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1.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 286-298, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999186

ABSTRACT

Gout is a metabolic disease closely associated with hyperuricemia and urate deposition. Because of the complex pathogenesis, high morbidity, multiple complications, and increasingly young patients, gout has received worldwide attention. Currently, western medicine mainly treats gout by lowering the uric acid level and reducing inflammation, which, however, causes serious adverse reactions and has contraindications. Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex (PCC) is the dried bark of Phellodendron chinense, with the effects of clearing heat, drying dampness, purging fire, detoxifying, and treating sores. Studies have shown that PCC and its active components have anti-inflammatory, pain-relieving, uric acid-lowering, and anti-gout activities, with extensive sources and high safety. PCC and its active components could prevent and treat gout through multi-targets and multi-pathways, whereas the systematic review remains to be carried out. Therefore, this paper summarized the pharmacological activities and mechanisms of PCC and its active components in the treatment of gout. The available studies have shown that PCC and its active components exert the anti-gout effect by lowering the uric acid level, reducing inflammation, alleviating oxidative stress, and regulationg intestinal flora, and protecting the kidneys. Particularly, the active components represented by alkaloids contribute obviously to the therapeutic effect of of PCC. Herein, we analyzed the problems and future development of the research on PCC, aiming to provide theoretical support and a scientific basis for the research and development of new drugs against gout.

2.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 276-286, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003432

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), consisting of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is a chronic relapsing inflammatory gastrointestinal disease closely associated with immune dysfunction. The pathogenesis of IBD is closely related to genetic susceptibility, immune system dysfunction, environmental change, and intestinal microbial dysbiosis. Modern research has found that macrophage polarization plays an important role in the development of IBD and can affect the level of inflammatory response, intestinal mucosal repair, and intestinal microbial balance, making it a potential target for IBD treatment. Increasing evidence suggests that traditional Chinese medicine and its active components can regulate macrophage polarization through multiple pathways and balance the M1/M2 macrophage ratio, thus inhibiting inflammatory response, promoting intestinal mucosal repair, and slowing down the progression of IBD. This article summarized the biological processes and targets involved in macrophage polarization and discussed its impact on IBD. It also provided a brief overview of the latest research on how traditional Chinese medicine and its active components can improve IBD by regulating macrophage polarization, so as to provide new directions and strategies for the clinical application of traditional Chinese medicine in IBD treatment.

3.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 290-298, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016489

ABSTRACT

Gastrointestinal motility disorder is an important cause of digestive system diseases. Patients often suffer from nausea, vomiting, gastric retention, gastroparesis, constipation, and many other symptoms, and their quality of life is seriously reduced. Prokinetic agents are routinely used in clinical practice, but their long-term use is prone to problems such as reduced efficacy and increased adverse reactions. Since the incidence of gastrointestinal diseases has continued to rise globally in recent years, there is an urgent need for clinical development of safe and effective treatment strategies. Aurantii Fructus, a traditional Chinese medicine, has the effect of smoothing Qi and eliminating distention, and it has been used to treat gastrointestinal diseases for thousands of years. In modern clinical practice, it is mainly used for the treatment and auxiliary treatment of various gastrointestinal diseases such as functional dyspepsia, functional constipation, and irritable bowel syndrome. The efficacy is remarkable, and no adverse reactions have been reported at conventional doses. Therefore, it can greatly improve the symptoms of patients with gastrointestinal diseases and improve their quality of life. Modern research has revealed that there are many active components in Aurantii Fructus, among which flavonoids have the highest content and the most types. Flavonoids are the main active components in Aurantii Fructus to regulate gastrointestinal motility. Aurantii Fructus and its active components can affect gastrointestinal hormones, neural pathways, Cajal mesenchymal cells, and other multiple mechanisms. They can adjust gastrointestinal motility and correct gastrointestinal motility disorders, showing potential application value in the treatment of gastrointestinal motility disorders. However, a comprehensive analysis of Aurantii Fructus in this aspect is still lacking. This study summarized the pharmacological activities of active components of Aurantii Fructus extract and its flavonoids, volatile oils, alkaloids, and coumarin on the regulation of gastrointestinal motility and explored the latest research progress on its mechanism. Finally, the adverse reactions of Aurantii Fructus were summarized. It aims to provide a scientific basis for the research and clinical application of Aurantii Fructus and its active components in the regulation of gastrointestinal motility.

