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1.
HU rev ; 48: 1-8, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1381714

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O estudo foi desenvolvido com o intuito de destacar a importância dos diagnósticos de enfermagem em pacientes cirróticos, em decorrência do aumento de casos de doenças hepáticas. Objetivo: Descrever as variáveis sociodemográficas e clínicas e elencar os diagnósticos de enfermagem da Associação Norte-Americana de Diagnósticos de Enfermagem (NANDA-I) em pacientes com cirrose hepática atendidos em uma emergência hospitalar. Material e Métodos: Pesquisa quantitativa, descritiva e transversal, realizada com 59 pacientes atendidos em uma emergência de um hospital universitário no sul do Brasil, no período de abril a junho de 2018. Resultados: Prevaleceu durante a pesquisa a população do sexo masculino com 66,1% e de baixo nível educacional, tendo o álcool como principal etiologia da doença com 44,1% e a presença de comorbidades como a hipertensão com 14,8% e o diabetes com 15,6%. Foram identificados seis diagnósticos de enfermagem com maior prevalência: risco de infecção, risco de desequilíbrio eletrolítico, nutrição desequilibrada (menor do que as necessidades corporais), dor aguda, volume de líquidos excessivo e risco de sangramento. Conclusão: As características sociodemográficas apresentadas neste estudo corroboram os achados já amplamente conhecidos em doença hepática. Os diagnósticos de enfermagem identificados foram condizentes com as repercussões fisiopatológicas da cirrose hepática, destacando-se o predomínio dos diagnósticos de risco.


Introduction: The study was developed with the aim of highlighting the importance of nursing diagnoses in cirrhotic patients, due to the increase in cases of liver disease. Objective: Describe the sociodemographic and clinical variables and list the nursing diagnoses of the North American Association of Nursing Diagnoses (NANDA-I) in patients with liver cirrhosis treated in a hospital emergency. Material and Methods: Quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional research, conducted with 59 patients seen in an emergency department of a university hospital in southern Brazil, from April to June 2018. Results: There was a predominance during the research of the male population with 66.1% and of low educational level, with approximately 54.2% having completed elementary school, with alcohol as the main etiology of the disease with 44.1% and the presence of comorbidities such as hypertension with 14.8% and diabetes with 15.6%. Six nursing diagnoses with higher prevalence were identified: risk of infection, risk of electrolyte imbalance, unbalanced nutrition (less than body needs), acute pain, excessive fluid volume and risk of bleeding. Conclusion: The sociodemographic characteristics presented in this study corroborate the already widely known findings in liver disease. The nursing diagnoses identified were consistent with the pathophysiological repercussions of liver cirrhosis, highlighting the predominance of risk diagnoses.


Subject(s)
Nursing Diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure , Health Services Needs and Demand
2.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 381-386, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920888

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the differences in platelet and platelet parameters between patients with different types and etiologies of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) and the influence of platelet and its dynamic change on the prognosis of ACLF patients. Methods Clinical data, liver function parameters, platelet, and platelet parameters were collected from 364 patients with ACLF who attended Tianjin Third Central Hospital from January 2014 to December 2018. Platelet level and platelet parameters (platelet distribution width and mean platelet volume) were compared between the patients with different types and etiologies of ACLF, and their influence on the 90-day mortality rate of ACLF patients was analyzed, as well as the association of the dynamic change of platelet at baseline and on days 7 and 14 after admission with the prognosis of patients. The chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups; the Kruskal-Wallis H test or Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups; the Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis; the univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to analyze the parameters associated with prognosis; the repeated measures analysis of variance was used to analyze the dynamic change of platelet; receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted based on platelet level and overall survival. Results The patients with type C ACLF had a significantly lower platelet level than those with type A/B ACLF (all P < 0.001). Compared with the ACLF patients with hepatitis B, the ACLF patients with autoimmune liver diseases had a significant reduction in mean platelet volume ( P =0.035). Based on the cut-off value obtained by the ROC curve analysis, the patients with a platelet level of < 60.5×10 9 /L had a significantly higher mortality rate than those with a platelet level of ≥60.5×10 9 /L ( P =0.006). Platelet level was an independent protective factor against 90-day death in ACLF patients (hazard ratio=0.995, 95% confidence interval: 0.990-0.999, P =0.026), and the mortality rate increased with the reduction in platelet level. The patients with type C ACLF had a significantly higher mortality rate than those with type A ACLF ( P < 0.05), and the death group tended to have a significantly greater reduction in platelet level ( P < 0.05). Compared with the survival group, the 90-day death group had a significantly greater reduction in platelet ( P =0.032). Conclusion There is a difference in platelet level between ACLF patients with different types. Platelet level is an important indicator for the 90-day prognosis of ACLF patients, and patients with a greater dynamic reduction in platelet tend to have a higher 90-day mortality rate.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913156

