a formação de reativas de oxigênio. Neste estudo, o objetivo foi investigar o efeito preventivo da taxifolina no dano cardíaco oxidativo induzido por acrilamida. Métodos Os ratos foram divididos em três grupos: Acrilamida, Acrilamida+Taxifolina e grupo Saudável. Ingestão de água e comida e alterações de peso corporal dos animais foram registradas diariamente. Malondialdeído, glutationa total, fator nuclear kappa-B, estado oxidante total e estado antioxidante total foram analisados no tecido cardíaco dos ratos. Os níveis de troponina-I, - parâmetro conhecido como biomarcador cardíaco, foram analisados a partir de amostra de sangue. Um exame histopatológico cardíaco também foi realizado. Resultados Nos animais do grupo Acrilamida, os níveis de malondialdeído, fator nuclear kappa-B, estado oxidante total e troponina-I foram significativamente maiores em comparação com os do grupo Acrilamida+Taxifolina e Saudável. Os níveis de glutationa total e estado antioxidante total foram significativamente mais baixos em comparação com grupos Acrilamida+Taxifolina e Saudável. Além disso, no grupo Acrilamida, o ganho de peso corporal e a ingestão de alimentos e água diminuíram significativamente em comparação com os animais dos grupos Acrilamida+Taxifolina e Saudável. No entanto, no grupo Acrilamida+Taxifolina, a suplementação com taxifolina aproximou esses valores aos do grupo Saudável. Além disso, o tratamento com taxifolina melhorou os sinais de dano miocárdico estrutural induzidos pela acrilamida. Conclusão A exposição à acrilamida induziu significativamente o dano oxidativo do tecido cardíaco dos ratos. A taxifolina foi capaz de melhorar as consequências tóxicas da acrilamida bioquímica e histopatologicamente, possivelmente devido às suas propriedades antioxidantes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Acrylamide/adverse effects , Acrylamide/toxicity , Heart/drug effects
9.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine ; (12): 223-232, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-950192

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the possible effects of naringin on acrylamide-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250 g were randomly divided into five groups. The control group was given intragastric (i.g.) saline (1 mL) for 10 d. The acrylamide group was given i.g. acrylamide in saline (38.27 mg/kg titrated to 1 mL) for 10 d. The treatment groups were administered with naringin in saline (50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively) for 10 d and given i.g. acrylamide (38.27 mg/kg) 1 h after naringin injection. The naringin group was given i.g. naringin (100 mg/kg) alone for 10 d. On day 11, intracardiac blood samples were obtained from the rats when they were under anesthesia, after which they were euthanized. Urea and creatinine concentrations of blood serum samples were analyzed with an autoanalyzer. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, tumor necrosis factor-β, nuclear factor-κB, interleukin (IL)-33, IL-6, IL-1β, cyclooxygenase-2, kidney injury molecule-1, mitogen-activated protein kinase-1, and caspase-3 in kidney tissues. Renal tissues were also evaluated by histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations for 8-OHdG and Bcl-2. Results: Naringin attenuated acrylamide-induced nephrotoxicity by significantly decreasing serum urea and creatinine levels. Naringin increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities and decreased malondialdehyde levels in kidney tissues. In addition, naringin reduced the levels of inflammatory and apoptotic parameters in kidney tissues. The histopathological assay showed that acrylamide caused histopathological changes and DNA damage, which were ameliorated by naringin. Conclusions: Naringin attenuated inflammation, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and oxidative DNA damage in acrylamide-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

10.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(4): 963-968, ago. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385459

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Acrylamide is a toxic chemical substance with wide implementation in chemical industry. In 2002 the presence of acrylamide was discovered in foods rich in starch which are prepared at high temperatures. The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological changes in the gastric tissue in Wistar rats induced with injection of oral acrylamide. The research was carried out 6 groups of 5 animals (Wistar rats), two control groups and four experimental groups. Histological changes in the stomach tissue of Wistar rats are seen as a direct slight damage of the surface epithelium, accompanynig inflammatory reaction and renewal of the epithelium. Examined inflammatory and degenerative parameters show a positive correlation with respect to dose and time of exposition to acrylamide. Knowing the mechanism of action of these toxic substances, allows to apply adequate prevention in nutrition and make an appropriate choice of therapeutic methods.