4.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1551110

ABSTRACT

Aunque los cogollos de la palma de iraca pueden ser empleados como fuente para la alimentación humana, la mayoría de la información disponible es para la producción de artesanías. Se evaluó la respuesta a la impregnación al vacío (IV) de cogollos frescos de palma de iraca (CFPI), con una solución isotónica de NaCl (0,6 %). Se utilizó la metodología de superficie de respuesta, con un diseño central compuesto ((=1), considerando las siguientes variables independientes: el diámetro de los cogollos (10-15 mm), el tiempo en la etapa de vacío T1 (3-5 minutos) a presión de vacío (4.1 kPa) y el tiempo en la etapa a presión atmosférica local (85,32 kPa), T2 (3-5 min). Las variables dependientes que se tomaron en cuenta fueron fracción volumétrica de impregnación en la etapa de vacío (X1), deformación volumétrica final (g), fracción volumétrica final (X) y porosidad eficaz (Ee). La dinámica de la IV del CFPI identificó que el proceso comporta una expansión volumétrica en la matriz, la cual, finalmente, contribuye a la transferencia de masa del líquido isotónico al interior de la estructura. La microestructura porosa del CFPI es compatible con el proceso de IV, permitiendo los siguientes parámetros de impregnación: g1 (0,451%), X1 (11,457%), g (2,569%), X (17,386%) y Ee (17,036%). La respuesta a la IV en los CFPI identifica a esta matriz alimentaria como adecuada, para la incorporación de componentes fisiológicamente activos.


Although the buds of the iraca palm could be employed as a source of human food, most of the information available is to produce handicrafts. The response to vacuum impregnation (VI) was evaluated in fresh iraca palm buds (FIPB) with an isotonic NaCl solution (0.6 %). The response surface methodology was obtained, with a central compound design (a= 1), considering the following independent variables: The diameter of the buds (10-15 mm), the time in the vacuum stage T1 (3-5 minutes) at vacuum pressure (4.1 kPa) and the time in the stage at local atmospheric pressure (85.32 kPa), T2 (3-5 min). The dependent variables considered were the volumetric fraction of impregnation in the vacuum stage (X1), the final volumetric deformation (g), the final volumetric fraction (X), and the effective porosity (Ee). FIPB VI dynamics identified that the process involves a volumetric expansion in the matrix, which ultimately contributes to the mass transfer of the isotonic liquid into the structure. The porous microstructure of the FIPB is compatible with the VI process, allowing the following impregnation parameters: g1 (0.451 %), X1 (11.457 %), g (2.569 %), X (17.386%), and Ee (17.036 %). The response to VI in FIPB identifies this food matrix as suitable for the incorporation of physiologically active components.

5.
Journal of Environmental and Occupational Medicine ; (12): 981-988, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984252

ABSTRACT

By the end of 2021, a total of 915000 cases of occupational pneumoconiosis and 450000 existing cases have been reported nationwide. Silicosis is a common and serious pneumoconiosis disease caused by long-term inhalation of large amounts of free silica dust and extensive nodular fibrosis in the lungs. Because its specific pathogenic mechanism has not been elucidated and the relevant research progress is slow, there is still a lack of effective therapeutic and interventional drugs. With the increase of national attention and the unique advantages of Chinese materia medica in the treatment of silicosis, more and more studies have been conducted on the treatment of silicosis with active ingredients of Chinese materia medica in China, but most of them are still in preclinical research stage. This article mainly introduced the pharmacological action and mechanism of selected active components of Chinese materia medica in the intervention of silicosis from three aspects: anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, and intervention of apoptosis, providing ideas for subsequent research and development of new drugs for silicosis. This article argues, it is considered that some traditional Chinese medicines must observe the pathological changes in the treatment of silicosis in the overall animal experiment, clarify their pharmacodynamic effects, and further study the multiple targets and pathways involved in them to elucidate their specific mechanisms of action. At the same time, it can strengthen the analysis of active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine, or modify the structure of active ingredients, and then enhance its pharmacological activity in the treatment of silicosis, realizing the transformation of preclinical research stage to the results of clinical research.

