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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247539, 2023. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278542

ABSTRACT

Abstract Numerous studies have investigated the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils from different Citrus species fruit peel, leaves and flowers. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition, larvicidal and antileishmanial activities of essential oil from Citrus reticulata fruit peel (CR-EO). CR-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. Limonene (85.7%), ɣ-terpinene (6.7%) and myrcene (2.1%) were identified as its major components. CR-EO showed high activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis (IC50 = 8.23 µg/mL). CR-EO also exhibited high larvicidal activity against third instar Aedes aegypti larvae at a lethal concentration (LC50 = 58.35 µg/mL) and 100% mortality at 150 µg/mL. This study suggests, for the first time, the potential use of CR-EO against this important mosquito-borne viral disease caused by the genus Aedes.


Resumo Numerosos estudos têm investigado a composição química e as atividades biológicas de óleos essenciais extraídos de cascas dos frutos, folhas e flores de diferentes espécies de Citrus. Este trabalho tem como objetivo investigar a composição química e as atividades larvicida e leishmanicida in vitro do óleo essencial das cascas dos frutos de Citrus reticulata (CR-EO). CR-EO foi obtido pela técnica de extração em aparelho Clevenger e sua composição química foi determinada por CG-EM e CG-DIC. Limoneno (85,7%), ɣ-terpineno (6,7%) and mirceno (2,1%) foram identificados como os constituintes majoritários. CR-EO mostrou alta atividade contra as formas promastigota de Leishmania amazonensis (CI50 = 8,23 µg/mL). CR-EO também exibiu alta atividade larvicida contra as larvas do terceiro estágio do Aedes aegypti com concentração letal (CL50 = 58,35 µg/mL) e mortalidade de 100% em 150 µg/mL. Este estudo sugere, pela primeira vez, o uso potencial de CR-EO contra esta importante doença viral transmitida por mosquitos do gênero Aedes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Citrus , Aedes , Insecticides/pharmacology , Fruit , Larva
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244647, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278527

ABSTRACT

Abstract The essential oil of citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) has several biological activities, among them the insect repellent action. Some studies showed that cinnamic acid esters can be applied as natural pesticides, insecticides and fungicides. In this context, the objective of the present work was to evaluate the production of esters from citronella essential oil with cinnamic acid via enzymatic esterification. Besides, the essential oil toxicity before and after esterification against Artemia salina and larvicidal action on Aedes aegypti was investigated. Esters were produced using cinnamic acid as the acylating agent and citronella essential oil (3:1) in heptane and 15 wt% NS 88011 enzyme as biocatalysts, at 70 °C and 150 rpm. Conversion rates of citronellyl and geranyl cinnamates were 58.7 and 69.0% for NS 88011, respectively. For the toxicity to Artemia salina LC50 results of 5.29 μg mL-1 were obtained for the essential oil and 4.36 μg mL-1 for the esterified oils obtained with NS 88011. In the insecticidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae, was obtained LC50 of 111.84 μg mL-1 for the essential oil of citronella and 86.30 μg mL-1 for the esterified oils obtained with the enzyme NS 88011, indicating high toxicity of the esters. The results demonstrated that the evaluated samples present potential of application as bioinsecticide.


Resumo O óleo essencial de citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus) possui diversas atividades biológicas, entre elas a ação repelente a insetos. Alguns estudos mostraram que os ésteres do ácido cinâmico podem ser aplicados como pesticidas naturais, inseticidas e fungicidas. Nesse contexto, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a produção de ésteres a partir do óleo essencial de citronela com ácido cinâmico via esterificação enzimática. Além disso, foi investigada a toxicidade do óleo essencial antes e após a esterificação contra Artemia salina e a ação larvicida sobre Aedes aegypti. Os ésteres foram produzidos utilizando ácido cinâmico como agente acilante e óleo essencial de citronela (3: 1) em heptano e 15% em peso da enzima NS 88011 como biocatalisadores, a 70 ° C e 150 rpm. As taxas de conversão de cinamatos de citronelil e geranil foram 58,7 e 69,0% para NS 88011, respectivamente. Para a toxicidade sobre Artemia salina foram obtidos CL50 de 5,29 μg mL-1 para o óleo essencial e 4,36 μg mL-1 para os óleos esterificados com NS 88011. Na atividade inseticida contra larvas de Aedes aegypti, obteve-se CL50 de 111,84 μg mL-1 para o óleo essencial de citronela e 86,30 μg mL-1 para os óleos esterificados com a enzima NS 88011, indicando alta toxicidade dos ésteres. Os resultados demonstraram que as amostras avaliadas apresentam potencial de aplicação como bioinseticida.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/toxicity , Aedes , Cymbopogon , Insect Repellents , Insecticides/toxicity , Esterification , Larva
3.
Saude e pesqui. (Impr.) ; 14(4): e8049, out-dez. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359136

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar conhecimentos e atitudes sobre o controle do Aedes aegypti dos quilombolas no Estado de Sergipe de acordo com as condições socioeconômicas, sanitárias e ambientais. Trata-se de estudo transversal quantitativo com 389 quilombolas, distribuídos proporcionalmente em 15 comunidades. Os quilombolas referiram ter acesso à Internet (78,9%), ao celular (84,4%) e possuíam água encanada (p < 0,0001). As atitudes de limpeza da calha (p = 0,014), da caixa d'água (p < 0,0001) e cuidados necessários com o entulho no quintal (p = 0,045) estão adequadas. Os conhecimentos sobre o controle do vetor (58,1%) e quais arboviroses são transmitidas por ele (69,2%) estavam adequados, 60,8% afirmaram possuírem conhecimentos sobre a proliferação do vetor e, portanto, executam atitudes para combatê-lo. Conclui-se que os quilombolas possuíam conhecimentos adequados e executam atitudes que podem levar ao controle do vetor, mesmo assim é necessária a incorporação de medidas educativas de caráter contínuo para a permanência dessas boas práticas.


