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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256190, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364523

ABSTRACT

Abstract Particulate matter (PM) is a major air pollutant causing serious health problems. The aim of the present study was to find out concentration of PM in ambient air and its associated health risk in Haripur city, Pakistan. Twenty-three samples were taken at various educational institutes, hospitals, recreational areas and industries in Haripur city. Concentration of PM2.5 (µg/m3) and PM10 (µg/m3) was measured with Youngteng YT-HPC 3000A portable PM counter. The results revealed that values of both PM2.5 and PM10 were above the permissible limits (35 µg/m3 for PM2.5 and 150 µg/m3 for PM10) set by Environmental Protection Agency Pakistan (Pak-EPA) in all the educational institutes, hospitals, recreational areas and industries investigated. Furthermore, significant (p<0.05) variation was found in the concentration of both PM2.5 and PM10 in all the educational institutes, hospitals, recreational areas, and industries studied. The concentration of PM2.5 was positively correlated with the concentration of PM10 in all the sampling sites. Therefore, from 1-14 scale standard of health index, the values of PM2.5 and PM10 exhibited that the ambient air quality of Haripur city Pakistan is under high risk. If the regulatory authorities such as Environmental Protection Agency, Health Department and Local Government monitor PM pollution in different settings of Haripur city, then a decrease can be possible in the pollution level. The remedies that can be taken to overcome the problem of ambient air pollution such as PM are plantation of trees at the sites where there are higher levels of air pollutants and use of masks on personal protection basis along with implementation of pollution control system in industries of Hattar Industrial Estate Haripur city, Pakistan.


Resumo O material particulado (MP) é um importante poluente do ar que causa sérios problemas de saúde. O objetivo do presente estudo foi descobrir a concentração de MP no ar ambiente e sua associação com o risco à saúde na cidade de Haripur, Paquistão. Vinte e três amostras foram coletadas em várias instituições de ensino, hospitais, áreas recreativas e indústrias na cidade de Haripur. A concentração de MP2,5 (µg/m3) e MP10 (µg/m3) foi medida por meio do contador de MP portátil Youngteng YT-HPC 3000A. Os resultados revelaram que os valores de MP2,5 e MP10 estavam acima dos limites permitidos (35 µg/m3 para MP2,5 e 150 µg/m3 para MP10) estabelecidos pela Agência de Proteção Ambiental do Paquistão (Pak-EPA) em todas as instituições de ensino, hospitais, áreas recreativas e indústrias investigadas. Além disso, foi encontrada variação significativa (p < 0,05) na concentração de MP2,5 e MP10 em todos os locais estudados. A concentração de MP2,5 correlacionou-se positivamente com a concentração de MP10 em todos os locais de amostragem. Portanto, a partir da escala padrão 1-14 do índice de saúde, os valores de MP2,5 e MP10 mostraram que a qualidade do ar ambiente na cidade de Haripur, Paquistão, está sob alto risco. Se as autoridades reguladoras, como a Pak-EPA, o Departamento de Saúde e o governo local, monitorarem a poluição por MP em diferentes configurações da cidade de Haripur, pode ser que haja uma diminuição no nível de poluição. As medidas que podem ser tomadas para superar o problema da poluição do ar ambiente, como o MP, são o plantio de árvores nos locais onde há maiores níveis de poluentes atmosféricos, o uso de máscaras e a implantação de sistema de controle de poluição nas propriedades industriais de Hattar, na cidade Haripur, Paquistão.

2.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 56: 46, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1377219

