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1.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387518

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the prevalence and factors associated with suicide risk among high school students from a federal educational institution in Rio Grande do Sul (IFRS). Methods: This is a cross-sectional study based on a census of students (n=510) enrolled in IFRS, campus Rio Grande, in the second half of 2019. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Suicide risk was measured with the instrument Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and data were analyzed using Poisson regression with robust variance adjustment. Results: The prevalence of high suicide risk was 17.3% (95% confidence interval — 95%CI 14.0-20.0), with the following independent associated factors: female gender, higher socioeconomic status, alcohol consumption, less social support, attempt to lose weight, self-harm behavior, and increased risk of depression, anxiety, and stress. Conclusions: One in six students showed a high suicide risk. The identification of factors associated with the outcome is useful for detecting the most severe cases and referring them to specialized care.


RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar a prevalência e os fatores associados ao risco de suicídio em estudantes do ensino médio de uma instituição federal de ensino do Rio Grande do Sul (IFRS). Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo transversal realizado com base em um censo de estudantes (n=510) matriculados no IFRS, Campus Rio Grande, no segundo semestre de 2019. Os dados foram coletados por meio de questionário autoaplicável. O risco de suicídio foi medido com o instrumento Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview e a análise dos dados foi conduzida por meio de regressão de Poisson com ajuste robusto da variância. Resultados: A prevalência do risco alto de suicídio foi de 17,3% (intervalo de confiança — IC95% 14,0-20,0), tendo como fatores independentemente associados: sexo feminino, maior nível socioeconômico, consumo de álcool, menor suporte social, tentativa de perder peso, comportamento autolesivo e maior risco de depressão, ansiedade e estresse. Conclusões: Um em cada seis estudantes apresentou elevado risco de suicídio. A identificação dos fatores associados ao desfecho é útil para identificar os casos mais graves e encaminhá-los para atendimento especializado.

2.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 29: e2020_0054, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387927

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Tapering is a decisive phase in planning a young swimmer's preparation for competition. During this period, not only training loads, but also recovery, which includes sleep quality, must be constantly monitored. Objective: This study aims to investigate sleep behavior as a variable directly influenced by training load during the tapering phase of training for young swimmers. Methods: A polysomnography test was performed at the beginning of the tapering phase, as a baseline for sleep variables. In each daily training session, the overload and recovery variables were measured. The internal training load was evaluated in the PSE session and the external load by quantifying the training. The recovery variables were divided into the recovery variable, assessed using the TQR questionnaire, and sleep variables, which included sleepiness, scored using the Karolinska scale, and sleep behavior, using an actigraph and a sleep diary. Conclusion: It is concluded that there is no significant influence between training loads and sleep variables. However, a strong association was observed between TST and EL (External load), in the irregular sleep group. Level of evidence III, Study of behavior.


RESUMEN Introducción: El tapering es una fase decisiva en la planificación de la preparación de un joven nadador para la competición. Durante este período, deben monitorearse constantemente no sólo las cargas de entrenamiento, sino también la recuperación, que incluye la calidad del sueño. Objetivo: Este estudio tiene como objetivo investigar el comportamiento del sueño como variable directamente influenciada por la carga de entrenamiento durante la fase de tapering del entrenamiento de jóvenes nadadores. Métodos: Se realizó una polisomnografía al inicio de la fase de tapering como base de las variables del sueño. En cada sesión diaria de entrenamiento se midieron las variables de sobrecarga y recuperación. La carga interna de entrenamiento fue evaluada por la sesión de PSE y la carga externa mediante cuantificación del entrenamiento. Las variables de recuperación se dividieron variables de recuperación, con el cuestionario QTR y variables de sueño, que incluían somnolencia mediante la escala de Karolinska y comportamiento del sueño con un actígrafo y diario de sueño. Conclusiones: Se concluyó que no existe una influencia significativa entre las cargas de entrenamiento y las variables del sueño. Sin embargo, se observó una fuerte asociación entre TTS y el CE, en el grupo de sueño irregular. Nivel de evidencia III, Estudio de comportamiento.


RESUMO Introdução: A etapa de polimento é uma fase decisiva no planejamento da preparação de um jovem nadador para a competição. Durante esse período, não somente as cargas de treinamento, mas também a recuperação, que inclui a qualidade do sono, devem ser constantemente monitoradas. Objetivos: Este estudo objetiva investigar o comportamento do sono como variável diretamente influenciada pela carga de treinamento durante a fase de polimento do treinamento de jovens nadadores. Métodos: O exame de polissonografia foi realizado no início da fase de polimento, como base para as variáveis do sono. Em cada sessão diária de treinamento foram medidas as variáveis de sobrecarga e de recuperação. A carga interna de treinamento foi avaliada pela sessão de PSE e a carga externa, pela quantificação do treinamento. As variáveis de recuperação foram divididas em variável de recuperação, com o questionário QTR e variáveis de sono, que incluíram sonolência pela escala de Karolinska e comportamento do sono com actígrafo e diário de sono. Conclusões: Conclui-se que não há influência significativa entre as cargas de treinamento e as variáveis do sono. Entretanto, foi observada forte associação entre TTS e CE no grupo sono irregular. Nível de evidência III; Estudo de comportamento.

3.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 22: e237434, Jan.-Dec. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1393428

ABSTRACT

Aim: To determine the prevalence of dental development anomalies and type of influence on the smile of adolescent students. Method: This was a cross-sectional and analytical study carried out in two public (A1) and two private (A2) schools chosen by lot in the city of Parnaíba-Piauí. The sample calculation was based on the target population: number of people enrolled in public and private schools between 15 and 19 years, in the city of Parnaíba-PI, which totaled 6209 students in 2020, according to a survey carried out by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics ­ IBGE. A questionnaire on epidemiological data and aesthetic self-perception of the smile was applied to 160 adolescents between 15 and 19 years old, from August 2020 to July 2021. The clinical examination was carried out under natural light, to check for the presence of anomaly(s) in the dental development. Students who presented only one pathology would be called group 1 (G1), those who presented two would be called group 2 (G2) and those who presented 3 or more would be called group 3 (G3). On the other hand, adolescents in whom no anomaly was evidenced would participate in the control group (CG), both in A1 and A2. Results: It was observed that 37.5% of the sample had only a type of dental anomaly, corresponding to 60 individuals. The most prevalent were enamel hypoplasia, fusion, transposition, agenesis, ectopic eruption, microdent and dens-in-dent. It was possible to verify a higher prevalence in the maxilla, private schools (76.6%) and females (86.6%). In 45% of adolescents with dental anomalies, embarrassment was observed when smiling. Conclusion: The prevalence was relatively high, highlighting the enamel hypoplasia, influencing the smile esthetics of a reasonable number of adolescents, whether for acquaintances, strangers or even for photographs