The objective was to evaluate knowledge and attitudes about the control of Aedes aegypti of quilombolas in the state of Sergipe according to socioeconomic, sanitary and environmental conditions. Quantitative cross-sectional study with 389 quilombolas, proportionally distributed in 15 communities. Quilombolas reported having internet access (78.9%), mobile phones (84.4%) and running water (p < 0.0001). The attitudes of cleaning the gutter (p = 0.014), the water tank (p < 0.0001) and the care required with yard debris (p = 0.045) are adequate. Knowledge about vector control (58.1%) and which arboviruses are transmitted by it (69.2%) were adequate, 60.8% said they had knowledge about vector proliferation and, therefore, perform attitudes to combat lo. It is concluded that the quilombolas had adequate knowledge and perform attitudes that can lead to vector control. However, it is necessary to incorporate continuous educational measures for the permanence of these good practices.

4.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(2): 194-200, mar.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279101

ABSTRACT

Resumen En países americanos, simultáneas a la pandemia de enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) se están dando epidemias ocasionadas por diferentes arbovirus (del dengue, chikunguña y virus del Zika). En México, varias de las estrategias para control del mosquito Aedes aegypti, transmisor de arbovirus, involucran la interacción del personal salubrista y los moradores. Debido a la pandemia de COVID-19 se han implementado medidas de distanciamiento social y resguardo domiciliario. Para respetar estas medidas y evitar riesgo de contagio por coronavirus 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2), el Centro Nacional de Programas Preventivos y Control de Enfermedades (CENAPRECE) ha presentado la estrategia de control de vectores en el escenario de transmisión simultánea por dengue y COVID-19 en México. En este trabajo mencionamos las medidas habituales de manejo integral de mosquito y mencionamos las adaptaciones realizadas. De igual forma, discutimos la relevancia de la capacitación y la supervisión al personal médico, esto debido a la similitud entre la sintomatología entre ambas patologías.


Abstract Countries of Latin America are dealing with a simultaneous COVID-19 and vector borne disease (VBDs, Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya) outbreaks. In Mexico, certain activities to control Aedes aegypti mosquito (the main VBDs vector) comprise community participation through the interaction between householders and vector control personnel. Preventive measures against COVID-19 include social distancing and stay-at-home strategy, to obey these policies, and reduce the risk of infection, the National Center for Preventive Programs and Disease Control of Mexico (CENAPRECE) has adapted the vector control approaches in the country. In this paper we mention routine prevention and control activities to control mosquitoes and show the adapted measures. Because, a number of symptoms of the COVID-19 and dengue fever overlap with each other, we also discuss the relevance of accurate disease surveillance and medic’s training and supervision.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Mosquito Control/methods , Aedes/virology , Pandemics , Epidemiological Monitoring , COVID-19/epidemiology , Arbovirus Infections/prevention & control , Dengue/epidemiology , Information Dissemination , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Promotion
5.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(1): 161-167, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249068

ABSTRACT

Abstract | Introduction: It is essential to determine the interactions between viruses and mosquitoes to diminish dengue viral transmission. These interactions constitute a very complex system of highly regulated pathways known as the innate immune system of the mosquito, which produces antimicrobial peptides that act as effector molecules against bacterial and fungal infections. There is less information about such effects on virus infections. Objective: To determine the expression of two antimicrobial peptide genes, defensin A and cecropin A, in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected with DENV-1. Materials and methods: We used the F1 generation of mosquitoes orally infected with DENV-1 and real-time PCR analysis to determine whether the defensin A and cecropin A genes played a role in controlling DENV-1 replication in Ae. aegypti. As a reference, we conducted similar experiments with the bacteria Escherichia coli. Results: Basal levels of defensin A and cecropin A mRNA were expressed in uninfected mosquitoes at different times post-blood feeding. The infected mosquitoes experienced reduced expression of these mRNA by at least eightfold when compared to uninfected control mosquitoes at all times post-infection. In contrast with the behavior of DENV-1, results showed that bacterial infection produced up-regulation of defensin and cecropin genes; however, the induction of transcripts occurred at later times (15 days). Conclusion: DENV-1 virus inhibited the expression of defensin A and cecropin A genes in a wild Ae. aegypti population from Venezuela.