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the relationship between ambient air pollutants and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in relatively low-polluted areas in China. METHODS Atmospheric pollutants levels and meteorological data were obtained from January 2016 to December 2020. The medical database including daily hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ICD10: J44) was derived from the First Affiliated Hospital of Gannan Medical University. The generalized additive model was used to analyze the percentage change with 95% confidence interval in daily hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with a 10 µg/m3 increase in atmospheric pollutants levels. RESULTS In total, occurred 4,980 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospital admissions (not including emergency department visits) during 2016-2020. The mean concentrations of daily PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, O3, and CO were 37.5 μg/m3, 60.1 μg/m3, 18.7 μg/m3, 23.5 μg/m3, 70.0 μg/m3, and 1.2 mg/m3 in Ganzhou. Each 10 µg/m3 increment of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3 were significantly associated with 2.8% (95%CI: 1.0-4.7), 1.3% (95%CI: 0.3-2.4), 2.8% (95%CI: 0.4-5.4), and 1.5% (95%CI: 0.2-2.7) elevation in daily chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospital admissions. The estimates of delayed effects of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3 were observed at lag6, lag6, lag8, lag1, respectively. The health effects of particulate pollutants (PM2.5 and PM10) may be independent of other pollutants. The adverse effects of air pollutants were more evident in the warm season (May-Oct) than in the cold season (Nov-Apr). CONCLUSION Our study demonstrated that elevated concentrations of atmospheric pollutant (PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3), especially particulate pollutants, can be associated with increased daily count of hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , which may promote further understanding of the potential hazards of relatively low levels of air pollution on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other respiratory disorders.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923345

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the characteristics of environmental air pollution in three districts, two counties and one city of Yinchuan in 2020, to evaluate the air quality and the impact of air pollutants on population health, and to provide a theoretical basis for fine management of atmospheric environment in Yinchuan. Methods Based on the air pollution situation in districts and counties of Yinchuan in 2020, the air pollution characteristics were analyzed and summarized using Excel and SPSS 23.0 software. The health risks of SO2, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 in the air were estimated using the health risk model recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Results The average annual concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 (except for Lingwu City) in all counties of Yinchuan in 2020 were higher than the national standard, while the average annual concentrations of SO2, NO2, CO and O3 in all regions were lower than the national secondary standard, indicating that the pollution level was low. Both ambient air quality and atmospheric pollutants (except O3) showed a “V” emission trend of less in summer and more in winter, while O3 was the opposite. The average annual concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and O3 decreased from north to south, while the concentrations of NO2 and CO in Xingqing District, Xixia District and Jinfeng District were significantly higher than those in other regions. O3, NO2 and particulate matter were the primary atmospheric pollutants in the study area. The health risks of PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and O3 did not exceed the values recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency. However, these air pollutants posed the greatest health risk to children, while the health risk to the elderly was the least. There were differences in the health risks of these air pollutants between men and women of different ages. Among children and young adults, the health risk for men was higher than that for women. Among adolescent people and the elderly, the health risk of females was obviously higher than that of males. Conclusion The air quality in Yinchuan is good, and the health risk of the population is low.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923333

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the impact of demolition and relocation of chemical enterprises on air quality in Jingzhou City. Methods Based on the “Ambient air quality standards” (GB3095-2012), the daily average air quality index (AQI), and the concentration changes of six pollutants in the central urban area of Jingzhou, the air quality before, during and after the demolition and relocation of chemical enterprises during the environmental governance period from 2017 to 2019 was evaluated. Results The investigation results showed that the demolition and relocation of chemical enterprises had improved the local air quality to some certain extent, especially the decrease of SO2 concentration, especially for SO2, but the concentration changes of PM10 and O3 were not noticeable. At the same time, because of the attenuation of the implementation of the long-term policy, the improvement of air quality fluctuated. Conclusion This study suggests that further improvement of air quality in Jingzhou City may face the difficulty of O3 control and insufficient implementation of long-term policies in the future. It is a long-term policy to improve the environment through the renovation of chemical enterprises, and the corresponding regulatory measures need to be updated dynamically to ensure the implementation of the policy.

5.
Rev. Univ. Ind. Santander, Salud ; 53: e302, dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365444

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La exposición de largo y corto plazo a determinadas concentraciones de contaminantes ambientales parece incidir en la propagación y agravamiento de la COVID-19. Por otra parte, se ha hipotetizado que las cuarentenas tienen un efecto positivo en la calidad del aire. Objetivo: Examinar la concentración de material particulado 10 (CPM10) en los últimos cinco años; en meses precuarentena y postcuarentena de 2020 y el impacto de la cuarentena en la CPM10 en Santa Marta (Colombia). Materiales y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de corte longitudinal, sobre la CPM10 en una muestra de cinco estaciones de monitoreo ambiental, periodo 2016 - 2020. Se calcularon distribuciones de CPM10 por año y estación, así como entre meses pre y postcuarentena. Resultados: Se evidenció una reducción estadísticamente significativa del CPM10 en 2020 respecto a los cuatro años anteriores, cercana al 34 %; lo propio sucedió para meses postcuarentena versus precuarentena, con disminución del 40 % en los primeros. No hubo diferencias significativas de CPM10 entre las estaciones, aunque se observaron medianas superiores del contaminante en las del sur. La CPM10 de 2016 - 2020 (largo plazo) y en meses precuarentena (corto plazo) sobrepasaron los límites de riesgo aumentado de morbimortalidad por COVID-19 establecidos en estudios internacionales previos. Conclusión: La cuarentena tuvo un impacto positivo en la calidad del aire en Santa Marta. No obstante, los niveles de CPM10 encontrados a largo y corto plazo pudieron haber predispuesto a la población al contagio y fallecimiento por el virus.