6.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 194-201, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-998179

ABSTRACT

As a malignancy with the highest morbidity and mortality in the world, lung cancer poses a huge threat to the health and life safety of all human beings. Most lung cancer patients are already in the advanced stage when they are diagnosed, and the treatment of advanced lung cancer often brings heavy mental pressure and economic burden to patients but has little effect. Therefore, the early diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer has become a major problem for medical researchers. At present, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, and other treatment methods still have problems such as intolerance of patients and drug resistance, so there is an urgent need for human beings to seek new methods to treat lung cancer. Currently, the relationship between gut microbiota and disease occurrence, development, and prognosis, and the treatment of diseases by regulating gut microbiota have become a hot field of medical research. There are significant differences in gut microbiota between lung cancer patients and healthy people. Intestinal microorganisms can act on the respiratory system through the gut-lung axis, thereby affecting the occurrence, development, and prognosis of lung cancer and other respiratory diseases. As a peculiar means of treatment in China, Chinese medicine can effectively delay tumor progression, prevent postoperative recurrence and metastasis, reduce complications in the course of treatment, improve the quality of life, and prolong the survival of patients. Therefore, Chinese medicine is widely involved in the treatment of malignancies. Some Chinese medicine monomers, compounds, and active components have been found to regulate the gut microbiota. They can regulate the metabolism of the body, control the inflammatory response, build an immune barrier, or play a synergistic effect with various lung cancer treatments by affecting gut microbiota, so as to achieve the anti-tumor purpose. This article systematically reviewed the research on Chinese medicine and effective components in regulating gut microbiota, creating tumor-suppressing microenvironment, and intervening in the treatment of lung cancer, in order to provide new research ideas for the treatment of lung cancer.

7.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1337-1342, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-974681

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To study active components and antitussive effect of aboveground part of Pinellia ternata (non- medicinal stems and leaves), and compare them with the underground part of P. ternata (medicinal underground tubers), providing scientific basis for the comprehensive utilization and product development of P. ternata. METHODS TLC, GC, HPLC and UPLC- MS/MS were used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of amino acids, volatile oil, total flavonoids and succinic acid from the aboveground and underground parts of P. ternata. The antitussive effects of the aboveground and underground parts of P. ternata were compared and studied through cough inducing experiment with concentrated ammonia water. RESULTS Results of TLC showed that at the corresponding positions on the chromatograms of the reference substances of P. ternata, and arginine, alanine, valine, leucine and rutin control, the aboveground and underground parts of P. ternata showed spots of the same color. Results of GC showed that the similarity among characteristic chromatograms of volatile oil from aboveground and underground parts of P. ternata was 0.767; results of HPLC and UPLC-MS/MS showed that compared with underground parts of P. ternata, the contents of succinic acid, quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin increased by 0.15%, 0.15%, 0.09% and 0.03%, and aspartate content decreased by 2.5 mg/g. Pharmacodynamics results showed that compared with model control group, the cough incubation period of rats was prolonged significantly in administration groups (P<0.05), and the cough frequency within 3 min was significantly decreased (P<0.05); there was no statistical significance in the cough frequency within 3 min among administration groups (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS The composition of amino acids, volatile oils and total flavonoids in aboveground part of P. ternata are similar to underground part of P. ternata, while the content of aspartic acid is lower than that in underground part. The aboveground part of P. ternata can prolong the cough incubation period of rats and reduce the number of coughs, which has a certain antitussive effect, but the effect is slightly weaker than that of the underground part.