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the difference in the prognosis of hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) caused by hepatitis recurrence after withdrawal of nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUC) and possible causes in HBeAg-positive versus HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. Methods A total of 108 CHB patients with HBV-ACLF caused by withdrawal of NUC who were admitted to The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University from January 2017 to December 2018 were enrolled, and according to HBeAg status, these patients were divided into HBeAg-positive group with 57 patients and HBeAg-negative group with 51 patients. The two groups were compared in terms of sex, age, clinical manifestation, signs, levels of total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time/international normalized ratio, and HBV DNA quantification on admission, complications (including hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis), and prognosis of HBV-ACLF. In addition, 48 CHB patients with continuous NUC antiviral therapy for > 2 years and HBV DNA < 20 IU/mL were enrolled, and the serum level of HBV pgRNA was measured to investigate the possible causes of the difference in the prognosis of HBV-ACLF between the patients with different HBeAg statuses. The two-independent-samples t test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between two groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis H test was used for comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data between two groups; the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data. Results For the 108 patients with HBV-ACLF caused by drug withdrawal and recurrence, the HBeAg-positive group had an improvement rate of 49.1% and the HBeAg-negative group had an improvement rate of 74.5%. The HBeAg-negative group had a significantly higher improvement rate than the HBeAg-positive group ( χ 2 =2.811, P =0.006). The HBeAg-positive group had a significantly higher level of HBV DNA than the HBeAg-negative group on admission ( t =-3.138, P =0.002). For the 48 CHB patients who achieved virologic response after long-term antiviral therapy, the HBeAg-positive group had a significantly higher HBV pgRNA load than the HBeAg-negative group ( H =2.814, P =0.049). Conclusion Compared with the HBeAg-positive CHB patients, HBeAg-negative CHB patients have a significantly better improvement rate of HBV-ACLF caused by hepatitis recurrence after withdrawal of NUC antiviral therapy. The difference in baseline HBV pgRNA level may be associated with the difference in the prognosis of HBV-ACLF in patients with different HBeAg statuses.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913155

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the value of serum free triiodothyronine (FT3) level in predicting the 90-day prognosis of patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Methods Related clinical data were collected from 122 patients with HBV-ACLF who were hospitalized in Beijing YouAn Hospital, Capital Medical University, from September 2018 to January 2020, and according to their prognosis on day 90 after confirmed diagnosis, they were divided into survival group with 77 patients and death group with 45 patients. ELISA was used to measure the serum level of FT3, which was then compared between the two groups; a logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the risk factors for prognosis and establish an FT3-related predictive model; the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of the predicted probability value was used to evaluate the discriminatory ability of the predictive model, and a linear regression analysis was used to evaluate calibration degree. AUC was used to compare the predictive value of this model and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score. The t -test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between two groups, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data between two groups; the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between two groups; univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the influencing factors for prognosis. Results The death group had a significantly lower serum level of FT3 than the survival group (2.27±0.38 pmol/L vs 2.69±0.55 pmol/L, t =4.526, P < 0.001). FT3 (odds ratio [ OR ]=0.534, 95% confidence interval [ CI ]: 0.300-0.950, P =0.013) was an independent protective factor against poor prognosis, while age ( OR =1.047, 95% CI : 1.013-1.082, P =0.007), total bilirubin (TBil) ( OR =1.096, 95% CI : 1.059-1.134, P < 0.001), international normalized ratio (INR) ( OR =1.101, 95% CI : 1.029-1.178, P < 0.005), and creatinine (Cr) ( OR =4.583, 95% CI : 2.102-7.992, P < 0.001) were independent risk factors. In terms of discriminatory ability, the FT3-related predictive model had an AUC of 0.869 (95% CI : 0.831-0.907, P < 0.001), and for calibration ability, R 2 =0.340, P =0.268. The FT3-related formula was better than MELD score in predicting prognosis ( P < 0.05). Conclusion FT3 is an independent influencing factor for 90-day prognosis in patients with HBV-ACLF, and the FT3-related predictive model based on FT3 in combination with age, TBil, INR, and Cr has a good value in predicting 90-day prognosis.