Abstract Introduction: Long and short-term exposure to certain concentrations of environmental pollutants seems to influence the spread and worsening of COVID-19. On the other hand, it has been hypothesized that quarantines have a positive effect on air quality. Objective: To examine the concentration of particulate material 10 (CPM10) in the last five years, in pre-quarantine and post-quarantine months of 2020 and the impact of the quarantine on CPM10 in Santa Marta (Colombia). Materials and Methods: Retrospective longitudinal study of CPM10 on a sample of five environmental monitoring stations, period 2016-2020. CPM10 distributions were calculated for each year and season, as well as between months before and after quarantine. Results: A statistically significant reduction of 34% in CPM10 was evidenced in 2020 compared to the previous four years. CPM10 of post-quarantine months decreased 40% in comparison with the pre-quarantine months. There were no significant differences in CPM10 between the stations, although median values of CPM10 were higher in the southern stations. CPM10 from 20162020 (long term) and in pre-quarantine months (short term) exceeded the limits of increased risk of morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 established in previous international studies. Conclusion: The quarantine had a positive impact on the air quality in Santa Marta. However, CPM10 levels found in the long and short term could have predisposed the population to infection and death from the virus.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886110

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the relationship between the occurrence of allergic rhinitis and indoor environmental quality in Liaoning in 2019. Methods From January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2019, a total of 968 patients with allergic rhinitis admitted to the outpatient department of otolaryngology in our hospital were selected as the case group, and 968 patients with non-allergic rhinitis during the same period were matched as the control group. The influencing factors of allergic rhinitis were analyzed. Results Compared with the control group, the case group had a higher proportion of urban residence. The ratios of people with a history of maternal allergic rhinitis, occupational dust exposure and smoking, residential area 2, residential construction time of 1~3 years, use of carpet flooring, renovation in last 1 year, painted wall surface, air conditioning in winter/summer, enclosed kitchen, no kitchen/ bathroom ventilation fan, visible indoor mold, frequent use of air freshener, ventilation time 100μg/m3 were independent risk factors for allergic rhinitis (P<0.05). Conclusion The occurrence of allergic rhinitis in Liaoning in 2019 was closely related to indoor environmental factors, among which air quality had a greater impact on the disease.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Particulate matter (PM) is recognized as the most harmful air pollutant to the human health. The Yangon city indeed suffers much from PM-related air pollution. Recent research has interestingly been focused on the novel subject of changes in the air quality associated with the restrictive measures in place during the current coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The first case of COVID-19 in Myanmar was diagnosed on March 23, 2020. In this article, we report on our attempt to evaluate any effects of the COVID-19-restrictive measures on the ambient PM pollution in Yangon.@*METHODS@#We measured the PM concentrations every second for 1 week on four occasions at three study sites with different characteristics; the first occasion was before the start of the COVID-19 pandemic and the remaining three occasions were while the COVID-19-restrictive measures were in place, including Stay-At-Home and Work-From-Home orders. The Pocket PM@*RESULTS@#The results showed that there was a significant reduction (P < 0.001) in both the PM@*CONCLUSIONS@#We concluded that the restrictive measures which were in effect to combat the COVID-19 pandemic had a positive impact on the ambient PM concentrations. The changes in the PM concentrations are considered to be largely attributable to reduction in anthropogenic emissions as a result of the restrictive measures, although seasonal influences could also have contributed in part. Thus, frequent, once- or twice-weekly Stay-At-Home or Telework campaigns, may be feasible measures to reduce PM-related air pollution. When devising such an action plan, it would be essential to raise the awareness of public about the health risks associated with air pollution and create a social environment in which Telework can be carried out, in order to ensure active compliance by the citizens.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Myanmar/epidemiology , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e18989, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345450