Resumen | Introducción. Es esencial determinar las interacciones entre los virus y los mosquitos para disminuir la transmisión viral. Estas interacciones constituyen un sistema muy complejo y muy regulado conocido como sistema inmunitario innato del mosquito, el cual produce péptidos antimicrobianos, moléculas efectoras que funcionan contra las infecciones bacterianas y fúngicas; se tiene poca información de su acción sobre los virus. Objetivo. Determinar la expresión de dos genes AMP (defensina A y cecropina A) en mosquitos Aedes aegypti infectados con el virus DENV-1. Materiales y métodos. Se infectaron oralmente mosquitos de generación F1 con DENV-1 y mediante el análisis con PCR en tiempo real se determinó el potencial papel de los genes defensina A y cecropina A en el control de la replicación del DENV-1 en Ae. aegypti. Como referencia, se infectaron mosquitos con Escherichia coli. Resultados: Los mosquitos no infectados expresaron niveles basales de los ARNm de los genes defensina A y cecropina A en diversos momentos después de la alimentación. Los mosquitos infectados experimentaron una reducción, por lo menos, de ocho veces en la expresión de estos ARNm con respecto a los mosquitos de control en todo el periodo posterior a la alimentación. En contraste con el comportamiento del virus DENV-1, los resultados mostraron que la infección bacteriana produjo una regulación positiva de los genes defensina y cecropina; sin embargo, la inducción de los transcritos ocurrió tardíamente (15 días). Conclusión. El virus DENV-1 inhibió la expresión de los genes defensina A y cecropina A en una población silvestre de Ae. aegypti en Venezuela.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Dengue Virus , alpha-Defensins , Escherichia coli , Cecropins
6.
Tropical Biomedicine ; : 446-452, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906557

ABSTRACT

@#Inundated with escalating dengue outbreaks, there is an urgent call to find alternate potential vector control methods as the currently employed method fails to curb the expanding of dengue virus transmission in Malaysia. Supported by this aim, we are interested in exploiting the potential of Ipomoea cairica leaves extract towards primary and secondary vectors of dengue fever, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. To assess the effectiveness of this plant extracts towards Aedes larvae, we carried out two complementary analyses. First, we observed the comparative effectiveness of larvicidal activity I. cairica extract against the laboratory and field strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Then, we determined the effective lethal dose of this plant extract against Aedes larvae using log-probit regression analysis of the SPSS 20.0 programme. Results from bioassay demonstrated that I. cairica leaves extract was highly effective to induce larvicidal mortality of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti within 24 and 48 hours post-treatment. Results from the factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) also indicated that there were significant differences in larvicidal activity between species and strains used (P<0.05). It is interesting to notify that the sequence of effectiveness for the larvicidal activities of I. cairica acethonilic leaves extract is in the manner; Ae. albopictus field strain > Ae. aegypti laboratory strain > Ae. aegypti field strain > Ae. albopictus laboratory strain. The I. cairica leaves extract displayed high larvicidal activity against Ae. albopictus as compared to Ae. aegypti. This is the first evaluation involving the comparison of I. cairica leaves extract effects for the laboratory strain and field strain of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti.

7.
Tropical Biomedicine ; : 186-191, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904736

ABSTRACT

@#Plants contain bioactive compounds and are constantly explored as safer alternatives to conventional insecticides. Despite numerous studies on many plants, information on the insecticidal potential of underutilised plants like tiger nut, Cyperus esculentus L., are scant, although their pharmacological potentials are well known. Hence, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of crude aqueous extracts of two C. esculentus varieties (black and yellow) on the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). Mosquito larvae were exposed to C. esculentus crude extracts using the larval bioassay technique of the World Health Organization. Differential larvicidal responses were observed in the test mosquitoes and extracts of Black Dried Tiger nuts (BDT) were more larvicidal than Yellow Dried Tiger nuts (YDT). Acute larval toxicity of the extracts was more pronounced on Cx. quinquefasciatus than Ae. aegypti. The results indicate the potential of C. esculentus (particularly BDT) as a source of mosquito bioinsecticide and merits further studies as a safer alternative to conventional insecticide-based vector control.

8.
Tropical Biomedicine ; : 171-179, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904712

ABSTRACT

@#Diseases such as malaria, dengue, Zika and chikungunya remain endemic in many countries. Setting and deploying traps to capture the host/vector species are fundamental to understand their density and distributions. Human effort to manage the trap data accurately and timely is an exhaustive endeavour when the study area expands and period prolongs. One stop mobile app to manage and monitor the process of targeted species trapping, from field to laboratory level is still scarce. Toward this end, we developed a new mobile app named “PesTrapp” to acquire the vector density index based on the mobile updates of ovitraps and species information in field and laboratory. This study aimed to highlight the mobile app’s development and design, elucidate the practical user experiences of using the app and evaluate the preliminary user assessment of the mobile app. The mobile app was developed using mobile framework and database. User evaluation of the mobile app was based on the adjusted Mobile App Rating Scale and Standardized User Experience Percentile Rank Questionnaire. The process flows of system design and detailed screen layouts were described. The user experiences with and without the app in a project to study Aedes surveillance in six study sites in Selangor, Malaysia were elucidated. The overall mean user evaluation score of the mobile app was 4.0 out of 5 (SD=0.6), reflects its acceptability of the users. The PesTrapp, a one-stop solution, is anticipated to improve the entomological surveillance work processes. This new mobile app can contribute as a tool in the vector control countermeasure strategies.