5.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 135-140, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913127

ABSTRACT

Objective To systematically review the efficacy of different artificial liver support systems in the treatment of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) using a network Meta-analysis. Methods PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane library, Clinical Trial, CNKI, SinoMed, and Wanfang Data were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on different artificial liver support systems in the treatment of ACLF. Literature screening, data extraction, and method ological quality assessment were performed according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, and Stata15.1 software and R4.1.0 software were used to perform a network Meta-analysis. Results A total of 14 RCTs were included, with 1141 patients in total. The network meta-analysis showed different intervention methods had no significant difference in reducing mortality rate based on cross comparison (all P > 0.05). The probability ranking diagram showed that plasma exchange (PE) showed the best effect in reducing 30-day mortality rate, followed by extracorporeal liver assist device (ELAD), fractionated plasma separation and adsorption with Prometheus system, molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS), Biologic-DT liver dialysis device, and PE+MARS. PE showed the best effect in reducing 90-day mortality rate, followed by Prometheus, ELAD, and MARS. Biologic-DT showed the best effect in improving hepatic encephalopathy, followed by MARS, PE+MARS, and ELAD. Patients undergoing ELAD had the lowest risk of bleeding, and compared with standard medical treatment, Biologic-DT might increase the risk of bleeding [risk ratio=1.9×10 8 , 95% confidence interval: (4.6-6.2)×10 27 ]. Conclusion PE might be the best option for reducing 30- and 90-day mortality rates in ACLF patients. Biologic-DT has a better effect in improving hepatic encephalopathy, but it may increase the risk of bleeding.

6.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 204-206, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935927

ABSTRACT

In January 2022, the American College of Gastroenterology released its first clinical guidelines, integrating the latest research, summarizing the three current definitions characteristics, and proposing recommendations and core viewpoints with important clinical practice value to guide diagnosis, treatment, and management of acute-on-chronic liver failure. This article interprets and summarizes the highlights of the guideline, raises controversial issues, and suggests directions for future research.


Subject(s)
Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/therapy , Gastroenterology , Humans , United States
7.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 121-126, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935922

ABSTRACT

Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a form of complex syndrome with acute deterioration of liver function that occurs on the basis of chronic liver disease, and is accompanied by hepatic and extrahepatic organ failure with high mortality rate. The short-term mortality rate of comprehensive internal medicine treatment is as high as 50%-90%. This paper summarizes the current common definitions and diagnostic criteria, early-warning prediction models, and pathogenesis of ACLF.


Subject(s)
Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/therapy , Humans , Prognosis
8.
International Journal of Surgery ; (12): 40-46,F4, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929966

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the risk factors for short-term mortality and long-term survival after liver transplantation in patients with hepatitis B related acute-on-chronic liver failure.Methods:Forty patients with hepatitis B related acute-on-chronic liver failure performing liver transplantation were prospectively collected from August 2018 to July 2021 in Beijing YouAn Hospital of Capital Medical University. The mean age was (44.5±8.79) years, there were 36 males and 4 females. The basic data, including liver and kidney function, blood routine, coagulation function, lactic acid, infection indexes as well as MELD score, MELD-Na score, CLIF-C ACLFs score, CLIF OFs score, CLIF grade within 48 hours before liver transplantation were counted. The post-LT mortality within 90 days and long-term survival were observed for these patients who were divided into survival group ( n=34) and death group ( n=6) according to the survival in 3 months after liver transplantation. The measurement data conforming to the normal distribution were expressed by mean ± standard deviation ( ± s), and the comparison was performed by t-test between groups; The skewness data were expressed by M ( Q1, Q3), and the rank sum test was used for inter-group comparison. The counting data were tested by Chi square test or Fisher exact probability method. The risk factors of short-term mortality and long-term survival were analyzed through univariate and multivariate analysis as well as survival analysis. The sensitivity, specificity and cut off value were calculated by ROC curve. The patients were divided into ≥ 48.5 scores group ( n=10) and < 48.5 scores group ( n=30) by CLIF-C ACLFs score 48.5 as cut-off value. Kaplan Meier was used for survival analysis and comparison. Results:The total bilirubin (TBIL), creatinine (CR), platelet count, international normalized ratio (INR), lactic acid and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) within 48 hours before liver transplantation were 24.30 (13.45, 33.95) mg/dL, 0.68 (0.53, 1.11) mg/dL and 56 (39, 82)×10 9/L, 3.12(2.33, 4.46), 2.14(1.59, 4.14) mmol/L, 4.06(2.12, 9.13) for all forty patients, respectively. The mean MELD, MELD Na, CLIF OFs, CLIF-C ACLFs and AARC scores within 48 hours before transplantation were (32.1±6.3), (33.2±5.3), (11.2±2.6), (43.8±8.8) and (10.6±2.4) scores, respectively. 65% of patients were complicated with hepatic encephalopathy, 17 patients with controllable systemic infection, 10 patients with renal function injury, 2 patients with variceal bleeding and 6 patients underwent ventilator-assisted ventilation (endotracheal intubation). All 40 patients underwent emergency orthotopic liver transplantation. The incidence of postoperative complications was 47.5%, the most common was post-LT infection (27.5%), followed by renal insufficiency (17.5%). There were significant differences in neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lactic acid, MELD score, MELD Na score, CLIF-C ACLFs score, CLIF OFs score, CLIF grades, hepatic encephalopathy, infection and renal injury between survival group and death group ( P<0.05). Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that NLR, MELD Na score, CLIF-C ACLFs score and CLIF OFs score were the risk factors for short-term mortality after liver transplantation ( P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that CLIF-C ACLFs score was an independent risk factor for 3-month mortality after liver transplantation. ROC curve showed that the area under the curve of CLIF-C ACLFs score was 0.895 (95% CI: 0.779-1.000, P=0.002), and the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were the highest, 83.3% and 85.3% respectively when cut off value was 48.5. Meanwhile, there was significant difference in long-term survival between the patients with CLIF-C ACLFs score ≥ 48.5 and < 48.5 ( P=0.001). Conclusions:NLR, MELD Na score, CLIF-C ACLFs score and CLIF OFs score within 48 hours before liver transplantation are the risk factors for short-term mortality after liver transplantation, however CLIF-C ACLFs score is an independent risk factor for three-months mortality and long-term survival in patients with hepatitis B related acute-on-chronic liver failure after liver transplantation.