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Smiling , Tooth Abnormalities/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Dental Enamel/abnormalities , Diagnosis, Oral , Esthetics, Dental
4.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406940

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: This study aimed to assess physical and mental health, and health-related quality of life (HRQL) parameters in adolescents with physical disabilities enrolled in a sports nongovernmental organization (NGO) versus adolescents without disabilities during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 30 adolescents with disabilities and 86 adolescents without disabilities who responded to an online questionnaire with sociodemographic data and self-rated healthcare routine information during the COVID-19 quarantine. Validated self-report versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQL 4.0), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Pediatric Outcome Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) were also applied. Results: The median of emotional [4 (0-10) vs. 5 (0-10), p=0.018] and prosocial [7 (0-10) vs. 9 (3-10), p=0.006] problems was lower in adolescents with disabilities versus adolescents without disabilities. Adolescents with disabilities had significantly lower global function [68 (21-99) vs. 94 (67-100), p<0.001] and higher happiness scores in the PODCI scale [90 (65-100) vs. 80 (0-100), p=0.016] compared to controls. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that physical activity/week (OR=1.03; 95%CI 1.01-1.05, p=0.002) was higher in adolescents with disabilities compared to adolescents without disabilities. However, housework activities (OR=0.14; 95%CI 0.04-0.43, p=0.001) and screen time ≥3 h/day (OR=0.09; 95%CI 0.02-0.38, p=0.001) were lower in adolescents with disabilities compared to adolescents without disabilities. Conclusion: Adolescents with disabilities attending a sports NGO were not at higher risk of adverse health-related indicators; despite showing reduced physical function, they reported more physical activity, higher happiness, and less screen time compared to adolescents without disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar os parâmetros de saúde física e mental, de qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde (QVRS), em adolescentes com deficiência física matriculados em organização não governamental (ONG) esportiva vs. em adolescentes sem deficiência, durante a pandemia da doença do coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19). Métodos: Este estudo transversal incluiu 30 adolescentes com deficiência e 86 adolescentes sem deficiência que responderam a questionário online com dados sociodemográficos e informações de rotina de saúde autoavaliadas durante a quarentena da COVID-19. Versões validadas de autorrelato do Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQL4.0), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) e Pediatric Outcome Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) também foram aplicadas. Resultados: A mediana de problemas emocionais [4(0-10) vs. 5(0-10),p=0,018] e pró-social [7(0-10) vs. 9(3-10),p=0,006] foi menor em adolescentes com deficiência vs. adolescentes sem deficiência. Adolescentes com deficiência tiveram função global significantemente inferior [68(21-99) vs. 94(67-100),p <0,001] e pontuações de felicidade mais altas do PODCI [90(65-100) vs. 80(0-100),p=0,016] em comparação com o grupo sem deficiências. A análise de regressão logística demonstrou que a atividade física/semana (odds ratio — OR=1,03; intervalo de confiança — IC95%=1,01-1,05,p=0,002) foi maior nos adolescentes com deficiência. No entanto, atividades domésticas (OR=0,14; IC95%=0,04-0,43,p=0,001) e tempo de tela ≥3 horas/dia (OR=0,09; IC95%=0,02-0,38,p=0,001) foram menores nos adolescentes com deficiência. Conclusões: Os adolescentes com deficiência que frequentam uma organização não governamental (ONG) esportiva não tiveram maior risco de apresentar indicadores adversos à saúde; apesar de apresentarem função física reduzida, relataram mais atividade física, maior felicidade e menos tempo de tela em comparação com adolescentes sem deficiência durante a pandemia da COVID-19.

5.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 41: e2021204, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406957

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the prevalence of weight dissatisfaction among adolescents aged 10-19 years and stratify the analysis by sex. Data source: A literature review of cross-sectional studies among healthy adolescents was performed. The U.S. National Library of Medicine/National Institutes of Health (PubMed), Ovid® (Wolters Kluwer), The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and American Psychological Association (PsycINFO®) databases were searched between May 2019 and January 2020. Data synthesis: Initially, 3,700 records were identified, and 10 papers were obtained through other sources. After the removal of duplicates, 1,732 records were screened based on the titles and abstracts, and 126 were preselected for full-text analysis. After the application of the eligibility criteria, 34 papers were included in the present review. The studies were published between 1997 and 2020. The sample size ranged from <150 to >103,000 adolescents. The prevalence of weight dissatisfaction ranged from 18.0 to 56.6% in both sexes (10.8-82.5% among boys and 19.2-83.8% among girls). Conclusions: Based on the findings of the present systematic review, the prevalence of weight dissatisfaction is high among adolescents, especially girls. Such information can contribute to the planning of health and education programs addressing the issue of weight in adolescents.


RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar as prevalências de insatisfação com o peso corporal em adolescentes de dez a 19 anos, segundo o sexo. Fontes de dados: Foram selecionados estudos transversais que descreviam as prevalências de insatisfação com o peso em adolescentes saudáveis, nos idiomas inglês, português e espanhol. Não foram estabelecidos limites para o ano de publicação ou país. Utilizaram-se as bases de dados US National Library of Medicine/National Institutes of Health (PubMed), Ovid® (Wolters Kluwer), The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) e American Psychological Association (PsycINFO®), entre maio de 2019 e janeiro de 2020. Síntese dos dados: Inicialmente identificaram-se 3.700 registros e dez estudos em outras fontes de dados. Após a remoção dos estudos duplicados, foram rastreados 1.732 registros para a leitura de títulos e resumos, dos quais 126 artigos foram selecionados para avaliação do texto completo. Por fim, foi incluído nesta pesquisa o total de 34 artigos. Os estudos foram publicados entre 1997 e 2020. Os tamanhos amostrais variaram de <150 a >103.000 adolescentes. As prevalências de insatisfação com o peso variaram de 18,0 a 56,6% em ambos os sexos (10,8 a 82,5% no sexo masculino e 19,2 a 83,8% no feminino). Conclusões: Esta revisão identificou elevada prevalência de insatisfação com o peso corporal em adolescentes, superior em meninas. Tais informações podem contribuir para o planejamento de programas de saúde e educação direcionados à questão do peso em adolescentes.