RESUMEN: La acrilamida es una sustancia química tóxica con amplia aplicación en la industria química. En el año 2002 se determinó la presencia de acrilamida en alimentos ricos en almidón preparados a altas temperaturas. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar los cambios histopatológicos en el tejido gástrico en ratas Wistar inducidos con inyección de acrilamida oral. La investigación se llevó a cabo en 6 grupos de 5 animales, dos grupos control y cuatro grupos experimentales. Los cambios histológicos en el tejido del estómago de las ratas Wistar se ven como un ligero daño directo del epitelio superficial, que acompaña a la reacción inflamatoria y la renovación del epitelio. Los parámetros inflamatorios y degenerativos examinados muestran una correlación positiva con respecto a la dosis y el tiempo de exposición a la acrilamida. El conocimiento del mecanismo de acción de estas sustancias tóxicas permite aplicar una prevención adecuada en nutrición y hacer una elección oportuna de los métodos terapéuticos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Stomach/drug effects , Acrylamide/toxicity , Stomach/pathology , Administration, Oral , Rats, Wistar , Acrylamide/administration & dosage
11.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 48(1)feb. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388458

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Diversas agencias internacionales han considerado que la acrilamida puede producir efectos dañinos en la salud de la población debido a una serie de estudios toxicológicos realizados en modelos animales, en los cuales se observan efectos cancerígenos, genotóxicos, neurotóxicos, inmunológicos y en la salud reproductiva. A pesar de la creciente preocupación en diversos países sobre los potenciales efectos en salud humana, los organismos encargados de determinar límites toxicológicos no han definido aún los límites máximos de acrilamida que pueden estar presente en los diferentes tipos de alimentos para que sean inocuos para la población. El objetivo de esta actualización es revisar las regulaciones existentes sobre la acrilamida y enfatizar la necesidad de establecer límites que la industria alimentaria pueda aplicar efectivamente, además de la necesidad de contar con valores máximos diarios tolerables para prevenir los efectos nocivos para la salud de la población.


ABSTRACT Several international agencies have considered that acrylamide can induce deleterious effects in human health due to a series of toxicological studies conducted in animal models, in which carcinogenic, genotoxic, neurotoxic, immunological and reproductive effects have been observed. Despite a growing concern about these effects on human health, agencies responsible for determining toxicological limits in various countries have not yet defined the maximum levels of acrylamide that may be present in the different types of food to be safe for the population. The objective of this updated review is to evaluate the existing regulations on acrylamide and emphasize the need to establish limits that the food industry can effectively apply, in addition to the need to have tolerable daily maximum values to prevent harmful effects on the population health.

12.
Acta cir. bras ; 36(10): e361005, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1349864

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Reactive oxygen species (ROS), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) have been shown in the pathogenesis of acrylamide neurotoxicity. Hippophae rhamnoides L. extract (HRE) has a cytoprotective effect by stabilizing the production of ROS, IL-1β and TNF-α. The objective of the article was to investigate the effect of HRE on acrylamide-induced brain damage in rats biochemically and histopathologically. Methods: To the HRE+acrylamide only (ACR) group (n=6) of the animals, HRE was administered orally at a dose of 50 mg / kg into the stomach by gavage. The same volume of solvent (olive oil) was administered orally to the ACR (n=6) and healthy (HG) (n=6) groups. One hour after HRE administration, acrylamide was given orally at a dose of 20 mg/kg to HRE+ACR and ACR groups in the same way. This procedure was repeated once a day for 30 days. At the end of this period, brain tissues extracted from animals killed with 50 mg/kg thiopental anesthesia were examined biochemically and histopathologically. Results: It has been shown that HRE prevents the increase of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), IL-1β and TNF-α with acrylamide and the decrease of total glutathione (tGSH) and glutathione reductase (GSHRd) levels in brain tissue. Conclusions: HRE may be useful in the treatment of acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Brain Injuries/chemically induced , Brain Injuries/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Hippophae/chemistry , Oxidative Stress , Malondialdehyde , Antioxidants/pharmacology
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1767-1778, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134510