ABSTRACT

Hospital infections (HI) are a serious public health problem in many countries. Several studies have identified strains correlating to surgical site infections, many with multi-resistance. The goals of this study was to quantify, to identify and to verify the resistance profile of microorganisms collected at two hospitals settings, and to alert health professionals how environmental contamination can influence hospital infection rates. For air sampling in operating rooms, intensive care unit and materials sterilization center, the impaction method (Spin Air, IUL®) and passive sedimentation were used. For the isolation of bacteria on surfaces and uniforms contact plates (RODAC®) were used. Identification of the microorganisms was performed using Vitek® 2 Systems. The antibiograms were conducted according to the disk diffusion method recommended by CLSI. The surgical center of hospital B presented more than 500 CFU/m3 in aerial microbial load. In the aerial microbiota of the sampled areas of both hospitals, M. luteus, S. haemolyticus and S. hominis spp hominis were the prevalent microorganisms, with a percentage greater than 30%. On the surfaces and uniforms there was a prevalence of M. luteus (40%) and S. hominis spp hominis (20%) among others, and some of the resistant strains were isolated from environments with microbial load within the recommended limits.


Subject(s)
Hospitals/standards , Malpractice/classification , Drug Resistance , Environmental Monitoring/instrumentation , Cross Infection/complications , Health Personnel/education , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects
9.
Eng. sanit. ambient ; 25(3): 521-530, maio-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133793

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A intensificação das atividades industriais e o aumento das emissões veiculares têm contribuído significantemente para o aumento da poluição atmosférica nos centros urbanos. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a qualidade do ar na área do distrito industrial de Maracanaú, no estado do Ceará, importante área industrial da Região Nordeste do Brasil. As amostragens foram realizadas durante o período de novembro de 2015 a abril de 2016, totalizando 30 coletas com duração de 24 h cada. Realizaram-se coletas para poluentes, como o material particulado total (PTS) e inalável (MP10), NO2, SO2, O3 e metais pesados (Sb, Cd, Pb, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni e Zn) associados ao PTS e ao MP10. O O3 foi determinado por absorção no ultravioleta (254 nm), e estimaram-se as concentrações dos metais por espectroscopia de absorção atômica. Os valores médios observados para os poluentes foram de: 51,3 µg/m3 de PTS; 46,1 µg/m3 de MP10; 8,9 µg/m3 de SO2; 8,3 µg/m3 de NO2; 38,5 µg/m3 para O3 em 8 horas e 48,4 µg/m3 para O3 em 1 hora. Para os metais, o Fe (14,9 µg/m3) foi o mais abundante em ambos os particulados. Todos os parâmetros encontram-se em conformidade com os valores estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira, e somente o MP10 apresentou em 16,7% das amostras concentrações acima (média de 74,5 µg/m3) do recomendado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. Em geral, a qualidade do ar na área industrial em estudo pode ser considerada boa, segundo os valores de índice de qualidade do ar (IQAr) recomendado pela agência de proteção ambiental americana.


ABSTRACT The intensification of industrial activities and the increase in vehicular emissions have contributed significantly to the increase in atmospheric pollution in urban centers. In this context, the present study aimed to monitor the air quality in the area of Maracanaú Industrial District, in the state of Ceará, an important industrial area in northeastern region of Brazil. Samples were collected during 24 h from November 2015 to April 2016 for pollutants such as total suspended (TSP) and inhalable particle materials (PM10), NO2, SO2, O3 and heavy metals (Sb, Cd, Pb, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn) associated with TSP and PM10. Ozone (O3) was determined by ultraviolet absorption (254 nm) and the concentration of heavy metals were estimated by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The mean values observed for the pollutant concentrations were: 51.3 μg/m3 for TSP; 46.1 μg/m3 for PM10; 8.9 μg/m3 for SO2; 8.3 μg/m3 for NO2; 38.5 μg/m3 for O3 in 8 hours and 48.4 μg/m3 for O3 in 1 hour. Among metals, Fe (14.9 µg/m3) was the most abundant species in both particulates. All the parameters analyzed are in accordance with the values established by the Brazilian legislation and only PM10 are above the recommended by the World Health Organization in 16.7 % of the samples (mean 74.5 μg/m3). In general, the air quality in the industrial area under study can be considered good, according to the estimates of the air quality index (AQI) recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency.