6.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 39(2)dic. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1405587

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common and severe spinal deformity, which affects children and adolescents in the stage of neuromotor development and skeletal maturity of the sagittal curvatures of the spine. The literature presents several radiation-free instruments to assess and monitor the progression of scoliotic curvature angles in the AIS. However, the reliability and validity of the inclinometer at different stages of growth in relation to X-ray parameters has not been understood to date. Objective: To evaluate the reliability of the inclinometer and its validity with the X-ray exam on the sagittal parameters of the spine in the early and late growth stages of adolescents with AIS. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 39 adolescents with AIS who were divided into two groups: the initial growth phase (10-13 years) and the late growth phase (14-18 years). The evaluated sagittal parameters of the spine were the angle of the thoracic kyphosis and the angle of the lumbar lordosis, both measured by the X-ray image examination and the inclinometer. Results: The inclinometer showed excellent inter- and intra-examiner reliability for the different growth phases, early and late, with a strong association with the X-ray (gold standard; r = 0.84; p = 0.308 and r = 0.75; p = 0.517). The angle of lumbar lordosis was different between the inclinometer and X-ray instruments in the early and late stages of growth (p < 0.001), with moderate reliability and a less significant correlation with the gold standard of radiography (r = 0.38; p = 0.001 and r = 0.49; p = 0.024). Conclusion: The inclinometer showed excellent reliability and validity for the sagittal parameter of thoracic kyphosis in the early and late stages of growth. The angle of lumbar lordosis measured by inclinometer proved to be of moderate reliability and weak validity when considering the phases of skeletal growth, showing it to be an inefficient instrument for monitoring the lumbar scoliotic curvature for AIS.


Resumen Introducción: La escoliosis idiopática del adolescente (EIA) es la deformidad espinal más común y severa, que afecta a niños y adolescentes en la etapa de desarrollo neuromotor y madurez esquelética de las curvaturas sagitales de la columna. La literatura presenta varios instrumentos libres de radiación para evaluar y monitorear la progresión de los ángulos de curvatura escolióticos en el AIS. Sin embargo, hasta la fecha no se ha entendido la fiabilidad y validez del inclinómetro en diferentes etapas de crecimiento en relación con los parámetros de rayos X. Objectivo: Evaluar la confiabilidad del inclinómetro y su validez con el examen de rayos X sobre los parámetros sagitales de la columna vertebral en las etapas de crecimiento temprano y tardío de adolescentes con EIA. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal con 39 adolescentes con EIA que se dividieron en dos grupos: la fase de crecimiento inicial (10-13 años) y la fase de crecimiento tardío (14-18 años). Los parámetros sagitales de la columna evaluados fueron el ángulo de la cifosis torácica y el ángulo de la lordosis lumbar, ambos medidos por el examen de imagen de rayos X y el inclinómetro. Resultados: El inclinómetro mostró una excelente confiabilidad inter e intraexaminador para las diferentes fases de crecimiento, temprana y tardía, con una fuerte asociación con la radiografía (estándar de oro; r = 0.84; p = 0.308 y r = 0.75; p = 0,517). El ángulo de lordosis lumbar fue diferente entre el inclinómetro y los instrumentos de rayos X en las etapas tempranas y tardías del crecimiento (p < 0,001), con confiabilidad moderada y una correlación menos significativa con el estándar de oro de la radiografía (r = 0,38; p = 0,001 y r = 0,49; p = 0,024). Conclusión: El inclinómetro mostró excelente confiabilidad y validez para el parámetro sagital de cifosis torácica en etapas tempranas y tardías de crecimiento. El ángulo de lordosis lumbar medido por inclinómetro demostró ser de confiabilidad moderada y validez débil al considerar las fases de crecimiento esquelético, mostrándose como un instrumento ineficiente para monitorear la curvatura escoliótica lumbar para EIA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Scoliosis/diagnosis , X-Rays , Growth and Development
7.
Rev. CES psicol ; 15(3): 1-20, sep.-dic. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406715

ABSTRACT

Resumen La pandemia por COVID-19 es un evento adverso y factor de riesgo para la salud integral de los adolescentes y jóvenes, asociado a trastornos de estrés, ansiedad y depresión, sin embargo, la perspectiva ecológica plantea que la percepción del evento o situación juega un papel central en la adaptación y salud mental. Por otra parte, la detección de factores de riesgo-protección es la base de una intervención efectiva. El objetivo de este estudio fue construir una medida multidimensional válida y confiable para explorar la percepción subjetiva y las respuestas psicológicas de los adolescentes y jóvenes ante la pandemia por COVID-19. Se realizó un estudio instrumental en el que participaron 727 adolescentes de 13 a 24 años (M= 18.36; DE= 2.9) de la Ciudad de México. Se elaboró la Encuesta de Percepción Juvenil del COVID-19 (EPJ COVID-19) que fue aplicada en línea. Un análisis factorial por componentes principales (n= 410) arrojó una solución de ocho factores: Miedo y preocupaciones, Indicadores de estrés, Presiones escolares, Conductas preventivas, Cambios de rutinas, Dinámica familiar, Relajación y esparcimiento, y Socialización virtual (VE = 59.07%). Un análisis factorial confirmatorio con el método de máxima verosimilitud (n= 317) corroboró un modelo de ocho factores mostrando índices aceptables de ajuste, el cual también presentó una buena consistencia interna (α total= .863). Los resultados sugieren que la EPJ COVID-19 es una medida válida y confiable que puede ser usada para valorar de manera integral la percepción y respuestas de los adolescentes y jóvenes ante la pandemia para diseñar intervenciones basadas en evidencia.


Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic is an adverse event and risk factor for the integral health of adolescents and young people, associated with stress disorders, anxiety, and depression; however, the ecological-transactional perspective supposed that the perception of the event or situation plays a central role in adaptation and mental health. Likewise, detecting risk-protective factors is the basis for effective intervention The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable multidimensional measure to explore the perception and psychological responses of young people to the pandemic. An instrumental study was carried out and 727 adolescents aged 13 to 24 years (M= 18.36; SD= 2.9) from Mexico City participated. The COVID-19's Youth Perception Survey (COVID 19's YPS) was constructed which was applied online. A factor analysis using the principal components (n= 410) yielded a solution of eight factors: Fear and worries, Stress indicators, School pressures, Preventive behaviors, Changes in routine, Family dynamics, Relaxation and leisure, and Virtual socialization (EV= 59.07%). A confirmatory factor analysis using the maximum likelihood method (n= 317) corroborated an eight-factor model showing acceptable fit index, and it also shows a good internal consistency (α total= .863). These results suggest that the Survey is a valid and reliable measure that can be used to comprehensively assess adolescents and youth perception and responses to the pandemic, providing data to designing evidence-based intervention.