8.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 207-217, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-997674

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer (CRC), a malignant tumor of the digestive system, originates from the colorectal mucosa epithelium and is usually asymptomatic until it progresses to an advanced stage. With high incidence around the globe and the increasingly younger patients, this disease poses a serious threat to the health and lives of the patients. Although the pathogenesis of this disease is not fully understood, it is generally believed that it is associated with autophagy, apoptosis, and inflammation. Autophagy and apoptosis as two types of programmed cell death are subject to complex interactive regulation, and the imbalance between them is closely related to the occurrence, development, and prognosis of a variety of diseases. Studies have shown that autophagy-apoptosis balance plays a key role in CRC. On the one hand, autophagy and apoptosis coordinate with each other to inhibit CRC cell growth. On the other hand, autophagy can antagonize apoptosis to promote CRC cell growth. In clinical practice, surgery is often combined with radiotherapy and chemotherapy to treat CRC, which can control the progression of CRC to a certain extent but has serious adverse effects and poor long-term results. In recent years, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been proved to be effective in the treatment of CRC. Studies have shown that numerous herbal active components can promote CRC cell death by regulating the autophagy-apoptosis balance, thereby blocking the progression of this disease. The process of autophagy-apoptosis balance in regulating cell activities has similar theoretical connotations with the Yin and Yang theory of TCM. Applying TCM in regulating autophagy-apoptosis balance at various stages of CRC has become a frontier, while the comprehensive elaboration remains to be conducted. By reviewing the relevant studies in recent years, this paper introduces the correlation between the Yin and Yang theory and the autophagy-apoptosis balance, the role of autophagy-apoptosis balance in CRC, and the research progress in the application of 27 Chinese herbal active components such as flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides, and phenols capable of regulating autophagy-apoptosis balance in the treatment of CRC. The active components in Chinese medicines can recover the autophagy-apoptosis balance in CRC by acting on microtuble-associated protein 1 light chain 3(LC3), Beclin-1, and B-cell lymphoma-2(Bcl-2)to regulate multiple signaling pathways such as protein kinase B(Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin(mTOR)and reavtive oxygen species(ROS)/ c-Jun N-terminal kinase(JNK), thus balancing Yin and Yang. This review aims to provide a reference for the treatment of CRC and the development of new drugs.

9.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 213-219, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-996523

ABSTRACT

Malignant tumors are one of the main causes of human death worldwide and pose a serious threat to human health. The current treatment methods are mainly the combination of chemotherapeutics, surgery, radiotherapy, or hormone therapy. The treatment process has limitations such as multidrug resistance, non-selective targeting of cancer cells, and drug toxicity. With the development and application of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Chinese medicine has the characteristics of multi-angle and multi-mechanism coordination and slight toxic and side effects. It can effectively inhibit tumor proliferation, differentiation, and metastasis, and avoid drug resistance, serving as the focus of current tumor treatment research. Hedysari Radix, one of the genuine medicinal materials in Gansu province, is a tonic Chinese medicine with a wide range of pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammation, immune regulation, anti-oxidation, prevention and treatment of diabetic complications. In the majority of the ancient works on herbs of the past dynasties, Hedysari Radix was included under the item of Astragali Radix and used as Astragali Radix. Hedysari Radix is superior to Astragali Radix in enhancing immunity, scavenging free radicals, and resisting liver fibrosis. Studies have found that the effective components of Hedysari Radix have a prominent anti-tumor effect and a significant inhibitory effect on various malignant tumors such as liver cancer, bladder cancer, gastric cancer, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer. They can also combine with clinical anti-cancer drugs to reduce the toxic and side effects of chemotherapy drugs and improve the tolerance of patients during chemotherapy. On the basis of current research, this study summarized the mechanism of Hedysari Radix active components in inducing cell apoptosis, blocking cell cycle, inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, regulating micro mRNA (miRNA), inducing cell autophagy, enhancing immune regulation, as well as reducing toxicity and enhancing efficiency and sensitization with clinical chemotherapeutics, and systematically explained the anti-tumor mechanism of Hedysari Radix active components, aiming to provide a basic reference for the further exploration of the anti-tumor mechanism of Hedysari Radix and the further development and utilization of its effective components.