9.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 1927-1930, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941565

ABSTRACT

Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a clinical syndrome with rapid deterioration of liver function caused by a series of predisposing factors on the basis of chronic liver diseases, and it is characterized by multiple organ failure and high short-term mortality. The onset of systemic inflammation is one of the important influencing factors for the progression of ACLF and is the body's natural defense against infection; however, the excessive release of inflammatory mediators breaks the original dynamic balance between "pro-inflammation" and "anti-inflammation", which may aggravate liver function impairment and even lead to decompensation. Therefore, the intensity of inflammatory response is closely associated with the prognosis of patients with ACLF, while at present, not enough attention has been paid to the impact of inflammatory response on patients with ACLF and the measures to deal with cytokine storm. Therefore, this article summarizes the impact of inflammatory response on ACLF and related advances in treatment, so as to provide ideas for the diagnosis and treatment of ACLF in clinical practice.

10.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 1774-1779, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941535

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the value of interleukin-6 (IL-6) combined with Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score in predicting the prognosis of patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF). Methods A total of 86 patients with HBV-ACLF who were hospitalized in The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University from January 2015 to December 2018 were enrolled, and according to their survival status after follow-up for 90 days, they were divided into death group with 50 patients and survival group with 36 patients. ELISA was used to measure the serum level of IL-6, and a statistical analysis was performed for general information. The t -test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between groups, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data between two groups; the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between two groups. A Pearson correlation analysis was performed for IL-6 and other variables; a binary logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the independent risk factors for the prognosis of patients with HBV-ACLF; the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the value of IL-6 combined with MELD score in predicting the prognosis of HBV-ACLF. Results There were significant differences between the death group and the survival group in hematocrit ( t =2.413), platelet count ( t =6.584), total bilirubin (TBil) ( t =-8.070), prothrombin time (PT) ( U =77.500), international standardized ratio ( U =102.000), HBV DNA ( t =-2.767), IL-6 ( t =-16.543), and MELD score ( t =-8.192), and the death group had a significantly higher level of IL-6 than the survival group (27.13±12.18 pg/mL vs 9.72±5.56 pg/mL, P < 0.001). The Pearson correlation analysis showed that IL-6 was positively correlated with TBil and PT ( r =0.579 and 0.681, both P < 0.001). The binary logistic regression analysis showed that IL-6 (odds ratio[ OR ]=1.480, 95% confidence interval [ CI ]: 1.196~1.833, P =0.007) and MELD score ( OR =1.128, 95% CI : 1.033~1.231, P < 0.001) were independent risk factors for the death of HBV-ACLF patients within 90 days. IL-6 combined with MELD score had an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.891 (95% CI : 0.778~0.999), with a higher AUC than IL-6 (AUC=0.838, 95% CI : 0.687~0.989) or MELD score (AUC=0.783, 95% CI : 0.634~0.933). IL-6 combined with MELD score had a significantly higher value than IL-6 alone in predicting the prognosis of patients with HBV-ACLF ( Z =-2.257, P =0.024). Conclusion IL-6 combined with MELD score can be used as a good model for predicting the short-term prognosis of patients with HBV-ACLF.