8.
Rev. CES psicol ; 15(3): 115-132, sep.-dic. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406721

ABSTRACT

Resumen El consumo de sustancias psicoactivas [SPA] es un problema de salud pública, y constituye uno de los principales factores de riesgo para la salud. Se ha observado que el consumo de SPA está mediado por diferentes variables, una de ellas es la desregulación emocional, y se requiere mayor investigación del comportamiento de esta variable y su relación con los niveles de riesgo asociado al consumo. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar si existen diferencias en la desregulación emocional según el nivel de riesgo asociado al consumo de sustancias en una muestra de universitarios. Para tal efecto se adelantó un estudio descriptivo por comparación de grupos con una muestra de 721 estudiantes. Los resultados indicaron altas prevalencias de consumo de SPA; diferencias en los puntajes de desregulación emocional según el nivel de riesgo para tranquilizantes y cocaína, y que, a nivel general, aquellos universitarios con menor nivel de riesgo son quienes presentan menores puntajes de desregulación emocional, lo que sugiere que la desregulación emocional es una variable predictora de un mayor nivel de riesgo asociado al consumo de SPA.


Abstract The use of psychoactive substances is a public health problem, and it is one of the main health risk factors. It has been observed that the use of drugs is mediated by different variables, one of them is the emotional dysregulation, and more research is required on the behavior of this variable and its relationship with the levels of risk in the consumption. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences in emotional dysregulation according to the level of risk associated with substance use in a sample of 721 university students. For this purpose, a descriptive study was carried out by comparing groups. The results indicated high prevalence of PAS consumption, differences in emotional dysregulation scores according to the risk level for tranquilizer pills and cocaine. In general, the students with a lower risk level are those who present lower emotional dysregulation scores, suggesting that emotional dysregulation is a predictor variable of a higher level of risk associated with PAS consumption.

9.
Rev. colomb. psicol ; 31(2): 45-64, July-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1408059

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aims to characterize video game use disorder in adolescents, identifying the particularities of those who present it, its effects at the brain level, related factors, and existing measurement instruments. A systematic review of the scientific publications available in Scopus was carried out, between the period 2014-2018 on video game use disorder in adolescents. Adolescents with this disorder are characterized by being mostly men, spending more time daily and weekly playing than adolescents without this disorder, showing diverse symptoms in the behavioral, affective, and cognitive areas. At brain level, it is referred that in this disorder there is an increase and decrease in the activation of specific areas of the brain. Likewise, the presence of some psychological disorder and impulsivity are considered factors that increase the risk of suffering from it. However, there are protective factors as school commitment and parental supervision, among others.


Resumen Este estudio pretende caracterizar el trastorno por uso de videojuegos en adolescentes, identificando las particularidades de quienes lo presentan, sus efectos a nivel cerebral, los factores relacionados y los instrumentos de medición existentes. Para ello, se llevó a cabo una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones científicas disponibles en Scopus, entre el periodo 2014-2018, sobre el trastorno por uso de videojuegos en adolescentes. Sus resultados describen que adolescentes con este trastorno se caracterizan por ser en su mayoría hombres, dedicar más tiempo diario y semanal de juego que adolescentes sin este trastorno, mostrando diversos síntomas en el área conductual, afectiva y cognitiva. A nivel cerebral se refiere que en este trastorno se presenta una elevación y disminución en la activación de determinadas zonas específicas del cerebro. Asimismo, la presencia de algún trastorno psicológico y la impulsividad, son considerados factores que aumentan el riesgo de padecerlo. Sin embargo, existen factores protectores como el compromiso escolar y la supervisión parental, entre otros.

10.
Rev. latinoam. psicol ; 54: 76-85, ene.-dic. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1409662

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La Organización Mundial de la Salud indica que es necesario eliminar los valores, las actitudes y los estereotipos basados en el género que afectan la salud y el bienestar de las niñas y mujeres en el mundo. Desde la psicología de la personalidad, algunos trabajos científicos han demostrado que rasgos como la triada oscura de la personalidad (maquiavelismo, psicopatía y narcisismo) y la desconexión moral aumentan la susceptibilidad al sesgo de género, la amenaza y la agresión interpersonal. Como contribución al diseño de un perfil personológico propenso a aceptar y justificar las actitudes sexistas, el objetivo principal de este trabajo fue estudiar el rol mediador de la desconexión moral entre la triada oscura de la personalidad y el sexismo ambivalente en adolescentes. Método: La muestra estuvo compuesta por 803 adolescentes (M = 15.33, DT = 0.99; 50.3% chicos) tras utilizar un muestreo por conveniencia para realizar un análisis de la varianza y la comparación de varios modelos mediacionales a partir de la técnica de bootstrapping. Resultados: Los rasgos de la triada oscura de la personalidad se relacionan directa y significativamente con el sexismo hostil y benevolente de los/as adolescentes, y la desconexión moral tiene un efecto mediador importante en esta relación. Conclusiones: Finalmente, se discute cómo trabajar la desconexión moral para la transformación de estas creencias y actitudes de género que perpetúan la discriminación hacia las adolescentes en programas de prevención.


Abstract Introduction: The World Health Organization indicates that gender-based values, attitudes and stereotypes that affect the health and well-being of girls and women around the world need to be eliminated. From personality psychology, scientific studies have shown that traits such as the dark personality triad (Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism) and moral disengagement increase susceptibility to gender bias, threat, and interpersonal aggression. As a contribution to the design of a personological profile prone to accept and justify sexist attitudes, the main aim of this paper was to study the mediating role of moral disengagement between the dark personality triad and ambivalent sexism in a sample of adolescents. Methods: The sample consisted of 803 adolescents (M = 15.33, SD = 0.99; 50.3% boys) using convenience sampling to assess ambivalent sexism, dark personality triad and moral disengagement. An analysis of variance and comparison of various mediational models was carried out using the bootstrapping technique. Results: The dark personality triad traits are directly and significantly related to adolescents' hostile and benevolent sexism, and that moral disengagement has a relevant mediating effect on this relationship. Conclusions: Finally, the implications of these findings for the transformation of these gendered beliefs and attitudes that perpetuate discrimination against girls and women are discussed in relation with prevention programs.