10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6066-6074, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008805

ABSTRACT

This study comprehensively analyzed the active components of Sanhan Huashi Formula using qualitative and quantitative mass spectrometry techniques, laying the foundation for understanding its pharmacological substance basis. UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS and GC-MS technologies were used to analyze and identify the volatile and non-volatile components in Sanhan Huashi Formula. UHPLC-QQQ-MS/MS technology was used to simultaneously determine the content of 27 major active components in the formula. The results showed that 308 major chemical components were identified in Sanhan Huashi Formula, among which 60 compounds were identified by comparing with reference standards, mainly including alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarins, triterpenoid saponins, amino acids, and nucleosides. GC-MS technology preliminarily identified 52 volatile compounds, with γ-eudesmol and β-eudesmol as the main components. The quantitative results demonstrated good linearity(r>0.99) for the 27 active components, indicating the stability, simplicity, and reliability of the established method. Among them, amygdalin, nodakenin, arecoline, ephedrine, and pseudoephedrine had relatively high content and were presumably the main pharmacologically active substances. In conclusion, this study systematically and comprehensively characterized the major chemical components and patterns in Sanhan Huashi Formula, providing a basis for understanding its pharmacological mechanisms and clinical applications.


Subject(s)
Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Reproducibility of Results , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry
11.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 763-768, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-965520

ABSTRACT

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a refractory autoimmune disease that can cause symmetrical polyarticular disease. The key mechanism of its occurrence and development is the dysequilibrium of helper T cell 17 (Th17)/regulatory T cell (Treg) balance. Therefore, reconstructing Th17/Treg balance may be a new strategy for the treatment of RA. Traditional Chinese medicine has significant advantages in the treatment of RA such as integrity, multi-target, multi-link and multi-path. This paper summarizes the basic and clinical studies on the regulation of Th17/Treg balance in the treatment of RA by traditional Chinese medicine in the past five years, and finds that the active components/sites of traditional Chinese medicine such as flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenes have unique advantages in the regulation of Th17/Treg balance. The traditional Chinese medicine compound formula interferes with Th17/Treg balance by exerting the effects of dispelling wind, dehumidifying, removing blood stasis, unblocking collaterals, relieving pain, dispersing cold and strengthening health. The effect of external treatment of traditional Chinese medicine is obvious and can be used as a clinical adjuvant therapy for RA; related mechanisms of action include regulating the production of inflammatory factors, regulating the expression of transcription factors and interfering with the activation of signaling pathways. However, the existing research has the shortcomings of insufficient mechanism research, few clinical research, limited external treatment research of traditional Chinese medicine, and lack of combination therapy research, which need to be improved by follow- up research.

12.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 252-261, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-962649

ABSTRACT

Liver fibrosis is a wound healing response that occurs in the setting of chronic liver injury and is caused by imbalance in the synthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM). If left untreated, it can progress to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The activation of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) is now well established as a central driver of liver fibrosis. The activated HSC will transform into myofibroblasts that produce ECM protein. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) can induce the activation of hepatic stellate cell (HSC), and TGF-β1/Smads signaling pathway is one of the important pathways to promote liver fibrosis. Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) does not encode proteins during the transcription but plays an important regulatory role in the post-transcriptional process of genes. Accumulating evidence shows that the occurrence of liver fibrosis is closely related to the abnormal expression of ncRNA which participates in the activation of HSC by regulating TGF-β1 signal transduction and then affects the process of liver fibrosis. MiRNA-mediated TGF-β1/Smads signaling pathway can not only promote liver fibrosis but also play a role in anti-fibrosis. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) not only promotes the development of liver fibrosis by binding to target genes but also enhances TGF-β1 signal transduction by acting as competitive endogenous RNA. circular RNA (circRNA) acts as a ''sponge'' to regulate TGF-β1/Smads pathway, thereby inhibiting HSC activation and exerting the anti-liver fibrosis effect. Chinese medicinal plays an essential part in the prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis, and the active components can inhibit TGF-β1/Smads pathway by regulating the expression of miRNA, thus alleviating liver fibrosis. This article reviews the role and mechanism of miRNA-, lncRNA- and circRNA-mediated TGF-β1/Smads signaling pathway in liver fibrosis and summarizes the anti-liver fibrosis effect of active components of Chinese medicinals by regulating miRNA-mediated TGF-β1/Smads signaling pathway, which can serve as a reference for clinical treatment of liver fibrosis and the development of new drugs.