10.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-204860

ABSTRACT

This paper presents potential impact on health of emission from landfill site on Uyo village road, Uyo local government area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Three sampling points were assessed for particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulphide H2S, ammonia (NH3), total volatile organic carbon (TVOC) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) using highly sensitive digital portable meters. The data obtained were expressed in terms of an air quality index. Air quality index indicates that the ambient air can be described as unhealthy for sensitive groups for NO2, unhealthy for SO2 and PM2.5 and moderate for CO, respectively. H2S, NH3, TVOC, HCN, PM10 were not indicated in USEPA air quality standards. It recommended that stringent and proper landfill emissions management together with appropriate burning of wastes should be considered in the study area to ease the risks associated with these pollutants on public health.

11.
Santa Tecla, La Libertad; ITCA Editores; ene. 2020. 74 p. ^c28 cm.ilus., graf..
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1222793

ABSTRACT

Se construyeron e instalaron en coordinación con la UTEC, 3 estaciones de monitoreo de calidad del aire en ITCA-FEPADE Santa Tecla, San Miguel y La Unión. Estos dispositivos miden el nivel de contaminación del aire por material particulado de 2.5 y 10 micras de diámetro en las zonas donde están instalados. ITCA-FEPADE desarrolló un software de interpretación y predicción de dato de contaminación ambiental con Big Data y Machine Learning. Los datos de las estaciones son capturados en formato Big Data, los cuales son procesados por medio de una plataforma web diseñada, en donde se grafica el estado de la calidad del aire según la zona seleccionada. Se desarrolló además, un algoritmo de Machine Learning, el cual realiza una predicción de la calidad del aire para el término de un mes. Según aumente la cantidad de muestras así será el potencial de predicción para un día, semana, mes o año. La aplicación de los resultados de este proyecto con la construcción de más estaciones de monitoreo, permitirá lograr una cobertura a nivel nacional y medir con más detalle la calidad del aire que se respira en El Salvador, logrando así mejorar la toma de decisiones respecto al combate de la contaminación del aire y de las enfermedades respiratorias


In coordination with Universidad Tecnológica de El Salvador (UTEC), 3 air quality monitoring stations were built and installed at Escuela Especializada en Ingeniería ITCA-FEPADE Santa Tecla, San Miguel and La Unión. These devices measure the level of air pollution by particulate matter of 2.5 and 10 microns in diameter in the areas where they are installed. ITCA-FEPADE developed a software for interpretation and prediction of environmental pollution data with Big Data and Machine Learning. The data from the stations is captured in Big Data format, which is processed through a designed web platform, where the state of air quality is plotted according to the selected area. In addition, a Machine Learning algorithm was developed, which makes a prediction of air quality for the term of one month. As the number of samples increases, so will the prediction potential for a day, week, month or year. The application of the results of this project with the construction of more monitoring stations, achieve national coverage and measure in more detail the quality of the air that is breathed in El Salvador, thus improving decision-making regarding the combat of air pollution and respiratory diseases


Subject(s)
Software , Air Quality Control , Total Quality Management , Air Pollution , Monitoring Stations , Environmental Monitoring , Environmental Pollution
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829757

ABSTRACT

@#Specific amounts of bacteria and fungi in the room can cause Sick Building Syndrome (SBS). The main reason for bacteria and fungi accumulation is a lack of air circulation in the air-conditioned room. Therefore, we study exhaust fan usage to microorganism concentration in the air-conditioned room. The objective of this study is to find the optimum exhaust fan running time for reducing microorganism concentration until below the threshold value. The quasi-experiment was using with repeated experiments and non-random methodology. The samples were consisting of four air-conditioned classrooms with six repeated measurements. The sampling instrument used a petri dish filled with NA (Nutrient Agar) and PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar) placed at five points in each room. The results showed that the variation of exhaust fan running time sig affected the concentration of bacteria (sig ~0) and fungi (sig 0.023) in the classrooms. We found that exhaust fan can reduce the bacteria concentration. Although we observed that the exhaust fan gives inconsistency effect to reduce the fungi concentration in the classrooms.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829432