11.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(10): 4003-4013, out. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1404123

ABSTRACT

Resumo A discriminação percebida é um importante produtor de estresse e trauma social e pode ter efeitos negativos sobre a saúde física e mental das pessoas expostas a ela. Este estudo visa analisar a associação direta e indireta entre discriminação percebida e prática de atividade física, mediada por transtornos mentais comuns de adolescentes. Trata-se de pesquisa transversal, com 2.484 adolescentes (18 e 19 anos) de uma coorte de São Luís, Maranhão. Modelos de equações estruturais foram utilizados para verificar o efeito direto da discriminação percebida sobre a atividade física (AF) e seu efeito indireto mediado pelos Transtornos Mentais Comuns (TMC). O potencial do sexo como variável modificadora de efeitos também foi testado. A discriminação percebida esteve associada a maiores níveis de AF nas mulheres (CP - Coeficiente padronizado direto =0,105, p-valor=0,005), e associada a menor AF por via indireta pelos TMC entre homens (CPindireto =-0,024, p-valor=0,017) e mulheres (CPindireto =-0,024, p-valor=0,015). Os achados mostram que nesta população de adolescentes houve associação entre discriminação percebida e AF, demonstrando que seus efeitos podem alterar comportamentos de saúde e o sexo pode modificar a relação entre essas variáveis.


Abstract Perceived discrimination is a major producer of stress and social trauma and can have negative effects on the physical and mental health of those exposed to it. This study aims to analyze the direct and indirect association between perceived discrimination and physical activity, mediated by common mental disorders in adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study with 2,484 adolescents (aged 18 and 19 years old) from a cohort in São Luís, Maranhão. Structural equation models were used to verify the direct effect of perceived discrimination on physical activity (PA) and its indirect effect mediated by common mental disorders (CMD). The potential of sex to act as an effect-modifying variable was also tested. Discrimination was associated with higher levels of PA in women (SC - Standardized Coefficient direct =0.105, p-value=0.005), and indirectly associated with lower PA via CMT among men (SCindirect =-0.024, p-value=0.017) and women (SCindirect =-0.024, p-value=0.015). Our findings show the association between perceived discrimination and PA in this population of adolescents, attesting that its effects can alter health behaviors and that gender can modify the relation between these variables.

12.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 25(292): 8498-8509, set. 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1398881

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto de ações educativas como medida de prevenção das enteroparasitoses em adolescentes escolares. Método: Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo de análise qualitativa e caráter descritivo, realizada com informações pregressas coletadas em uma escola da rede estadual no município de Camaragibe. A avaliação do conhecimento pré e pós da ação educativa, foi realizada através das Técnicas de análise de conteúdo e do Sujeito Coletivo. Resultados: Os resultados obtidos demonstram que a temática é de grande relevância. No transcurso da pesquisa houve uma mudança significativa no modo de pensar e agir dos educandos envolvidos, mudança de hábitos e interesse com relação a higienização pessoal, dos alimentos, transmissão, prevenção e biossegurança dentro da comunidade onde estão inseridos. Conclusão: Ações educativas como essas, são imprescindíveis na comunidade escolar e adjacentes. Contudo o uso de metodologias educativas para ações profiláticas, voltadas para esta temática não é efetiva nas políticas de saúde pública.(AU)


Objective: To evaluate the impact of educational activities as a measure to prevent intestinal parasites in school adolescents. Method: This is a retrospective study of qualitative analysis and descriptive character, carried out with previous information collected in a state school in the municipality of Camaragibe. The evaluation of pre and post knowledge of the educational action was carried out through the techniques of content analysis and the Collective Subject. Results: The results obtained demonstrate that the theme is of great relevance. In the course of the research there was a significant change in the way of thinking and acting of the students involved, change of habits and interest in relation to personal hygiene, food, transmission, prevention and biosecurity within the community where they are inserted. Conclusion: Educational actions such as these are essential in the school community and adjacent. However, the use of educational methodologies for prophylactic actions focused on this theme is not effective in public health policies.(AU)


Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto de las actividades educativas como medida de prevención de parásitos intestinales en adolescentes escolares. Método: Se trata de un estudio retrospectivo de análisis cualitativo y carácter descriptivo, realizado con información previa recolectada en una escuela pública del municipio de Camaragibe. La evaluación de los conocimientos previos y posteriores a la acción educativa se realizó a través de las técnicas de análisis de contenido y el Sujeto Colectivo. Resultados: Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que el tema es de gran relevancia. En el transcurso de la investigación hubo un cambio significativo en la forma de pensar y actuar de los estudiantes involucrados, cambio de hábitos e interés en relación con la higiene personal, alimentación, transmisión, prevención y bioseguridad dentro de la comunidad donde se insertan. Conclusión: Acciones educativas como estas son imprescindibles en la comunidad escolar y aledaña. Sin embargo, el uso de metodologías educativas para acciones profilácticas enfocadas en esa temática no es efectivo en las políticas públicas de salud.(AU)


Subject(s)
Parasitic Diseases , Health Education , Adolescent
13.
Ars méd ; 47(3): 23-31, sept. 21, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400616

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la pandemia COVID-19 es una enfermedad infecciosa causada por el virus SARS-CoV-2, la cual ha generado cambios sin precedentes en la vida de las personas a nivel mundial por medio del confinamiento, cierre de escuelas, dificultades socioeconómicas y estrés familiar. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer los efectos de la pandemia en niñas, niños y adolescentes a nivel mundial y cómo afecta en la salud mental de dicha población. Métodos: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica con búsqueda en PUBMED y Google Académico de artículos relacionados con efectos de la pandemia en la salud mental infanto-juvenil, en español e inglés entre los años 2020 y 2022. Resultados: se encontró mayor cantidad de artículos de habla inglesa y de metodología cualitativa con temas de alta relevancia, tales como: el aislamiento, soledad y cambio en hábitos de niñas, niños y adolescentes asociados al confinamiento y cierre de escuelas. También se mencionan los efectos en la salud mental, siendo la ansiedad y la depresión los trastornos más prevalentes junto al agravamiento de condiciones preexistentes como el trastorno de espectro autista (TEA) y por trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) entre otras. El confinamiento probablemente llevó a que las familias se encontraran mayor tiempo juntas en casa, pero también expuestas a estrés económico, relacional y en poder sobrellevar responsabilidades laborales, escolares y hogareñas, asociándose este estrés en ocasiones a situaciones de violencia y maltrato. En cuanto a la sintomatología, ésta se diferenció por edad y género, observando mayor severidad en mujeres adolescentes y adolescentes de género diverso. Conclusiones: la ansiedad y la depresión aparecen como los trastornos más prevalentes en población infanto-juvenil, estos resultados permiten poder dirigir políticas públicas en poblaciones de riesgo específicas, medidas a largo plazo y tomar decisiones basadas en evidencia respecto de futuros confinamientos o cierre de escuelas.