13.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 246-253, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-961705

ABSTRACT

In China, malignant tumors have become the main cause of death. In the past half century, the incidence and mortality of malignant tumors have been on the rise, posing a threat to health of patients, and the burden of cancer has been increasing. At the moment, malignant tumors are mainly treated by surgery, radiotherapy, and cytotoxic drugs, which, however, have limitations and induce great adverse reactions. As biological technology and the research on tumor microenvironment, immunology, cell biology, and molecular biology advance, high-efficiency low-toxicity targeted therapy has attracted wide attention in the treatment of tumors. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in many cellular processes such as cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, migration, inflammation, and stromal homeostasis. EGFR promotes tumor growth, proliferation, and metastasis in a variety of ways. Chinese medicine has unique efficacy in the comprehensive treatment of malignant tumors. Through multiple components, multiple targets, and multiple pathways, it enhances the efficacy, reduces toxicity, prolongs life, and improves life quality in the treatment of tumors. Many Chinese medicines and their active components exert anti-tumor effect by inhibiting the EGFR signal transduction pathway. Through targeted inhibition of EGFR, Chinese medicine can promote the apoptosis and autophagy of tumor cells, suppress the proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells, and delay the progression of tumors. Thus, EGFR is a potential target for suppressing tumor. This paper summarizes the relationship between EGFR signal transduction pathway and tumor occurrence and development and analyzes the anti-tumor action mode and possible mechanisms of Chinese medicine and the active components by regulating EGFR signaling pathway, which is expected to provide a reference for clinical practice.

14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3743-3752, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981507

ABSTRACT

Radiation-induced intestinal injury(RIII), a common complication of radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies, affects the quality of life and the radiotherapy efficacy for cancer. Currently, the main clinical approaches for the prevention and treatment of RIII include drug therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and surgical treatment. Among these methods, drug therapy is cost-effective. Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) containing a variety of active components demonstrates mild side effects and good efficacy in preventing and treating RIII. Studies have proven that TCM active components, such as flavonoids, terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and alkaloids, can protect the intestine against RIII by inhibiting oxidative stress, regulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines, modulating the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, adjusting intestinal flora, and suppressing cell apoptosis. These mechanisms can help alleviate the symptoms of RIII. The paper aims to provide a theoretical reference for the discovery of new drugs for the prevention and treatment of RIII by reviewing the literature on TCM active components in the last 10 years.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Quality of Life , Intestines , Alkaloids
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1792-1799, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981396

ABSTRACT

Arrhythmia is an external manifestation of cardiac electrophysiological disorder. It exists in healthy people and patients with various heart diseases, which is often associated with other cardiovascular diseases. The contraction and diastole of myocardium are inseparable from the movement of ions. There are many ion channels in the membrane and organelle membrane of myocardium. The dynamic balance of myocardial ions is vital in maintaining myocardial electrical homeostasis. Potassium ion channels that have a complex variety and a wide distribution are involved in the whole process of resting potential and action potential of cardiomyocytes. Potassium ion channels play a vital role in maintaining normal electrophysiological activity of myocardium and is one of the pathogenesis of arrhythmia. Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)has unique advantages in treating arrhythmia for its complex active components and diverse targets. A large number of TCM preparations have definite effect on treating arrhythmia-related diseases, whose antiarrhythmic mechanism may be related to the effect on potassium channel. This article mainly reviewed the relevant studies on the active components in TCM acting on different potassium channels to provide references for clinical drug use and development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Potassium Channels , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , Heart Diseases/drug therapy , Ions
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1705-1710, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981387