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Acrylamide (ACR) is a cytotoxic and carcinogenic material. It is a product of a Maillard reaction during the cooking of many types of fried fast food, e.g. potato chip fries, and chicken nuggets. ACR has a severe toxic effect on different body organs. This study investigates the hepatotoxic effect of ACR, and the protective effect of ascorbic acid and silymarin. For this purpose, forty adult, male, albino rats were divided into four groups and received the following treatments for fourteen days: Group I: (the control) normal saline; Group II: ACR only; Group III: ACR and ascorbic acid; and Group IV: ACR and silymarin. Under a light microscope, the liver from rats treated with ACR only presented disturbed liver architecture, degenerated hepatocytes, reduced glycogen contents, congested central vein, and increased collagen fibres with areas of fibrosis. Immunohistochemical examination revealed an increased mean number of CD68-, and α-SMA-positive cells. This indicates the presence of large numbers of stellate macrophages (Kupffer cells) and Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The combination of ACR with either ascorbic acid or silymarin resulted in less hepatic degeneration, less fibrosis and fewer CD68 and α-SMA positive cells compared to the ACR only group. In conclusion, treatment with silymarin or ascorbic acid along with ACR appears to alleviate ACR-induced hepatotoxicity with more protection in silymarin treated rats.


RESUMEN: La acrilamida (ACR) es un material citotóxico y cancerígeno. Es producto de la reacción de Maillard durante la cocción de muchos tipos de comida rápida y frita, por ejemplo: papas fritas y nuggets de pollo. ACR tiene un efecto tóxico severo en diferentes órganos del cuerpo. Este estudio investigó el efecto hepatotóxico del ACR y el efecto protector del ácido ascórbico y la silimarina. Con este fin, cuarenta ratas albinas machos adultas se dividieron en cuatro grupos y recibieron los siguientes tratamientos durante catorce días: Grupo I (control), solución salina normal; Grupo II, solo ACR; Grupo III, ACR y ácido ascórbico; y Grupo IV, ACR y silimarina. Bajo microscopio óptico, el hígado de ratas tratadas con ACR solo presentó alteración de su arquitectura, entre ellos hepatocitos degenerados, contenido reducido de glucógeno, vena central congestionada y aumento de fibras de colágeno con áreas de fibrosis. El examen inmunohistoquímico reveló un aumento del número medio de células CD68 y α-SMA positivas. Esto indica la presencia de un gran número de macrófagos estrellados (células de Kupffer) y células estrelladas hepáticas (HSC). La combinación de ACR con ácido ascórbico o silimarina resultó en menos degeneración hepática, menos fibrosis y menos células positivas para CD68 y α-SMA en comparación con el grupo de ACR solo. En conclusión, el tratamiento con silimarina o ácido ascórbico junto con ACR parece aliviar la hepatotoxicidad inducida por ACR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Silymarin/pharmacology , Acrylamide/toxicity , Liver/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Antigens, CD/analysis , Actins/analysis , Hepatocytes , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology
14.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-215865

ABSTRACT

Acrylamide is a potential carcinogen, with proven neurotoxicity and genotoxicity. In the current scenario, neurotoxicity and reproductive toxicity of acrylamide have not been conclusively established for humans; however, the same has been established in laboratory animal species. In this review, we summarize the factors dictating the exposure of acrylamide to humans and subsequently caused toxicity to humans. Further, we review the neurotoxic and genotoxic effects of acrylamide on animal models, with a particular emphasis on reproductive toxicity. We also talk about various strategies such as physical, chemical, and biological approaches, employed for acrylamide. Overall, we discuss that consumption of acrylamide through food products has toxic effects on the endocrine system, and it is deleterious for human health. A novel aspect of this review is that we provide a molecular mechanism of action in conjunction with clinical data on acrylamide toxicity along with relevant examples. This review also highlights the requirement of further research on the consequences of acrylamide toxicity, molecular modes of action, and the overall impact on the human body