ABSTRACT

@#This study investigates the mall's Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) to compare changes in levels of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) concentration in the morning and evening. It also explores the sources of emission released that could be related to occupants' health status (dizziness, headaches, flu, running nose, nose stuffy, nose irritation, eye irritation, watery eye, and eye reddening). A questionnaire survey approach was used to collect quantitative data involving 32 workers from malls in Malacca, Malaysia. This study established models to measure changes in VOCs level in two different sessions for a given area. Also, predictors related to the work context (human performance and condition) were found to be significantly related to occupants' symptoms. Two significant values identified the changes in VOCs concentration for morning and evening sessions in the lobby, bakery, eye ware shop, mobile centers, and supermarket. No evidence supports the exposure towards the personal individual in the present findings. This study contributes to the literature on levels of VOCs in the shopping mall as well as the emission sources. It also suggests that more comprehensive monitoring can be achieved, particularly in the context of Malaysia.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880302

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a new zoonotic agent that emerged in December 2019, causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This infection can be spread by asymptomatic, presymptomatic, and symptomatic carriers. SARS-CoV-2 spreads primarily via respiratory droplets during close person-to-person contact in a closed space, especially a building. This article summarizes the environmental factors involved in SARS-CoV-2 transmission, including a strategy to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission in a building environment. SARS-CoV-2 can persist on surfaces of fomites for at least 3 days depending on the conditions. If SARS-CoV-2 is aerosolized intentionally, it is stable for at least several hours. SARS-CoV-2 is inactivated rapidly on surfaces with sunlight. Close-contact aerosol transmission through smaller aerosolized particles is likely to be combined with respiratory droplets and contact transmission in a confined, crowded, and poorly ventilated indoor environment, as suggested by some cluster cases. Although evidence of the effect of aerosol transmission is limited and uncertainty remains, adequate preventive measures to control indoor environmental quality are required, based on a precautionary approach, because COVID-19 has caused serious global damages to public health, community, and the social economy. The expert panel for COVID-19 in Japan has focused on the "3 Cs," namely, "closed spaces with poor ventilation," "crowded spaces with many people," and "close contact." In addition, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan has been recommending adequate ventilation in all closed spaces in accordance with the existing standards of the Law for Maintenance of Sanitation in Buildings as one of the initial political actions to prevent the spread of COVID-19. However, specific standards for indoor environmental quality control have not been recommended and many scientific uncertainties remain regarding the infection dynamics and mode of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in closed indoor spaces. Further research and evaluation are required regarding the effect and role of indoor environmental quality control, especially ventilation.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , Air Pollution, Indoor/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Crowding , Environment, Controlled , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilation
15.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(8): 3079-3088, ago. 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011896

ABSTRACT

Resumo A poluição do ar em ambientes fechados é agravada pela queima de lenha em fogões rústicos e ambientes pouco ventilados. A exposição aos poluentes emitidos por este tipo de combustível resulta no aumento da morbidade e da mortalidade. No Brasil, os estudos e as estimativas são escassos. Visando entender esta problemática, o objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o uso de lenha utilizando as séries de dados das agências governamentais para estimar o número de pessoas expostas. Os resultados apontam que a lenha é o segundo combustível mais usado para cozinhar, sendo utilizada por uma parcela significativa da população, em torno de 30 milhões de brasileiros. Um fator decisivo no maior uso deste combustível é o nível socioeconômico da população associada ao preço do gás liquefeito de petróleo (GLP). Os estudos realizados no país registraram concentrações altas de partículas durante a queima da lenha, excedendo os limites sugeridos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS). Também foram observadas associações entre a exposição aos poluentes gerados pela queima e o agravamento dos mais diversos problemas de saúde, dentre eles doenças respiratórias e câncer. A substituição da lenha e outros combustíveis sólidos por combustíveis mais limpos deve ser a meta do governo para minimizar custos com a saúde.