9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200441, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279457

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND A previous phylogeographic study revealed two Aedes aegypti African-related mitochondrial lineages distributed in Colombian's cities with different eco-epidemiologic characteristics with regard to dengue virus (DENV). It has been proposed these lineages might indicate independent invasion sources. OBJECTIVES Assessing to Colombian population structure and to support evidence of its probable source origin. METHODS We analysed a total of 267 individuals from cities of Bello, Riohacha and Villavicencio, which 241 were related to the West and East African mitochondrial lineages (termed here as WAL and EAL, respectively). Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were analysed aiming population structure. FINDINGS Results indicate substantial gene flow among distant and low-connected cities composing a panmictic population with incipient local differentiation of Ae. aegypti is placed in Colombia. Likewise, genetic evidence indicates no significant differences among individuals related to WAL and EAL is placed. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Minimal genetic differentiation in low-connected Ae. aegypti populations of Colombia, and lack concordance between mitochondrial and nuclear genealogies suggest that Colombian Ae. aegypti shared a common demographic history. Under this scenario, we suggest current Ae. aegypti population structure reflects a single origin instead of contemporary migration, which founding populations have a single source from a mitochondrial polymorphic African ancient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Aedes/genetics , Dengue , Genetic Variation/genetics , Colombia , Phylogeography
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200547, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Forty percent of the world's population live in areas where they are at risk from dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome. Dengue viruses are transmitted primarily by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. In Cali, Colombia, approximately 30% of field collected Ae. aegypti are naturally refractory to all four dengue serotypes. OBJECTIVES Use RNA-sequencing to identify those genes that determine refractoriness in feral mosquitoes to dengue. This information can be used in gene editing strategies to reduce dengue transmission. METHODS We employed a full factorial design, analyzing differential gene expression across time (24, 36 and 48 h post bloodmeal), feeding treatment (blood or blood + dengue-2) and strain (susceptible or refractory). Sequences were aligned to the reference Ae. aegypti genome for identification, assembled to visualize transcript structure, and analyzed for dynamic gene expression changes. A variety of clustering techniques was used to identify the differentially expressed genes. FINDINGS We identified a subset of genes that likely assist dengue entry and replication in susceptible mosquitoes and contribute to vector competence. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The differential expression of specific genes by refractory and susceptible mosquitoes could determine the phenotype, and may be used to in gene editing strategies to reduce dengue transmission.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes , Dengue , Dengue Virus , RNA , Colombia , Transcriptome/genetics , Mosquito Vectors/genetics
11.
Rev. bras. entomol ; 65(2): e20200115, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251248

ABSTRACT

Abstract The interest in and use of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) insectary lines increased in most laboratories around the world since the recognition of the transmission of human and animal pathogens by this mosquito species, resulting in further scientific research on tropical diseases and vectors, and the development of chemical and biological products for mosquito populations control. In recent years, approaches to mosquito populations reduction have focused on new technologies that include the release of Wolbachia-infected lines, genetically modified vector and insects subjected to radiation in the Sterile Insect Technique. In order to evaluate some of these techniques, it is essential to count with wild A. aegypti populations and the reference strain, accurately identified, maintained under laboratory conditions. This work proposes a new tool to monitor possible exchanges between reference mosquito strain and wild native populations of A. aegypti in neighboring areas, or between different lines in the same insectary. We aligned and compared ND5 gene fragments of A. aegypti from diverse sources, finding a region with putative Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between individuals of Rockefeller (Rock) strain and different wild A. aegypti populations. These polymorphic sites in the molecular marker, allowed us to discriminate Rock reference strain from the wild A. aegypti haplotypes found in the southeast of Argentina and bordering areas with Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay, and it can be useful as a tool for regulatory entities of mosquito insectaries at different Arthropod Containment Levels.

12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0576-2020, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155533

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue and yellow fever. Recently, the use of plant-sourced larvicides has gained momentum. METHODS: The hydroethanolic extracts and fractions ofOcotea nutansleaves and stems were bioassayed to determine the larvicidal efficacy of these samples. RESULTS: S-HEX (hexane fraction from the crude stem extract) demonstrated high potential for controlling third-stage larvae, with an LC50 of 14.14 µg.mL-1 (concentration required to inhibit 50% of the treated larvae). CONCLUSIONS Extracts from O. nutans were effective against third-stage larvae ofA. aegyptiafter 24 h of exposure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes , Mosquito Vectors , Insecticides/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Ocotea , Larva
13.
Rev. cienc. med. Pinar Rio ; 24(6): e4363, nov.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156269

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: el trabajo antivectorial permite el enfrentamiento y prevención de las arbovirosis con elevado impacto higiénico-sanitario. Objetivo: caracterizar el trabajo antivectorial en una institución del nivel primario de atención. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal en el Policlínico universitario "Pedro Borrás Astorga" de la ciudad Pinar del Río, durante el período julio a noviembre del 2019. Las variables empleadas fueron: índice de infestación vectorial, recursos humanos participantes, indicadores epidemiológicos y resultados del trabajo antivectorial. Resultados: prevalecieron los índices de infestación bajos en octubre y noviembre con 0,56 y 0,46 respectivamente, fue significativo el trabajo de los operarios de vectores para un 42,17 %. Como principales indicadores epidemiológicos 1 675 pacientes presentaron sintomatología para arbovirosis, se confirmaron con dengue 243 enfermos, mientras que los resultados del trabajo antivectorial destacaron el tratamiento a 71 535 viviendas, pesquisados 33 288 pacientes, bloqueados 1 549 febriles y 175 manzanas tratadas. Conclusiones: el trabajo antivectorial en el policlínico de elección mantuvo indicadores de infestación altos, recursos humanos eficientes en su control, indicadores epidemiológicos de elevado impacto higiénico-sanitario, así como resultados satisfactorios en el trabajo contra las arbovirosis.