11.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 543-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941473

ABSTRACT

Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) can be cured by liver transplantation; however, perioperative complications still affect posttransplant outcomes. In recent years, early rehabilitation for critical illness, liver disease, and surgery have significantly improved organ reserve function, surgery tolerance, and postoperative quality of life. They could also be applied in the perioperative period of liver transplantation in patients with ACLF. Therefore, the Transplantation Immunology Committee of Branch of Organ Transplantation Physician of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, the Organ Transplant Rehabilitation Committee of China Association Rehabilitation Medicine, and the Branch of Organ Transplantation Physician of Guangdong Medical Doctor Association conducted a comprehensive review of rehabilitation in end-stage liver disease, critical illness and surgical patients by summarizing current evidence and best clinical practices and proposed a practice consensus on evaluation of cardiopulmonary and physical function, rehabilitation or physiotherapies, as well as the safety concerns in perioperative liver transplant recipients. It will be a valuable resource for hepatologists, transplant surgeons, and intensivists as they care for ACLF patients during transplantation.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940794

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo observe the therapeutic effect of Radix Paeoniae Rubra-Radix Aconiti Lateralis on acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) rats and its effect on M1/M2 macrophage polarization. MethodMale SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, positive group (lactulose, 1.8 g·kg-1) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) group (Radix Paeoniae Rubra-Radix Aconiti Lateralis, 5.85 g·kg-1), six in each group. The ACLF rat model was established by subcutaneous and tail vein injection of bovine serum albumin combined with intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine+lipopolysaccharide. Then the modeled rats were intervened with corresponding drugs for one week. The normal group and model group were given the same dose of distilled water. The histopathological changes of liver tissue were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The mRNA and protein expression levels of CD86, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), CD206 and arginase 1 (Arg1) were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR), Western blot and immunohistochemistry. ResultCompared with the conditions in the normal group, pseudolobule formation in liver tissue and morphological changes and necrosis of hepatocytes were observed in ACLF rats, accompanied by a large number of inflammatory cell infiltration. Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression levels of CD86, iNOS were up-regulated(P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the treatment groups had improved necrosis and inflammatory infiltration of hepatocytes, down-regulated mRNA and protein expression of CD86 and iNOS (P<0.01) and up-regulated mRNA and protein expression of CD206 and Arg1 (P<0.05, P<0.01), with the up regulation in the TCM group better than that in the positive group. ConclusionACLF rats had unbalanced M1/M2 macrophage polarization, and the imbalance shifted towards M1. Radix Paeoniae Rubra-Radix Aconiti Lateralis inhibited the activation of M1 macrophages and reduced the inflammatory response of liver failure by promoting the polarization of liver macrophages towards M2.

13.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 1188-1191, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924805

ABSTRACT

Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a disease of rapid deterioration of liver function caused by the acute exacerbation of chronic liver diseases, and it is often associated with multiple organ failure and has a poorer prognosis than common liver cirrhosis. Many studies suggest that timely liver transplantation can significantly improve the survival rate of patients with ACLF; however, there are currently no reliable guidelines that point out the indications for liver transplantation in patients with ACLF. This article summarizes recent studies and discusses the indication, timing, and prognosis of liver transplantation in ALCF patients.

14.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 1048-1052, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924774

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate a reasonable threshold of total bilirubin for the diagnosis of hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF), and to realize accurate early diagnosis. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 1232 patients with HBV-ACLF who were admitted to The Fifth Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital from September 2008 to September 2018, and according to the baseline serum level of total bilirubin (TBil), the patients were divided into group A (TBil 15%) in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Although there was a difference in long-term mortality rate between the two groups, there was no significant increase in transplant-free mortality rate after 90 days in either group. Conclusion Under the premise of international normalized ratio ≥1.5, it is not recommended to increase the threshold of TBil to 205.2 μmol/L in the diagnostic criteria for HBV-ACLF, so as to ensure the early diagnosis of more ACLF patients and bring more opportunities for treatment and cure.

15.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 1280-1287, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924697

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of Liangxue Jiedu decoction on intestinal flora in patients with hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF). Methods The patients who were hospitalized and diagnosed with HBV-ACLF in Beijing Ditan Hospital from October 2018 to October 2019 were enrolled, and healthy individuals were enrolled as HP group. High-throughput sequencing was used to screen for the differences in bacterial diversity and species between HBV-ACLF patients and healthy individuals, and differentially expressed bacteria between the two groups were screened out at the phylum and genus levels. With the help of in vitro simulated fermentation experiment, fecal samples were collected from the patients with HBV-ACLF and were then cultured in the medium containing different concentrations of Liangxue Jiedu decoction (0, 10%, 50%, and 100%) for 24 hours, and the changes in intestinal flora were analyzed and compared between the HBV-ACLF treatment group, the HBV-ACLF non-treatment group, and the HP group at the genus level. The t -test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between two groups, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data between two groups. Results A total of 10 HBV-ACLF patients were enrolled, with 5 in the HBV-ACLF treatment group and 5 in the HBV-ACLF non-treatment group, and there were 15 individuals in the HP group. Compared with the HP group, the HBV-ACLF non-treatment group had significant reductions in the diversity and abundance of intestinal flora. At the phylum level, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were mainly observed in the samples of the HP group, while the HBV-ACLF non-treatment group had a significant reduction in Bacteroidetes and significant increases in Fusobacteria , Proteobacteria , and Fibrobacteres. At the genus level, compared with the HP group, the HBV-ACLF non-treatment group had significant reductions in Ruminococcus, Blautia , and Eubacterium and significant increases in Parabacteroides, Lactobacillus, Fusobacterium , and Streptococcus . The in vitro fermentation experiment showed that compared with the HBV-ACLF non-treatment group, the HBV-ACLF treatment group had significant increases in Ruminococcus, Lachnospira, Bacteroides , and Genusgenus and significant reductions in Fusobacterium and Proteobacteria (all P < 0.05). Conclusion Liangxue Jiedu decoction can regulate intestinal flora disturbance, restore the diversity of intestinal flora, increase dominant bacteria, and reduce pathogenic bacteria, which may be one of its important mechanisms of action in the treatment of HBV-ACLF.