15.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-210917

ABSTRACT

Present study was undertaken to study the neurotoxicity of oral acrylamide (ACR) and its amelioration using α-tocopherol, reduced glutathione (GSH) and hot aqueous extract (HAE) of Ocimum sanctum. Forty five male Wistar rats were divided into 12 groups. The study showed a significant reduction in the body weight of the rats fed with ACR in comparison to the other groups while body weight was restored in the rats fed with α-tocopherol and HAE. Neurotoxicity in rats fed with ACR was evident with the results of histopathology and oxidative stress (high MDA and decreased activities of GSH, SOD, GST and CAT in brain). Co-administration of α-tocopherol and HAE lowered these changes however, there was no marked improvement seen in neural damage but improvement was evident in behavioral as well as physiological changes at a marked point. Histopathology of brain in ACR alone fed group showed extensive neural degeneration and massive deposition of fibrin which was substantially decreased and ameliorated with the co-administration of α-tocopherol and HAE. These results support the oxidative stress results as well. Our results suggests that α-tocopherol and HAE can be useful for protecting brain tissue against ACR induced neurotoxicity through minimizing the free radical mediated oxidative stress

16.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 33: e180232, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057195

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Acrylamide is a potentially neurotoxic and carcinogenic chemical and naturally creates during the heating process of carbohydrate-rich foods, such as potato chips and breakfast cereals. Acrylamide might be ingested by people via consuming food that contains it. Therefore, we investigated the effect of acrylamidegiven orally to male and female rats on plasma retinoic acid and α-tocopherol and serum sialic acid and malondialdehyde levels. Method A total of 50 Wistar rats were used (25 female and 25 male, three-four weeks old). The rats of each sex were given 2 and 5mg/kg/day acrylamide via drinking water for 90 days. At the end of the treatment, the animals were euthanized by cervical dislocation. Blood specimens were collected through cardiac puncture, and serum and plasma samples were analysed using the high-performance liquid chromatography technique with a Ultraviolet detector. Results The analysis of the plasma and serum samples revealed that serum sialic acid and malondialdehyde levels in both sexes given 5mg/kg/day acrylamide were significantly increased, and the serum sialic acid levels were higher in female rats given 2mg/kg/day acrylamide. The plasma retinoic acid and α-tocopherol levels significantly decreased in both sexes given only the highest dose. Conclusion The results show that acrylamide causes an increase in oxidative stress and leads to a decrease in the levels of retinoic acid and α-tocopherol which play a role in the defense mechanism against this stress.


RESUMO Objetivo A acrilamida é um químico potencialmente neurotóxico e carcinogênico, sendo naturalmente criada durante o processo de aquecimento de alimentos ricos em carboidratos, como batatas fritas e cereais matinais. Dado que o composto pode ser ingerido através do consumo de alimentos, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo investigar o seu efeito, quando administrado oralmente a ratos, medindo-se os níveis plasmáticos de ácido retinoico e α-tocoferol, bem como os níveis séricos de ácido siálico e malondialdeído Métodos Foram utilizados cinquenta ratos Wistar, sendo metade de cada sexo, com idade entre três e quatro semanas. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos, os quais receberam diferentes doses diárias de acrilamida, via água potável, durante noventa dias: o primeiro ingeriu 2mg/kg/dia; e o segundo, 5mg/kg/dia. Ao final do tratamento, os animais foram eutanasiados por meio de luxação cervical. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas através de punção cardíaca, assim como amostras de soro e plasma foram medidas usando-se a técnica de cromatografia líquida de alta performance com detector de Ultravioleta. Resultados A análise das amostras de plasma e soro revelou que os níveis de ácido siálico e malondialdeído, em ratos de ambos os sexos tratados com acrilamida de 5mg/kg/dia, foram significativamente aumentados, ao passo que os níveis séricos de ácido siálico foram maiores em ratas tratadas com 2mg/kg/dia de acrilamida. Já os níveis plasmáticos de ácido retinoico e α-tocoferol diminuíram significativamente em ratos de ambos os sexos, quando tratados com a dose mais elevada.Concl Conclusão Os resultados mostram que a acrilamida causa um aumento no estresse oxidativo e leva a uma diminuição nos níveis de ácido retinoico e α-tocoferol, que desempenham um papel no mecanismo de defesa contra esse estresse.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Acrylamide , Tretinoin , Biomarkers , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid , Tocopherols , Malondialdehyde
17.
Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs ; (24): 5943-5948, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846011