ABSTRACT

Novel drug discovery from the active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine is the most distinctive feature and advantageous field of China, which has provided an unprecedented opportunity. However, there are still problems such as unclear functional substance basis, action targets and mechanism, which greatly hinder the clinical transformation of active ingredients in traditional Chinese medicine. Based on the analysis of the current status and progress of innovative drug research and development in China, this paper aimed to explore the prospect and difficulties of the development of natural active ingredients from traditional Chinese medicine, and to explore the efficient discovery of trace active ingredients in traditional Chinese medicine, and obtain drug candidates with novel chemical structure, unique target/mechanism and independent intellectual property rights, in order to provide a new strategy and a new model for the development of natural medicine with Chinese characteristics.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Research , Drug Discovery , China
17.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 277-282, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980198

ABSTRACT

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is one of the typical microvascular complications in patients with diabetes and a major cause of end-stage renal disease, with the pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. It may be associated with hemodynamic effects, genetic factors, kidney inflammatory injury, oxidative stress, autophagy dysregulation, metabolic disorders and so on. Because of its complex mechanism, there are no specific prevention and treatment measures in clinical practice. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is a classical pathway involved in the regulation of autophagy. This pathway can be activated for treating DKD. Recent studies have demonstrated that the active components in Chinese medicinal herbs play a role in the prevention and treatment of DKD by directly acting on targeted cells and autophagy targets, which has attracted extensive attention. Researchers have extensively studied the occurrence and development of DKD and the mechanism of drug intervention in DKD, and the results prove that AMPK/mTOR pathway plays a role in the development of this disease. The active components in Chinese medicinal herbs regulate the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway to affect autophagy, alleviate oxidative stress, inflammation, and extracellular matrix aggregation, and promote the generation of autophagosomes, thus mitigating kidney injury. This paper mainly reviews the relationship between AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway, autophagy, and DKD and the mechanism of active components in Chinese medicinal herbs in mediating autophagy via the AMPK/mTOR pathway, aiming to provide a theoretical basis for the clinical prevention and treatment of DKD.

18.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 229-240, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980193

ABSTRACT

As a threat to human health, steroid-induced osteonecrosis of femur head is a common refractory orthopedic disease mainly caused by glucocorticoids, with poor prognosis and unclear pathogenesis. Osteogenesis-associated signaling pathways play an important role in bone formation. Glucocorticoid-induced abnormal activation and transport of these signaling pathways lead to abnormal differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, dysfunction of bone metabolism, and osteogenesis disorders, which may be the main reasons for the occurrence and development of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of femur head. Bone formation and remodeling need the participation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, which are stem cells characterized by continuous self-renewal and differentiation. The key to strengthening bone remodeling is to improve the osteogenic differentiation capacity, which is the key point to inhibit bone resorption and prevent bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from differentiating into osteoclasts. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used in the treatment of osteonecrosis in ancient times. It is recorded in the Treasury of Words on Materia Medica (《本草汇编》) that "The deficiency in the lower energizer cannot be tonified without Eucommiae Cortexz.The soreness in lower legs cannot be alleviated without Eucommiae Cortex...The pain in the waist and knee cannot be relieved without Eucommiae Cortex...Tonifying liver and invigorating kidney, Eucommiae Cortex is an essential medicine." This indicates that ancient physicians have already begun to use the liver-tonifying, kidney-invigorating, and sinew-bone-strengthening effects of Eucommiae Cortex for the treatment of osteonecrosis. As the national support for the development of TCM strengthens, increasing studies have been conducted on the TCM prevention and treatment of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of femur head. Studies have suggested that Chinese medicinal herbs can exert a positive effect on the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by affecting targeted signaling molecules, and promote osteogenesis and bone defect repair, thus combating the occurrence and development of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of femur head. The regulation of osteogenic signaling pathway by Chinese medicines to prevent steroid-induced osteonecrosis of femoral head has become a hot research topic. This article reviews the studies about the prevention and treatment of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of femur head with the active components in Chinese medicinal herbs by regulating osteogenic signaling pathways. We then explore the mechanism of the active components in promoting the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts and inhibiting their differentiation into osteoclasts to facilitate bone formation, aiming to provide a reference for the further study of treating steroid-induced osteonecrosis of femoral head with Chinese medicinal herbs.