Abstract Indoor air pollution is exacerbated by the burning of firewood in rustic stoves and poorly ventilated environments. Exposure to the pollutants emitted by this type of fuel results in increased morbidity and mortality. In Brazil, studies and estimates regarding these conditions are scarce. In order to understand this problem, the objective of this work was to investigate the use of firewood using the data series of government agencies to estimate the number of exposed people. The results indicated that firewood is the second most used fuel for cooking, being used by a significant portion of the population, more than 30 million Brazilians. A decisive factor in the increased use of this fuel is the socioeconomic level of the population associated with the price of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The studies carried out in the country recorded high concentrations of particles during firewood burning, exceeding the limits suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO). Associations were also observed between the exposure to the pollutants generated by the burning and the aggravation of health problems, among them respiratory diseases and cancer. Replacing fuelwood and other solid fuels with cleaner fuels should be the government's goal to minimize health costs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Cooking/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Ventilation/standards , Wood , Brazil/epidemiology , Air Pollution, Indoor/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Neoplasms/etiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology
16.
Eng. sanit. ambient ; 24(2): 371-381, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012033

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O agravamento da poluição atmosférica nos centros urbanos devido ao crescimento das instalações industriais e da frota veicular é um problema que causa danos ambientais, afetando também a saúde humana, principalmente pela inalação de material particulado fino (MP2,5). O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência das condições meteorológicas na concentração de MP2,5 em Belo Horizonte, utilizando dados amostrados entre o inverno de 2007 e o outono de 2008. Além disso, foram avaliadas as diferenças dos dados meteorológicos e da concentração do MP2,5 entre as estações do ano nesse período. Para tanto, foram realizados testes estatísticos de correlação entre os dados meteorológicos e a concentração de MP2,5, além de análises de significância para avaliação das diferenças entre esses dois parâmetros nos períodos seco e chuvoso, característicos da área de estudo. Foi observada diferença significativa entre a concentração do MP2,5 nos períodos seco e chuvoso. Foram também observadas diferenças significativas entre os parâmetros meteorológicos (umidade relativa; temperatura mínima, média e máxima; e direção do vento) para esses períodos. Por meio da análise de correlação de Spearman, observou-se correlação significativa entre a concentração do MP2,5 e os parâmetros meteorológicos precipitação e umidade relativa do ar.


ABSTRACT The increase of air pollution in urban centres due to the growth of industrial facilities and vehicular fleet is a problem that causes environmental damage and affects human health, mainly due to the inhalation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). For this reason, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of meteorological conditions on PM2.5 concentration in Belo Horizonte, using data sampled from the winter of 2007 to the autumn of 2008. In addition, the differences in meteorological data and PM2.5 concentration between the seasons of the year in this study's period were also assessed. For this, correlation statistical tests were performed for meteorological data and PM2.5 concentration, as well as significance analysis to evaluate the differences between these two parameters in the dry and wet periods, characteristic of the study area. It was observed a significant difference between PM2.5 concentration in dry and wet periods. Significant differences were also observed between meteorological parameters (relative humidity, minimum, mean and maximum temperature and wind direction) for these periods. Spearman's correlation analysis showed a significant correlation between PM2.5 concentration and the meteorological parameters precipitation and relative humidity.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-822641

ABSTRACT

@#Microbiological contaminations in the laboratories create not only diagnostic issues but also pose a major health risk to lab users. This study was conducted to determine the airborne microbial contamination in seven selected laboratories (KA, KP, PB, NA, BP, CR and MB) at a local public university in Malaysia and to assess the level of contamination on the contact surfaces of the studied laboratories. Two types of sampling methods were used in this study; passive air sampling and contact surface swab sampling. The total microbial counts were determined using Tryptone Soya agar (bacterial count) and Potato Dextrose agar (fungal count). Results showed that NA laboratory had the highest level of total microbial contamination (20.33 ± 3.35 CFU/cm3 ). Most laboratories had significantly higher (p < 0.05) air fungal contamination level compared to bacterial contaminations except for PB and NA laboratories. Significant differences were observed for airborne bacterial contamination readings between sampling time (during working hours vs after hours) for all laboratories except for BP and CR. Overall, bacterial contamination was the highest for incubator door handles’ samples from MB laboratory with an average reading of 93.00 ± 1.43 CFU/cm2 whereas the highest fungal contamination level was obtained from door knobs and work benches, both from CR laboratory with an average reading of 73.33 ± 6.67 CFU/cm2 and 73.33 ± 0.58 CFU/cm2 respectively. Findings from this study could assist in monitoring the efficacy of the existing laboratory management systems namely on the good laboratory practices including aseptic techniques, care for laboratory hygiene and cross-contamination control practices by the laboratory users to ensure that the microbiological contaminations in the laboratories are minimized.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#With the aim to prevent sick building syndrome and worsening of allergic symptoms, primarily resulting from the indoor environment, the relationships among people's residential environment in recent years, their lifestyle habits, their awareness, and their symptoms were investigated using an online survey.@*METHODS@#In the survey, respondents experiencing symptoms specific to sick building syndrome, although they were not diagnosed with sick building syndrome, were categorized in the pre-sick building syndrome group. The relationships among individual characteristics, residential environment, and individual awareness were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Results showed that the prevalence of pre-sick building syndrome was high among young (aged 20-29 years) population of both sexes. In addition, "condensation," "moisture," "musty odors" in the house, and the "use of deodorant and fragrance" were all significantly associated with pre-sick building syndrome. Conversely, there was no significant association with recently built "wooden" houses that are highly airtight and have thermal insulation.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Efficient "ventilation" plans and "ventilation" improvement and air conditioning systems to prevent mold and condensation in rooms are necessary to maintain a good, indoor environment that is beneficial for health. Efforts should also be made to encourage individuals to regularly clean and effectively ventilate their homes.