ABSTRACT

Objective: To prepare morin-Cu2+ complex imprinted polymer (CIP) and use the polymer to extract morin from mulberry branch. Methods: Morin-Cu2+ CIPs were prepared in water-methanol polar solvent in the presence of Cu2+, acrylamide as the functional monomer. The CIPs were used as the solid phase extraction sorbent for extracting morin from mulberry branch. Results: The prepared CIPs had specific and selective adsorption on morin, the maximum adsorption capacity was 82 μmol/g, which was much higher than that of the traditional imprinted polymers relying on hydrogen bond and non-imprinted polymers. The separation factors of CIPs to daidzein and catechin were 4.81 and 4.02, respectively. CIPs had a significant enrichment effect on morin in the composition of the mulberry branch solid phase extraction elution solution. Conclusion: Morin-Cu2+ CIPs are excellent material used for the separation and enrichment of morin, the material has good selective adsorption ability and environmental adaptability.

18.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 45-47, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-798637

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the clinical manifestations, electrophysiology results, treatment and prognosis of acrylamide-induced toxic peripheral neuropathy.@*Methods@#The clinical data of 9 patients with acrylamide-induced toxic peripheral neuropathy, who were collected in Jinhua Municipal Central Hospital from January 2015 to August 2018, were retrospectively reviewed.@*Results@#This disease was characterized by distal limb numbness, some patients with hypoalgesia or allergy, deep sense loss, reduction or disappearance of tendon reflexes, and peeling. One case had muscle weakening and another case had cerebellar ataxia. Examination of electromyography showed only one case had spontaneous potential. Examination of nerve conduction showed that the amplitude decreased by 34 (38.6%) and the velocity decreased by 2 (2.3%) , the percentage of amplitude decreased was significantly higher than that of velocity decreased. The amplitude of sensory nerve decreased by 30 (57.7%) and motor nerve decreased by 4 (11.1%) , the percentage of sensory nerve amplitude decreased was significantly higher than that of motor nerve. After the treatment of nutrition, circulation improvement, numbness relief, glucocorticoid and other drugs, the numbness of the patients was relieved, but it did not completely disappear. Poor recovery of pain, deep sensation and tendon reflex in all patients. The results of reexamination of electromyography in 3 cases were worse than before. Therefore, it is suggested that peripheral nerve damage is irreversible.@*Conclusion@#This disease is characterized by distal limb numbness. Electrophysiological results suggest that the damage of sensory nerve axon is the main cause of the disease. Up to now, there is no effective drug to treat this disease, therefore, it is very important to do a good job of protection.

19.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 29(4): 483-487, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042276

ABSTRACT

Abstract Five compounds were isolated from the peels of chufa (Eleocharis dulcis (Burm.f.) Trin. ex Hensch., Cyperaceae). The chemical structures were determined by various spectroscopic analysis methods, including 1D and 2D NMR, and by comparison with literature data. All compounds were isolated for the first time from the peels of chufa. Compounds orcinol glucoside, leonuriside A, 2-hydroxymethyl-6-(5-hydroxy-2-methyl-phenoxy-methyl)-tetra-hydro-pyran-3,4,5-triol, and 1,4-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl-4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside showed good acrylamide formation activity, and acrylamide inhibition rates were 30.24, 32.81, 30.53, and 28.18%, respectively.

20.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-189634

ABSTRACT

Acrylamide, a known neurotoxin, reproductive toxin, genotoxin, probable carcinogen, hepatotoxin, and immunotoxin, has sparked intense curiosity due to its prominent presence in thermally processed, carbohydrate-rich foods. Acrylamide formation occurs via the Maillard reaction at temperatures ≥100ºC. Thorough investigations on acrylamide mitigation through the application of sulfur-containing compounds to raw materials, and during food processing have been conducted. Although prominent results in acrylamide reduction have been observed, limitations are considered. These limitations involve the social and economic challenges of a population, such as the Caribbean. This study seeks to answer just how effective the application of sulfur-containing compounds is in reducing acrylamide exposure, especially when this applies to a developing region.

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