19.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 117-125, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980181

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveThe transcriptome characteristics of different tissues of Codonopsis pilosula were analyzed to illustrate the genetic basis of the accumulation of active ingredients in the root of C. pilosula, and to provide theoretical basis for its high-quality production and cultivation. MethodDifferent tissues of C. pilosula at flowering stage were selected as experimental materials, and the contents of tangshenoside Ⅰ, lobetyolin and atractylenolide Ⅲ were detected by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). RNA-Seq was used to perform transcriptome sequencing of different tissues, and the differentially expressed genes were screened and analyzed by Gene Ontology(GO) and Kyoto Gene and Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) enrichment analysis, in order to explore the characteristics of active compound distribution and the transcriptional profiles. ResultThe contents of polysaccharides and tangshenoside Ⅰ in the root of C. pilosula were significantly higher than those in other tissues. The transcriptional profiles of the root were significantly different from those of stem, leaf and flower. Cluster analysis, GO and KEGG enrichment analysis of differential gene expression showed that the differential expression genes were mainly enriched in flavonoid and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, sucrose-starch metabolism, plant hormone signal transduction, plant-pathogen interaction, mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK) cascade signal transduction, Adenosine triphosphate(ATP)-binding cassette(ABC) transporter and other pathways. The expression of genes related to biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid compounds were significantly up-regulated in the roots and flowers, and ABC transporter proteins were mostly highly expressed in the flowers. The expression of key enzyme genes for polysaccharide synthesis, such as sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase(1-SST) and fructan 1-exohydrolase(1-Feh), were significantly up-regulated in the roots, and a large number of stress-responsive genes closely related to the accumulation of secondary metabolites were significantly up-regulated in the roots. ConclusionThe active compound content and transcriptional profiles in C. pilosula roots were significantly different from those in stem, leaf, flower and other tissues, showing tissue specificity. Meanwhile, the genes related to stress response and biosynthesis of active compound, such as fructan and phenylpropanoid compounds, were up-regulated in roots of C. pilosula.

20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 908-920, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970562

ABSTRACT

To clarify the content characteristics of the main active components and mineral elements of Cynomorium songaricum under different habitat conditions, and further explore the relationship between the quality of C. songaricum and habitats, this study took C. songaricum from 25 different habitats in China as the research object, and measured the contents of 8 main active components and 12 mineral elements separately. Diversity analysis, correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis were carried out. The results showed that the genetic diversity of total flavonoids, ursolic acid, ether extract, potassium(K), phosphorus(P) and zinc(Zn) in C. songaricum was high. The coefficient of variation of crude polysaccharide, ether extract, gallic acid, protocatechuic aldehyde, catechin, epicatechin, calcium(Ca), sodium(Na), magnesium(Mg), sulfur(S), iron(Fe), manganese(Mn), selenium(Se) and nickel(Ni) were all over 36%, indicating that the quality of C. songaricum was significantly affected by habitats. There were strong synergistic and weak antagonistic effects among the contents of the 8 active components, and complex antagonistic and synergistic effects among the contents of the 12 mineral elements. Principal component analysis revealed that crude polysaccharide, ursolic acid, catechin, epicatechin and total flavonoids could be used as the characteristic components to evaluate the quality of C. songaricum, and Na, copper(Cu), Mn and Ni were the characteristic elements to evaluate the quality of C. songaricum. In cluster ana-lysis, the second group with the main active components as cluster center had better quality in terms of the content of active substances, and the second group with the mineral elements as cluster center had higher utilization potential in the exploitation of mineral elements. This study could provide a basis for resource evaluation and breeding of excellent varieties of C. songaricum in different habitats, and provide a reference for cultivation and identification of C. songaricum.


Subject(s)
Cynomorium , Catechin , Plant Breeding , Selenium , Ethers , Ethyl Ethers , Flavonoids , Plant Extracts
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