16.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 333-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923578

ABSTRACT

Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a specific category of liver failure, which is mainly characterized by rapid progression and multiple organ failure. At present, patients with ACLF are mainly given with systematic and comprehensive medical therapy to promote liver regeneration. However, liver transplantation is the only potentially curative treatment for patients who failed to respond to medical treatment and rapidly progress into multiple organ failure. Considering the differences of disease progression and clinical prognosis, and the shortage of donor liver in China, it is necessary to actively prevent the triggering factors of ACLF in patients with chronic liver diseases, screen out the recipients who are most likely to benefit from liver transplantation and deliver precision management during perioperative period of liver transplantation. In this article, the application of liver transplantation in ACLF was illustrated from the perspectives of accurate evaluation of ACLF, proper control of liver transplantation indications and meticulous perioperative management, aiming to optimize the therapeutic strategy of liver transplantation in patients with ACLF.

17.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 788-792, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923278

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical features and prognosis of pregnant women with HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF). Methods A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 26 pregnant women with HBV-ACLF who were admitted to Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center from June 2008 to July 2020, including age, gestational weeks at disease onset, parity, initial symptoms, complications on admission, laboratory markers [white blood cell count, hemoglobin, platelet count, alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin (TBil), albumin, serum creatinine, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, HBsAg, and HBV DNA], abdominal ultrasound, mode of delivery, fetus conditions, treatment measures, and prognosis. The t -test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between two groups, and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data between two groups; the chi-square test and the Fisher's exact test were used for comparison of categorical data between two groups. Results Among the 26 patients, 8 died within 28 days after disease onset, and the mortality rate reached 30.8%. There were 22 multiparous patients, accounting for 84.6%, and HBV-ACLF often occurred in the third trimester of pregnancy (20/26, 76.9%), with a mean gestational age of 30.9±5.8 weeks. HBV-ACLF often had atypical clinical manifestations, and initial symptoms included weakness, poor appetite (21/26, 80.8%), and yellow urine (19/26, 73.1%). Compared with the survival group, the death group had significantly higher levels of TBil ( Z =-2.056, P =0.041), prothrombin time ( Z =-2.362, P =0.016), international normalized ratio ( Z =-2.528, P =0.009), and MELD score ( Z =-2.223, P =0.026), a significantly longer time from initial symptom to diagnosis ( Z =-2.468, P =0.021), significantly higher HBV DNA level ( χ 2 =7.571, P =0.021), degree of hepatic encephalopathy ( χ 2 =24.775, P < 0.001), and incidence rate of complications ( χ 2 =5.951, P =0.042), and significantly lower levels of fibrinogen ( Z =-2.667, P =0.006) and prothrombin time activity ( Z =-2.365, P =0.016). Conclusion HBV-ACLF is a serious complication in the third trimester of pregnancy and is often observed in multiparous patients, with an extremely high short-term mortality. It often has atypical clinical manifestations in the early stage, and high MELD score, high viral load, and complications often indicate a poor prognosis.

18.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387578

ABSTRACT

resumen está disponible en el texto completo


Abstract: Introduction: Bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients are a frequent complication, which occurs mainly in advanced stages of the disease. Non-spontaneous infections or infections not related to portal hypertension include mainly those of the urinary tract, acute pneumonia, and skin and soft tissue infections. They generate a significant impact on the evolution of the disease, since they increase morbidity and mortality, and are also the most common precipitating factor of acute over chronic liver failure, a serious condition with high short-term mortality. The objective of this work is to know the incidence, and describe the clinical, epidemiological, microbiological, and evolutionary characteristics of non-spontaneous bacterial infections, in patients with liver cirrhosis, admitted to the Military Hospital, in the period between March 2018 and December 2020. Methodology: A cross-sectional, descriptive and single-center study was carried out, which included hospitalized patients, diagnosed with liver cirrhosis, who presented a bacterial infection not related to portal hypertension on admission or during hospital stay. Data were analyzed using frequency distribution and summary measures for the different variables. The incidence of non-spontaneous bacterial infections was calculated based on the total population of cirrhotic patients admitted during that period. Results: Of the total number of cirrhotic patients admitted, 17.5% had a bacterial infection not linked to portal hypertension, with a mean age of 61 years, 70% being men. The main etiology of cirrhosis was alcoholic. The vast majority of patients (95%) presented an advanced stage of liver disease (60% Child-Pugh stage B and 35% stage C), with a mean MELD-Na of 21. The most frequent infection was that of the urinary tract (50%), followed by acute pneumonia (20%), skin and soft tissue infections (10%) and acute cholangitis (10%). The most prevalent microorganisms were gram negative bacilli such as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. 40% of the patients presented acute-on-chronic liver failure at the time of admission and an additional 5% developed it during evolution. Of this group of patients, 20% died during hospitalization. Conclusions: The present study constitutes an approximation to the knowledge of non-spontaneous infections in cirrhotic patients, being necessary the development of studies with a greater number of patients in order to establish a statistically significant association between the presence of bacterial infection and the development of acute on chronic liver failure, and from this with short-term mortality.