ABSTRACT Introduction: anti-vector work allows facing up and preventing the arbovirosis with a high hygienic and public health impact. Objective: to characterize anti-vector work in a primary health care level institution. Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out at Pedro Borras Astorga University Polyclinic, Pinar del Rio city, from July to November 2019. The variables collected were: index of vector infestation, participation of human resources, epidemiological indicators and results of the anti-vector work. Results: in October and November the infestation indexes were low with 0.56 and 0.46 respectively, the work of the vector-control-operators was significant (42.17%). As the main epidemiological indicators 1 675 patients presented symptoms for arbovirosis, dengue fever was confirmed in 243 patients, whereas the results of the anti-vector work stood out the treatment to 71 535 houses, 33 288 people were surveyed, 1 549 people had fever stayed under surveillance and 174 housing blocks underwent treatment. Conclusions: anti-vector work in the chosen polyclinic maintained higher infestation indicators, the human resources were efficient in the work and control activities they developed, the epidemiological indicators had a high hygienic and public health impact, as well as satisfactory results concerning the work against arbovirosis.

14.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(5): 388-395, sep.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249936

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La Ciudad de México no tiene presencia endémica de Aedes aegypti, por lo que está libre de enfermedades transmitidas por vector como dengue, Zika y chikunguña. Sin embargo, existe evidencia de la presencia de huevecillos en la urbe desde 2015. Objetivo: Reportar la presencia constante y en aumento de huevecillos de Aedes aegypti en la Ciudad de México de 2015 a 2018. Método: Se realizó vigilancia a través de ovitrampas; se contabilizaron y eclosionaron huevecillos para determinar la especie. Resultados: De 2015 a 2018 fueron identificados 378 organismos como Aedes aegypti. En total fueron colectadas 76 ovitrampas positivas a Aedes aegypti en 50 sitios distintos de 11 alcaldías. El noreste de la Ciudad de México fue el área con mayor positividad. Conclusiones: Los resultados pueden estar indicando un periodo de colonización incipiente y la probable la existencia de colonias crípticas del mosquito, por lo que la Ciudad de México podría estar en riesgo de presentar epidemias de enfermedades transmitidas por vector.


Abstract Introduction: Mexico City has no endemic presence of Aedes aegypti, and it is therefore free of vector-borne diseases, such as dengue fever, Zika and chikungunya. However, evidence has shown the presence of Aedes aegypti eggs in the city since 2015. Objective: To report the constant and increasing presence of Aedes aegypti eggs in Mexico City from 2015 to 2018. Methods: Surveillance was carried out using ovitraps. Eggs were counted and hatched in order to determine the species. Results: From 2015 to 2018, 378 organisms were identified as Ae. aegypti. In total, 76 Aedes aegypti-positive ovitraps were collected at 50 different places in 11 boroughs of the city. Northeastern Mexico City was the area with the highest number of positive traps. Conclusions: The results may be indicating a period of early colonization and the probable existence of cryptic colonies of the mosquito, and Mexico City could be therefore at risk of experiencing vector-borne epidemics.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/classification , Dengue , Eggs , Mosquito Vectors , Species Specificity , Cities , Aedes/growth & development , Larva/classification , Larva/growth & development , Mexico
15.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(4): 2078-2085,
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139297

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El virus del Zika es transmitido por mosquitos Aedes aegypti y Aedes albopictus, se caracteriza por exantema, cefalea y fiebre y otras complicaciones. El primer caso del virus del Zika fue detectado en Cuba en febrero de 2016 y aunque está controlada la epidemia se mantiene el riesgo por existir presencia del vector. Con todos estos elementos los autores deciden realizar este estudio con el objetivo de determinar la influencia de las determinantes sociales en el comportamiento y la propagación de la enfermedad en América Latina. La declaración por la Organización Mundial de la Salud como una emergencia sanitaria hace necesario el desarrollo de un programa integral, para la erradicación del vector, la preparación de los profesionales actuantes y la información a la población que controle la propagación de la enfermedad (AU).