Introduction: Worldwide, the COVID-19 pandemic, an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has generated unprecedented changes in people's lives due to the lockdowns, the closure of schools, socio-economic difficulties, and family stress. The goal of this study is to get to know the effects of the pandemic on boys, girls, and adolescents around the world, and how it has affected their men-tal health. Methods: Search in PUBMED and Google Scholar for articles in Spanish and English between 2020 and 2022, related to the effects of the pandemic on the mental health of children and adolescents. Results: The author found more articles in English, that used qualitative methodologies covering high-impact issues, such as isolation, loneliness, and changes in habits of children and adolescents, associated with lockdowns and school closures. Effects on mental health are also mentioned, with anxiety and depression being the most prevalent disorders. In contrast, a worsening of preexisting conditions like autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and other conditions were also mentioned. The confinement probably led to families spending more time together at home. However, they also faced economic and relational stress, while juggling work, school, and household responsibilities, which led to situations of violence and abuse. Meanwhile, the symptomology was differentiated by age and gender, observing more severe mental health difficulties in adolescent women and gender-diverse adolescents. Conclusions: Anxiety and depression appear as the most prevalent disorders in infant-juvenile mental health. These results allow focusing public policies on specific at-risk populations, measured in the long term, and to make decisions based on evidence for future lockdowns and school closures

14.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 37(3): 282-288, jul.-set. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1408037

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: los trastornos digestivos funcionales son frecuentes en niños; sin embargo, hay escasos datos sobre la dispepsia funcional (DF) en adolescentes cubanos. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de DF en adolescentes cubanos y sus posibles asociaciones. Metodología: se usó el cuestionario para síntomas digestivos pediátricos de Roma IV en español para identificar la presencia de DF en adolescentes de 3 centros escolares de La Habana, Cuba. Se tuvieron en cuenta variables sociodemográficas, personales, familiares, clínicas y epidemiológicas. Resultados: de los 318 adolescentes que participaron en el estudio, 11 adolescentes (3,5 %) de 11,4 ± 1,2 años de edad, 81,8 % de sexo femenino, presentaron DF. La DF fue más frecuente en el sexo femenino (odds ratio [OR]: 5,33; intervalo de confianza [IC] 95 %: 1,06-51,45; p = 0,019). El síndrome de dificultad posprandial (SDP) fue mayor que el síndrome de dolor epigástrico (SDE) en una proporción 1,8:1. En el 63,6 % se presentó superposición entre DF y estreñimiento funcional. Hubo predominio de DF en los niños con padres separados/divorciados (OR: 4,74; IC 95 %: 1,09-28,31; p = 0,014). Conclusión: la DF es más común en adolescentes femeninas, el SDP es el subtipo más frecuente y su presencia está asociada con padres separados/divorciados.


Abstract Introduction: functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are common in children. However, data on functional dyspepsia (FD) in Cuban adolescents is scarce. Objective: to determine the prevalence of FD in Cuban adolescents and their possible associations. Methodology: the questionnaire for pediatric digestive symptoms of Rome IV was used in Spanish to identify the presence of DF in adolescents from 3 schools in La Havana, Cuba. Sociodemographic, personal, family, clinical, and epidemiological variables were considered. Results: of the 318 adolescents who participated in the study, 11 (3.5%) aged 11.4 ± 1.2 years, 81.8% female, presented FD. Functional dyspepsia was more frequent in females (odds ratio [OR]: 5.33; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-51.45; p = 0.019). The postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) was higher than the epigastric pain syndrome (SDE) by a 1.8:1 ratio. There was an overlap between DF and functional constipation in 63.6% of the patients. There was an FD predominance in children with separated or divorced parents (OR: 4.74; 95% CI: 1.09-28.31; p = 0.014). Conclusion: functional dyspepsia is most common in female adolescents, PSD is the most frequent subtype, and its presence is associated with separated or divorced parents.

15.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 94(3)sept. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1409152

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La asociación entre enfermedad celíaca y diabetes mellitus tipo 1 se ha publicado con mayor frecuencia que la enfermedad celíaca aislada, cuya historia natural puede variar considerablemente, con evidencia de síntomas gastrointestinales en la minoría de los pacientes. Objetivo: Caracterizar a pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 1 y enfermedad celíaca. Método: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal en 63 niños atendidos en el Hospital Pediátrico Docente "Centro Habana" entre los años 2016-2017 con diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus tipo 1. Las variables estudiadas se expresaron en valores absolutos y relativa, medida de tendencia central y de dispersión. Resultados: El sexo masculino representó 58,73 % de los pacientes, la mayoría entre 10 y 14 años de edad. El anticuerpo antitransglutaminasa fue positivo en menos de 10 % de los niños, generalmente sin síntomas, signos o hallazgos relacionados con la enfermedad celíaca. La frecuencia de ambas enfermedades en los pacientes estudiados fue de 3,17 %. Conclusiones: La diabetes mellitus tipo 1 predomina en el sexo masculino a diferencia de la enfermedad celíaca que se diagnostica en pacientes femeninas. Los resultados de anticuerpos antitransglutaminasa son negativos en la mayoría de los pacientes mientras que los positivos tienen más de un año de evolución de la diabetes, se encuentran eutróficos o sobrepeso, asintomáticos y con valores ligeramente superiores de hemoglobina glucosilada.