Resumo: Introdução: Infecções bacterianas em pacientes cirróticos são uma complicação frequente, que ocorre principalmente em estágios avançados da doença. Infecções não espontâneas ou infecções não relacionadas à hipertensão portal incluem principalmente aquelas do trato urinário, pneumonia aguda e infecções de pele e tecidos moles. Geram um impacto significativo na evolução da doença, pois aumentam a morbidade e a mortalidade, sendo também o fator precipitante mais comum da insuficiência hepática aguda sobre a crônica, uma condição grave com alta mortalidade em curto prazo. O objetivo deste trabalho é conhecer a incidência e descrever as características clínicas, epidemiológicas, microbiológicas e evolutivas das infecções bacterianas não espontâneas, em pacientes com cirrose hepática, internados no Hospital Militar, no período entre Março de 2018 e dezembro de 2020. Metodologia: Foi realizado um estudo transversal, descritivo e unicêntrico, que incluiu pacientes internados, com diagnóstico de cirrose hepática, que apresentavam infecção bacteriana não vinculada à hipertensão portal na admissão ou durante a internação. Os dados foram analisados ​​por meio de distribuição de frequência e medidas de resumo para as diferentes variáveis. A incidência de infecções bacterianas não espontâneas foi calculada com base na população total de pacientes cirróticos admitidos nesse período. Do total de cirróticos admitidos, 17,5% apresentavam infecção bacteriana não ligada à hipertensão portal, com média de idade de 61 anos, sendo 70% homens. A principal etiologia da cirrose foi alcoólica. A grande maioria dos pacientes (95%) apresentava doença hepática em estágio avançado (60% Child-Pugh estágio B e 35% estágio C), com média de MELD-Na de 21. A infecção mais frequente foi a do trato urinário (50%), seguida de pneumonia aguda (20%), infecções de pele e tecidos moles (10%) e colangite aguda (10%). Os microrganismos mais prevalentes foram bacilos gram negativos como Klebsiella pneumoniae e Escherichia coli. 40% dos pacientes apresentavam insuficiência hepática aguda-crônica no momento da admissão e outros 5% a desenvolveram durante a evolução. Desse grupo de pacientes, 20% morreram durante a internação. Conclusões: O presente estudo constitui uma aproximação ao conhecimento das infecções não espontâneas em pacientes cirróticos, sendo necessário o desenvolvimento de estudos com maior número de pacientes a fim de estabelecer uma associação estatisticamente significativa entre a presença de infecção bacteriana e o desenvolvimento de quadro agudo de insuficiência hepática crônica, e a partir disso com mortalidade a curto prazo.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929022