SUMMARY The Zika virus is transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes; it is characterized by exanthema, headache, fever and other complications. The first Zika virus case in Cuba was detected in February 2016, and although the epidemic is controlled the risk still exists because of the presence of the vector. With all these elements the authors decided to carry out this study with the objective of determining the influence of social determiners in the behavior and propagation of the disease in Latin America. Its declaration by the WHO as a health emergency makes it necessary the development of a comprehensive program to eradicate the vector, to prepare the officiating professionals and to inform the population for controlling the disease spreading (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Social Determinants of Health/ethnology , Zika Virus/pathogenicity , Pathology, Clinical , Signs and Symptoms , Americas/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Aedes/virology
16.
Medisan ; 24(4)jul.-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1125139

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El dengue es una infección viral endémica reemergente de notable preponderancia por su morbilidad y mortalidad, cuya incidencia se ha multiplicado en las últimos tiempos a nivel internacional. Objetivos: Caracterizar a pacientes con dengue según la clasificación revisada de la Organización Mundial de la Salud y determinar la correspondencia entre esta y la clasificación tradicional respecto a la gravedad de los casos. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal en el Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kourí de La Habana durante el 2012, en el que se revisaron 247 historias clínicas seleccionadas por muestreo aleatorio estratificado. Resultados: En la casuística predominaron el dengue con signos de alarma, el grupo etario de 40-59 años, el sexo femenino y el síndrome de choque por dengue como principal forma clínica de gravedad. La fiebre estuvo presente en todos los afectados; también sobresalieron la cefalea, la astenia, las artromialgias, la exantema y el dolor retroocular. La leucopenia y la trombocitopenia constituyeron hallazgos muy frecuentes, al igual que la citólisis hepática; en tanto, las manifestaciones digestivas y hemorrágicas, entre otras, se asociaron significativamente con el desarrollo de dengue grave. Conclusiones: Se evidenció que utilizando la clasificación tradicional se hubiesen dejado de identificar y tratar adecuadamente a pacientes con dengue grave y dengue con signos de alarma, al catalogarse la mayoría de estos como fiebre del dengue, subestimando así la gravedad clínica de dichos casos.


Introduction: Dengue is a viral endemic reemerging infection of remarkable preponderance for its morbidity and mortality whose incidence has multiplied in the last times at international level. Objectives: To characterize patients with dengue according to the classification reviewed by the Health World Organization and to determine the correspondence between this and the traditional classification regarding the seriousness of the cases. Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out at Pedro Kourí Tropical Medicine Institute in Havana during 2012, in which 247 medical records were reviewed selected by stratified random sampling. Results: In the case material there was a prevalence of dengue with alarm signs, 40-59 age group, female sex and the shock syndrome due to dengue as the main clinic form of seriousness. The fever was present in all those affected; migraine, asthenia, artromialgias, exanthema and retroocular pain were also outstanding. The leukopenia and thrombocytopenia constituted very frequent findings, the same as hepatic cytolysis; as long as, the digestive and hemorrhagic manifestations, among others, were significantly associated with the development of serious dengue. Conclusions: It was evidenced that using the traditional classification the identification and appropriate treatment to patients with serious dengue and dengue with alarm signs would not be possible, when being classified most of these as fever of the dengue, underestimating this way the clinical seriousness of these cases.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Dengue/epidemiology , Arbovirus Infections , Tertiary Healthcare
17.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 19(1): 85-88, jun 17, 2020. fig
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358772

ABSTRACT

Introduction: the Zika Virus is a virus transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, which is of great medical importance because it causes numerous public health issues. Objective: describe the scenario of the number of probable cases of the Zika virus in the state of Rondônia from January 2016 to October 20, 2018, demonstrating the relationship between the evolutions of cases during the analyzed period with a climatic factor during the period (rainfall index). Methodology: the data collected for statistical analysis were acquired through epidemiological bulletins published by the Secretariat of Health Surveillance and by the Ministry of Health. The pluviometric data used in the study were acquired from the Meteorological Station of the Ouro Preto Experimental Station ­ ESTEX/OP (Comissão Executiva do Plano de Lavoura Cacaueira ­ CEPLAC/RO), located in the central region of the state of Rondônia. Results: the data showed a total of 1,107 probable cases of acute disease caused by the Zika virus in the period from January 2016 to October 20, 2018 in the state of Rondônia, with 89% of this total being recorded only in 2016, showing a relationship with the high rainfall rate that occurred in the same year in the state. Conclusion: after analysis, it is concluded that, there was a considerable number of probable cases of Zika Virus in the state of Rondônia, in addition, the data showed that during the analyzed period, there was a relationship between the evolution of new cases with the rainfall index in the region. Preventive measures must be adopted in order to minimize the number of new cases. The population's awareness of the mosquito's reproduction and development can be an alternative to be adopted by the public health sectors of the state.