19.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180295, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019537

ABSTRACT

Abstract Clean, fresh air is the most important requirement for good indoor air quality (IAQ) in all buildings, but it is especially important with regard to the environments within hospitals and other healthcare facilities. The literature indicates that buildings with heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems may have an increased risk of sick building syndrome (SBS) and building-related illness (BRI) if they are not well maintained. Microorganisms are brought into hospitals by people, air currents, water, construction materials and equipment. The main objective of this study was to assess the degree of fungal and bacterial contamination in the University Clinical Centre in Banja Luka, which is directly connected to the HVAC system. Airborne bacteria and fungi in the indoor hospital environment were assessed experimentally. Air samples were collected during the winter season. This paper presents the results related to the concentration of microorganisms expressed in colony forming units per cubic metre of air sampled (in CFU/m3) together with the microclimatic parameters temperature and relative humidity. The results of monitoring indicate the effectiveness of HVAC systems in reducing microbiological contamination.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Hospitals/standards , Bacteria , Ventilation/standards , Air Conditioning/standards , Fungi , Heating/standards
20.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 40(10): 625-630, Oct. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977774

ABSTRACT

Abstract Improving infrastructural conditions of the in vitro fertilization laboratory, such as the air quality, has profound positive effects on embryo culture. Poor environmental conditions reduce the rate of embryo formation and, therefore, of pregnancy. This review article presents important publications regarding the impact of air quality in human reproduction laboratories on embryo quality, pregnancy success, and live births. The studies demonstrate that the replacing the air filtration system improves significantly the environmental air quality, and, consequently, improves laboratory parameters, such as the fertilization rate, the number of blastocysts, the embryo implantation rate, and the number of live births. On the other hand, improving air quality decreases the number of abortions. Therefore, environmental parameters that improve embryo quality and increase healthy child birth ratesmust be themain targets for the assisted reproduction laboratory quality control.


Resumo Melhorar as condições de infraestrutura do laboratório de fertilização in vitro, com influência na qualidade do ar, tem efeitos positivos profundos na qualidade do embrião. As más condições ambientais do ar reduzem a taxa de sucesso na formação de embriões e a taxa de gravidez. Este artigo de revisão apresenta importantes publicações sobre o impacto da qualidade do ar dentro do laboratório de reprodução humana na qualidade do embrião, no sucesso de gravidez e no número de nascidos vivos. Os estudos demonstram que a troca do sistema de filtração de ar melhora significativamente a qualidade do ar ambiente, e consequentemente, melhora os parâmetros laboratoriais, tais como a taxa de fertilização, o número de blastocistos, a taxa de implantação e o número de nascidos vivos. Por outro lado,amelhora da qualidade do ar diminui o número de abortos. Portanto, os parâmetros ambientais que melhoram a qualidade do embrião e aumentam as taxas de nascimentos de crianças saudáveis devem ser os principais alvos para o controle de qualidade do laboratório de reprodução assistida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fertilization in Vitro/standards , Embryo Culture Techniques/standards , Environment, Controlled , Air Filters , Filtration/standards , Quality Control , Laboratories
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