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Hepatitis B virus related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) is the most common type of liver failure in China, with a high mortality. Early rapid reduction of HBV-DNA load can improve the survival rate of HBV-ACLF patients. At present, the commonly used drugs are nucleoside (acid) analogues, such as entecavir (ETV), tenofovir, and so on. The newly listed tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF) has attracted great attention of clinicians because of its stronger antiviral effect, higher transaminase normalization rate, better bone and kidney safety, and zero drug resistance. However, there are few clinical research data on the efficacy and safety of TAF in the treatment of Chinese HBV-ACLF patients, and there is a lack of pharmacoeconomic evaluation. This study aims to compare the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness between TAF and ETV in patients with HBV-ACLF.@*METHODS@#The data were collected from 196 HBV-ACLF patients (80 patients in the TAF group and 116 patients in the ETV group) who were hospitalized in Xiangya Hospital, Central South University from May 2020 to March 2021. Biochemistry and virology were detected before and after treatment (at baseline, Week 2, 4, and 12). Clinical features, disease prognosis, and cost-effectiveness were compared between the 2 groups. According to the baseline, HBV-ACLF patients were divided into 4 stages including pre-liver failure stage, early stage, medium stage, and end stage. And the liver transplantation rate and mortality was also compared. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation was taken using cost-effectiveness analysis and cost minimization analysis..@*RESULTS@#After 4 weeks of treatment, there were no significant differences in the efficacy (liver function, viral load) between the 2 groups (all P>0.05). The TAF group showed lower creatinine [(80.35±18.77) μmol/L vs (105.59±82.32) μmol/L, P<0.05] and higher estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels [(95.65±23.21) mL/(min·1.73 m2) vs (82.68±26.32) mL/(min·1.73 m2), P<0.05] than the ETV group. After 12 weeks of treatment, the analysis of overall the liver transplantation rate and mortality between the 2 groups showed similar conclusion. However, the TAF group had a lower the liver transplantation rate and mortality than the ETV group in patients with pre-liver failure (0vs13.89%, P<0.05). No evident distinction was found in the liver transplantation rate and mortality during the early, medium, or end stages of liver failure (13.04% vs 17.65%, 37.50% vs 37.04%, and 54.55% vs 68.42%, respectively). Ratio of cost to effectiveness in the ETV group was higher than that in the TAF group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#TAF is not more efficient than ETV group in improving liver function and reducing viral load for HBV-ACLF patients and they also show similar safety. However, TAF has a greater advantage over ETV not only in preserving renal function, but also in reducing the liver transplantation rate and mortality in patients with pre-liver failure. TAF can provide economic benefit to patients with HBV-ACLF.


Subject(s)
Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/drug therapy , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Guanine/analogs & derivatives , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Tenofovir/analogs & derivatives , Treatment Outcome
20.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 344-352, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345307

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a decompensation of cirrhosis with an in-hospital mortality ranging from 20% to 40%. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to analyze if EASL-CLIF definition of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is able to predict mortality in cirrhotic patients with SBP. METHODS: Historical cohort study conducted in a public tertiary care teaching hospital. Data from medical records from January 2009 to July 2016 were obtained by searching the hospital electronic database for samples of ascites collected in the period. Electronic and physical medical records were analyzed and patients were included if they were over 18-years old, with cirrhosis and an ascites fluid compatible with SBP: 69 patients were included. Liver-specific scores were calculated and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used for univariate analysis and a stepwise approach to the Cox regression for multivariate analysis. RESULTS: All cause mortality was 44%, 56.5% and 74% for 28-, 90- and 365-day, respectively. The prevalence of ACLF was 58%. Of these, 65% grade 1, 17.5% grade 2 and 17.5% grade 3. In multivariate analysis, the use of proton-pump inhi­bitors, alanine transaminase lower than 40 U/L, hemoglobin higher than 9 g/dL, absence of ACLF and lower CLIF-SOFA and MELD scores were independently associated with higher survival for both 28- and 90-day interval. CONCLUSION: The presence of ACLF and higher CLIF-SOFA scores were independently associated with higher 28- and 90-day mortality in cirrhotic patients admitted due to SBP.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A peritonite bacteriana espontânea (PBE) é uma descompensação da cirrose com uma mortalidade intra-hospitalar de 20% a 40%. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é analisar se a definição de insuficiência hepática crônica agudizada (IHCA) como definido pelo consórcio EASL-CLIF é capaz de predizer mortalidade em pacientes cirróticos com PBE. MÉTODOS: Coorte histórica conduzida em um hospital de ensino público terciário. Foram obtidos dados de prontuários médicos de janeiro de 2009 até julho de 2016, buscando no banco de dados eletrônico do hospital por todas as amostras de ascite coletadas no período. Prontuários eletrônicos e físicos foram analisados e os pacientes com mais de 18 anos com cirrose e líquido de ascite compatível com PBE foram incluídos. Foram incluídos 69 pacientes. Escores específicos para o fígado foram calculados e a análise de sobrevida de Kaplan-Meier foi utilizada para a análise univariada, e uma abordagem progressiva para a regressão logística de Cox foi usada para a análise multivariada. RESULTADOS: A mortalidade por todas as causas foi 44%, 56,5% e 74% para 28-, 90- e 365-dias, respectivamente. A prevalência de IHCA foi de 58%. Desses, 65% grau 1, 17,5% grau 2 e 17,5% grau 3. Na análise multivariada, o uso de inibidores da bomba de prótons, alanina transaminase menor que 40 U/L, hemoglobina acima de 9 g/dL, ausência de IHCA e menores valores dos escores CLIF-SOFA e MELD foram independentemente associados com maior sobrevida para ambos intervalos de 28- e 90-dias. CONCLUSÃO: A presença de IHCA e maiores valores de CLIF-SOFA foram independentemente associados em maior mortalidade para pacientes cirróticos admitidos por PBE no intervalo de 28- e 90-dias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peritonitis , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/complications , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Liver Cirrhosis/complications
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