Introdução: o Zika Vírus é um vírus transmitido pelo mosquito Aedes aegypti, que possui grande importância médica por causar inúmeros problemas de saúde pública. Objetivo: descrever o cenário do número de casos prováveis do vírus Zika no estado de Rondônia no período de janeiro de 2016 a 20 de outubro de 2018, demonstrando a relação entre a evolução dos casos durante o período analisado com um fator climático durante o período (índice pluviométrico). Metodologia: os dados coletados para análises estatísticas foram adquiridos através de boletins epidemiológicos publicados pela Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde e Ministério da Saúde. Os dados pluviométricos utilizados no estudo foram adquiridos junto à estação meteorológica da Comissão Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira ­ CEPLAC, localizado na região central do estado de Rondônia. Resultados: os dados demonstraram um total de 1.107 casos prováveis da doença aguda causada pelo Vírus Zika no período de janeiro de 2016 a 20 de outubro de 2018 no Estado de Rondônia, sendo 89% desse total registrado somente no ano de 2016, demostrando relação com o elevado índice pluviométrico ocorrido nesse mesmo ano no estado. Conclusão: após análise, conclui-se que, houve um número considerável de casos prováveis de Zika Vírus no estado de Rondônia, além disso, os dados mostraram que durante o período analisado, houve uma relação entre a evolução de novos casos com o índice pluviométrico na região. Medidas preventivas devem ser adotadas com o objetivo de minimizar o número de novos casos. A conscientização da população sobre a reprodução e desenvolvimento do mosquito pode ser uma alternativa a ser adotada pelos setores de saúde pública do estado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Tropical Medicine , Public Health , Amazonian Ecosystem , Aedes , Zika Virus , Database
18.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 41(2, Supl.): 377-388, jun./dez. 2020. Ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247562

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: detectar a presença de agrupamentos espaço-temporais dos casos de dengue em Três Corações, Minas Gerais, Brasil, utilizando informações da localização e do tempo de cada ocorrência e a série histórica da precipitação pluviométrica do período de estudo. Métodos: o método Kernel foi utilizado para estimar a intensidade dos casos, enquanto a função K espaço-temporal e o método de varredura foram utilizados para detectar o padrão e identificar agrupamentos, respectivamente. Resultados: a partir dos 2.818 casos observados, verificou-se que a maior parte desses ocorreu no final dos períodos chuvosos. Também foi detectada a presença de agrupamentos de casos, principalmente na Região Central da cidade. Uma razão para a formação de agrupamentos pode ser devido à maior densidade populacional das regiões afetadas. Conclusão: os resultados mostram que indivíduos que moram em regiões densamente povoadas são mais propensos a contrair dengue. Os métodos estatísticos utilizados permitiram caracterizar a distribuição espaço-temporal dos casos de dengue e também podem ser utilizados para analisar outras doenças endêmicas ou pandêmicas, o que pode contribuir para as políticas de prevenção e combate à proliferação dessas doenças.(AU)


Objective: detect the presence of space-time clusters of dengue cases in Três Corações, Minas Gerais, Brazil, using information on the location and time of each occurrence and the historical series of rainfall in the study period. Methods: the Kernel method was used to estimate the intensity of the cases, while the space-time K-function and the scan method were used to detect the pattern and identify clusters, respectively. Results: from the 2,818 observed cases, it was found that most of these occurred in the end of rainy periods. The presence of clusters of cases was also detected, mainly, in the central region of the city. One reason for the formation of clusters may be due to the higher population density of the affected regions. Conclusion: the results show that individuals who live in densely populated regions are more likely to get dengue. The statistical methods used allowed to characterize the spatio-temporal distribution of dengue cases and, they can also be used to analyze other endemic or pandemic diseases, which can contribute to policies to prevent and combat the proliferation of these diseases.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Disease , Endemic Diseases , Dengue , Disease Prevention , World Health Organization , Temporal Distribution
19.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 10(2): 106-112, abr.-jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223268

ABSTRACT

Justificativa e Objetivos: a utilização de microrganismos como controle biológico de vetores sanitários pode ser considerada uma prática menos agressiva ao ambiente, em comparação com os produtos químicos utilizados. O presente estudo avaliou a eficiência de suspensões celulares de fungos e bactérias isolados de efluentes industriais têxteis no controle sanitário dos vetores naturais Aedes aegypti e Dermacentor nitens como alternativa sustentável de controle biológico. Métodos: foram avaliadas sete linhagens de fungos e seis de bactérias. Os isolados foram cultivados em caldo nutriente e caldo de batata, para bactérias e fungos, respectivamente. Alíquotas de 2 mL de cada suspensão microbiana foram adicionadas diretamente nas larvas dos mosquitos e nos carrapatos adultos. Foram analisadas alterações de movimentação e paralisação dos vetores em diferentes tempos de exposição entre zero e 20 minutos e três e 24 horas. Resultados: duas bactérias e um fungo promoveram uma desaceleração dos movimentos e/ou um aumento da movimentação dos ectoparasitas logo após a administração. Dois isolados bacterianos promoveram a paralisação dos movimentos de uma larva do mosquito Aedes aegypti em seu primeiro estágio de desenvolvimento, enquanto que um fungo provocou aumento da movimentação das larvas em seu estágio de desenvolvimento mais avançado. Conclusão: os microrganismos mostraram potencial uso no controle de vetores sanitários. Testes subsequentes de atividade dos possíveis metabólitos secundários produzidos e das formas de administração das culturas microbianas serão executados. Os resultados encontrados encorajam futuros estudos de otimização e caracterização dos extratos celulares, os quais poderão ser utilizados como ferramenta sustentável no controle biológico.(AU)