ABSTRACT Introduction: The association between celiac disease and type 1 diabetes mellitus has been published more frequently than isolated celiac disease, whose natural history can vary considerably, with evidence of gastrointestinal symptoms in the minority of patients. Objective: To characterize patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and celiac disease. Method: Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study in 63 children treated at "Centro Habana" Pediatric Teaching Hospital between the years 2016-2017 with a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus. The variables studied were expressed in absolute and relative values, a measure of central tendency and dispersion. Results: Males accounted for 58.73% of the patients, most of them between 10 and 14 years old. The anti-transglutaminase antibody was positive in less than 10% of the children, usually without symptoms, signs, or findings related to celiac disease. The frequency of both diseases in the patients studied was 3.17%. Conclusions: Type 1 diabetes mellitus predominates in males unlike celiac disease which is diagnosed in female patients. The results of anti-transglutaminase antibodies are negative in most patients while the positive ones have more than a year of evolution of diabetes, are eutrophic or overweight, asymptomatic and with slightly higher values of glycosylated hemoglobin.

16.
Interdisciplinaria ; 39(2): 355-368, ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385935

ABSTRACT

Resumen El sentido de vida se ha convertido en una importante variable salutogénica en las poblaciones más jóvenes. La investigación ha evidenciado que el sentido de vida está relacionado con la disminución de comportamientos de riesgo, como el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas, y es un factor protector frente a diferentes problemáticas de salud, que van desde los eventos cardiovasculares hasta la disminución de la aparición de sintomatología ansiosa y depresiva. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar cómo esta variable se asocia con la ansiedad y la depresión en un grupo de adolescentes y jóvenes. Se analizaron los datos de 596 participantes colombianos cuyas edades oscilaron entre 18 y 24 años (M = 21; DE = 1.74; 68 % mujeres y 32 % hombres). Se utilizaron la Escala Dimensional de Sentido de Vida y la Escala para la Depresión, la Ansiedad y el Estrés (DASS-21). En primer lugar, se encontraron diferencias significativas en las puntuaciones de sentido de vida en las siguientes variables: los participantes que reportaron algún diagnóstico de enfermedad, consumo de sustancias psicoactivas y estrato socioeconómico. Se presenta un modelo resultante de un análisis de ecuaciones estructurales basado en cuadrados mínimos parciales. El modelo tuvo índices de ajuste adecuado (NFI = .84; SRMR = .06). El sentido de vida se asoció negativa y significativamente con la ansiedad y la depresión. Los resultados encontrados presentan implicaciones para la investigación al tiempo que se constituyen en sustento empírico para incluir la variable en programas de intervención y prevención, de tal forma que puedan evaluarse objetivamente y consigan disminuir las puntuaciones de ansiedad y depresión en jóvenes.


Abstract Around 300 million people in the world suffer from depression and anxiety. Both have become, according to the main organizations, one of the first causes of disability and lost work years on the planet. Not to mention that depression is one of the main antecedents of deaths by suicide. Both have a special impact on young populations and adolescents. In Colombia the data is not more encouraging, around 53 % of the young people has at least one symptom of anxiety and 80 % have at least one symptom of depression. Given this data, anxiety and depression constitute important health problems that require sufficient attention. On the other hand, the meaning in life has become an important salutogenic variable in younger populations. Recent research has shown that the meaning in life is related to the reduction of risk behaviors, such as the consumption of psychoactive substances, and is a protective factor against different health problems, ranging from cardiovascular events to the reduction of the appearance of anxious and depressive symptoms. Based on the above, the objective of this study was to identify how the meaning in life is associated with anxiety and depression in adolescents and young people. The data of 596 Colombian participants whose ages ranged between 18 and 24 years (M = 21; SD = 1.74; 68 % women and 32 % men) were analyzed, the only condition to participate was knowing how to read and write. The Dimensional Meaning Life Scale and the Scale for Depression, Anxiety and Stress (DASS-21) were used. Firstly, significant differences were found in the meaning in life scores in the participants who reported a diagnosis of disease, consumption of psychoactive substances and socioeconomic condition. The highest meaning scores were obtained by people who did not have a diagnosis of medical or psychological illness, who did not consume any psychoactive substances, and people in the highest socioeconomic status. Likewise, there were differences for anxiety and depression, people with a diagnosis of disease and who consume psychoactive substances had higher scores for both anxiety and depression. Women had higher anxiety scores, and people from the lowest socioeconomic conditions had the highest scores for depression. A model resulting from an analysis of structural equations based on partial least squares is presented. The model had adequate fit indices (NFI = .84; SRMR = .06). The meaning in life was negatively and significantly associated with anxiety and depression. The path coefficients of the latent variable meaning in life show an impact of -.49 on anxiety and -.71 on depression. According to the R squared values, the meaning of life explains 24 % of the presence of anxiety symptoms and around 51 % of depression. Regarding the measurement model, both the Dimensional Meaning in Life Scale and the Scale for Depression, Anxiety and Stress (DASS-21) showed excellent adjustments in the measurement and operationalization of the latent variables. The results found present implications for research, and they also constitute empirical support to include the variable in intervention and prevention programs that can be objectively evaluated and reduce anxiety and depression scores in adolescents and young people, which would also allow to reduce all the negative consequences associated with both pathologies. Other projections and limitations associated with what was found in this research are discussed.

17.
Rev. CES psicol ; 15(2): 23-43, mayo-ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387204

ABSTRACT

Resumen El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo estudiar si los problemas emocionales (depresión y ansiedad) y la Personalidad Oscura eran predictores del sexting y el grooming, y si este comportamiento varía según el género y la edad. Se constituyó una muestra de 728 adolescentes entre 11 y 18 años (38% hombres) de tres escuelas secundarias privadas ubicadas en Buenos Aires y Paraná, Argentina. Completaron un Cuestionario de sexting, el Cuestionario de Solicitación e Interacción Sexual a menores online por parte de adultos para evaluar el comportamiento de grooming, la Escala de síntomas psicosomáticos de Rosenberg, el Inventario de depresión de Kovacs para niños y el Dirty Dozen para los rasgos de Personalidad Oscura. Los resultados mostraron que 12% de los adolescentes admitió haber padecido una conducta de grooming. Las formas más frecuentes fueron el envío de mensajes escritos de carácter sexual (11%) y fotos (10%) y luego, en orden de frecuencia, el envío de videos (4%), pero no se detectaron diferencias por género. Los predictores significativos de sexting y el tamaño de su varianza explicada variaban según el género (R² = 47% para mujeres y R² = 12% para hombres, respectivamente). En el caso de las mujeres, mayor edad y puntajes de psicopatía fueron predictores significativos, y en el de los hombres, menor ansiedad fue el predictor significativo. Un modelo estructural explicó una varianza del 6% para el sexting y 21% para el grooming, indicando que no hubo invarianza, según el género. Las regresiones lineales para predecir el grooming a partir del sexting también sugirieron que el género moderaba esta relación.