Background and Objectives: the use of microorganisms as biological control of health vectors can be considered a less aggressive practice to the environment, in comparison with the chemicals used. The present study evaluated the efficiency of cell suspensions of fungi and bacteria isolated from industrial textile effluents in the sanitary control of the natural vectors Aedes aegypti and Dermacentor nitens as a sustainable alternative for biological control. Methods: seven fungi and six bacteria strains were evaluated. The isolates were grown in nutrient broth and potato broth, for bacteria and fungi, respectively. 2 mL aliquots of each microbial suspension were added directly to mosquito larvae and adult ticks. Changes in movement and paralysis of vectors at different exposure times between zero and 20 minutes and three and 24 hours were analyzed. Results: two bacteria and a fungus promoted a slowdown in movement and / or an increase in the movement of ectoparasites shortly after administration. Two bacterial isolates caused the movement of a larva of the Aedes aegypti mosquito to stop in its first stage of development, while a fungus caused increased movement of the larvae in their most advanced stage of development. Conclusion: the microorganisms showed potential use in the control of health vectors. Subsequent activity tests of the possible secondary metabolites produced and the ways of administering the microbial cultures will be performed. The results found encourage future studies of optimization and characterization of cell extracts, which can be used as a sustainable tool in biological control.(AU)


Justificación y objetivos: el uso de microorganismos como control biológico de vectores sanitarios puede considerarse una práctica menos agresiva para el medio ambiente en comparación con los productos químicos utilizados. El presente estudio evaluó la eficiencia de las suspensiones de células fúngicas y bacterianas de efluentes industriales textiles en el control sanitario de los vectores Aedes aegypti y Dermacentor nitens como una alternativa sostenible para el control biológico. Métodos: evaluaron siete hongos y seis de bacterias. Los aislamientos se cultivaron en medio de cultivo, caldo nutrientes y de papa para bacterias y hongos, respectivamente. Se agregaron alícuotas de 2 mL de cada suspensión microbiana directamente a las larvas de mosquito y las garrapatas adultas. Analizaron los cambios en el movimiento y la parálisis de los vectores a diferentes tiempos de exposición entre cero y 20 minutos y tres y 24 horas. Resultados: dos bacterias y un hongo causaron una reducido el movimiento y/o aumentó el movimiento del ectoparásito poco después de la administración. Dos bacterias paralizaron los movimientos de las larvas de un mosquito en su primera etapa de desarrollo y un hongo causó un mayor movimiento de las larvas en su etapa posterior de desarrollo. Conclusión: los microorganismos mostraron uso potencial como control de vectores sanitarios. Se realizarán pruebas de actividad de los posibles metabolitos secundarios producidos y las formas de administración de los cultivos microbianos. Los resultados fomentan más estudios de optimización y caracterización de extractos celulares, que pueden utilizarse como herramienta sostenible en el control biológico.(AU)


Subject(s)
Aquatic Microorganisms , Industrial Effluents , Pest Control, Biological , Ticks , Aedes
20.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 40(2): 270-282, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124224

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. Las enfermedades transmitidas por Aedes aegypti son un problema de salud pública. VECTOS es un programa novedoso de integración de estrategias de control de vectores. Objetivo. Evaluar el costo-efectividad del uso del VECTOS en los programas de control rutinario de enfermedades transmitidas por el vector Aedes aegypti en el municipio de San Juan de Girón (Santander). Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó el costo-efectividad del programa empleando un modelo de análisis de decisiones desde la perspectiva de las autoridades locales de salud. Se estudió la integración de las estrategias de control de vectores mediante el programa VECTOS utilizado en el municipio de San Juan de Girón durante el 2016, con el control rutinario llevado a cabo sin VECTOS en el municipio de Floridablanca. Se calculó la razón incremental del costo-efectividad (RICE), usando como medida de efectividad los años de vida ajustados por discapacidad (AVAD). Resultados. El uso del programa VECTOS fue rentable a una tasa de ahorro de USD$ 660,4 por cada AVAD evitado en comparación con el control de rutina en Floridablanca. El modelo probabilístico indicó que el sistema fue costo-efectivo en el 70 % de las 10.000 iteraciones para un umbral entre 1 y 3 PIB per cápita. Conclusiones. El programa VECTOS fue muy costo-efectivo en el municipio de San Juan de Girón. Su uso puede adoptarse en otros municipios del país donde las enfermedades transmitidas por A. aegypti son endémicas.


Abtract Introduction: Diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti are considered a public health problem. VECTOS is a novel software for the integration of vector control strategies. Objective: To assess the cost-effectiveness of the use of VECTOS in the routine control programs of diseases transmitted by A. aegypti in the municipality of San Juan de Girón (Santander). Materials and methods: We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis using a decision analysis model from the perspective of the local health authorities. We considered the use of the VECTOS software in the routine control activities in the municipality of San Juan de Girón during 2016 as the treatment group while the routine control in the municipality of Floridablanca, where VECTOS is not implemented, was considered as the comparator. We calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) taking as effectiveness measure the disability-adjusted life years (DALY). Results: VECTOS was cost-effective at a rate of USD$ 660,4 savings per each DALY avoided compared to the routine control in Floridablanca. The probabilistic model showed that the system was cost-effective in 70% of the 10.000 iterations for a threshold between 1 to 3 GDP per capita. Conclusions: VECTOS software as implemented in the municipality of San Juan de Girón is highly cost-effective and could be used in other municipalities in the country where diseases transmitted by A. aegypti are endemic.

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