Abstract The present study aimed to study if emotional problems (depression and anxiety) and Dark Personality were predictors of sexting and grooming, and if this behavior differs by gender and age. A sample of 728 adolescents between 11 and 18 years of age (38% male) from three private high schools located in Buenos Aires and Paraná, Argentina, was drawn. They completed a Sexting questionnaire, the Questionnaire for Online Sexual Solicitation and Interaction of Minors with Adults for grooming behavior, Rosenberg Scale of Psychosomatic Symptoms, the Kovacs Depression Inventory for Children and the Dirty Dozen for dark personality traits. Results showed that 12% of adolescents admitted having carried out a sexting behavior. Sending written messages of a sexual nature (11%) and photos (10%) were the most prevalent ways, followed by videos (4%), but no differences were detected according to gender. Significant predictors of sexting and the size of its explained variance ranged by gender (R² = 47% for females and R² = 12% for men, respectively). In the case of females, older age and psychopathy were the significant predictors. In the case of males, less anxiety was the significant predictors. A structural model explained a variance of 6% for sexting and 21% for grooming, indicating that there was no inavariance, according to gender. Linear regressions to predict grooming from sexting also suggested this relationship was moderated by gender.

18.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 44(4): 449-460, July-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394080

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy (GCBT) for the treatment of adolescents with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Methods: This review was registered in PROSPERO under number CRD42020158475. Five databases (PubMed, Virtual Health Library, Web of Science, Scopus, and PsycINFO) were searched. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 13 studies were analyzed in the qualitative synthesis (i.e., systematic review) and eight in the quantitative synthesis (i.e., meta-analysis). For the latter, fixed-effect modeling was used to assess the primary outcome (i.e., OCD symptoms). Results: The main findings suggest that GCBT is effective in reducing the symptoms of OCD in adolescents (d = -1.32). However, these results must be interpreted with caution, since all of the included studies showed some bias in their design. Conclusions: GCBT is effective in reducing OCD symptoms in adolescents.

19.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(8): 3227-3238, ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384474

ABSTRACT

Resumo A insatisfação com a imagem corporal é considerada uma variável relevante na compreensão da saúde mental dos adolescentes. Nesse sentido, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o impacto dessa insatisfação sobre variáveis associadas à saúde mental dos estudantes brasileiros matriculados no 9º ano. Para isso, utilizou-se os dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar de 2015 e a metodologia empregada baseou-se no Propensity Score Matching (PSM). Os resultados apontaram que a insatisfação com o próprio corpo tem impacto sobre a saúde mental dos adolescentes, apresentando efeito positivo na probabilidade de o estudante reportar sentimento frequente de solidão, relatar insônia por motivo de preocupação e ter dificuldade de socialização. Esse impacto foi crescente conforme o grau de insatisfação com a imagem corporal, sendo as meninas mais afetadas do que os meninos. Assim, verifica-se a importância da elaboração de estratégias visando reduzir a insatisfação corporal entre os adolescentes contribuindo para o aumento do bem-estar desse público frente as diferenças corporais existentes.


Abstract Dissatisfaction with body image is considered a relevant variable in understanding the mental health of adolescents. In this respect, the scope of this study was to evaluate the impact of this dissatisfaction on variables associated with the mental health of Brazilian students enrolled in the 9th year. To achieve this, the data from the 2015 National School Health Survey was used and the methodology applied was based on Propensity Score Matching (PSM). The results showed that dissatisfaction with one's own body has an impact on the mental health of adolescents, with a positive influence on the probability of the student reporting a frequent feeling of loneliness, reporting insomnia for reasons of anxiety and having difficulty socializing. This impact increased with the degree of dissatisfaction with body image, with girls being more affected than boys. Thus, it is important to develop strategies for a more positive perception of body image among adolescents, contributing to the increase in the well-being of this group in line with existing body differences.

20.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(8): 3341-3353, ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384480

ABSTRACT

Abstract This article aims to assess the prevalence and factors associated with self-medication in adolescents. Cross-sectional study, nested in cohort, with 2,515 adolescents aged 18-19 years born in São Luís-MA. The use of medication in the last 15 days without a medical prescription or by a qualified professional was considered self-medication. Factors associated with self-medication were evaluated using Poisson regression with robust variances and hierarchical selection of variables. Medicines were used in the last 15 days by 48.05% of adolescents. Among these, 70.09% use it without a prescription or indication from another health professional. The most used medications for self-medication were "over the counter" (93.68%). Self-medication was positively associated with female gender (PR: 1.41; 95%CI: 1.25-1.59), screen time ≥5h/day (PR: 1.32; 95%CI: 1.05-1.67) and self-reported diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (PR: 1.19; 95%CI: 1.02-1.39); however, negatively associated with self-satisfaction with health (PR: 0.79; 95%CI: 0.67-0.94) and hospitalization in the previous year (PR: 0.70; 95%CI: 0.50-0.97). Self-medication was common among adolescents and to reduce this practice, greater attention should be given to women, individuals with intense exposure to meshes and allergic diseases.


Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar a prevalência e os fatores associados a automedicação em adolescentes. Estudo transversal, aninhado a uma coorte, com 2.515 adolescentes de 18-19 anos nascidos em São Luís-MA. O uso de algum medicamento nos últimos 15 dias sem prescrição médica ou de profissional habilitado foi considerado automedicação. Os fatores associados a automedicação foram avaliados usando regressão de Poisson com variâncias robustas e seleção hierárquica das variáveis. Medicamentos foram utilizados nos últimos 15 dias por 48,05% dos adolescentes. Entre estes, 70,09% fazem uso sem receita médica ou indicação de outro profissional de saúde. Os medicamentos mais utilizados na automedicação foram os "over the counter" (93,68%). A automedicação foi positivamente associada ao sexo feminino (RP: 1,41; IC95%: 1,25-1,59), tempo de tela ≥5h/dia (RP: 1,32; IC95%: 1,05-1,67) e diagnóstico autorreferido de rinite alérgica (RP: 1,19; IC95%: 1,02-1,39); porém, negativamente associada a autossatisfação com a saúde (PR: 0,79; IC95%: 0,67-0,94) e hospitalização no ano anterior (RP: 0,70; IC95%: 0,50-0,97). A automedicação foi comum entre os adolescentes e para redução dessa prática uma maior atenção deve ser dada a mulheres, indivíduos com intensa exposição a telas e doenças alérgicas.

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