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Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 488-494, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986880


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the association between short-term exposure to indoor total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and nocturnal heart rate variability (HRV) among young female adults.@*METHODS@#This panel study recruited 50 young females from one university in Beijing, China from December 2021 to April 2022. All the participants underwent two sequential visits. During each visit, real time indoor TVOC concentration was monitored using an indoor air quality detector. The real time levels of indoor temperature, relative humidity, noise, carbon dioxide and fine particulate matter were monitored using a temperature and humidity meter, a noise meter, a carbon dioxide meter and a particulate counter, respectively. HRV parameters were measured using a 12-lead Holter. Mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the association between the TVOC and HRV parameters and establish the exposure-response relationships, and two-pollutant models were applied to examine the robustness of the results.@*RESULTS@#The mean age of the 50 female subjects was (22.5±2.3) years, and the mean body mass index was (20.4±1.9) kg/m2. During this study, the median (interquartile range) of indoor TVOC concentrations was 0.069 (0.046) mg/m3, the median (interquartile range) of indoor temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide concentration, noise level and fine particulate matter concentration were 24.3 (2.7) ℃, 38.5% (15.0%), 0.1% (0.1%), 52.7 (5.8) dB(A) and 10.3 (21.5) μg/m3, respectively. Short-term exposure to indoor TVOC was associated with significant changes in time-domain and frequency-domain HRV parameters, and the exposure metric for most HRV parameters with the most significant changes was 1 h-moving average. Along with a 0.01 mg/m3 increment in 1 h-moving average concentration of indoor TVOC, this study observed decreases of 1.89% (95%CI: -2.28%, -1.50%) in standard deviation of all normal to normal intervals (SDNN), 1.92% (95%CI: -2.32%, -1.51%) in standard deviation of average normal to normal intervals (SDANN), 0.64% (95%CI: -1.13%, -0.14%) in percentage of adjacent NN intervals differing by more than 50 ms (pNN50), 3.52% (95%CI: -4.30%, -2.74%) in total power (TP), 5.01% (95%CI: -6.21%, -3.79%) in very low frequency (VLF) power, and 4.36% (95%CI: -5.16%, -3.55%) in low frequency (LF) power. The exposure-response curves showed that indoor TVOC was negatively correlated with SDNN, SDANN, TP, and VLF when the concentration exceeded 0.1 mg/m3. The two-pollutant models indicated that the results were generally robust after controlling indoor noise and fine particulate matter.@*CONCLUSION@#Short-term exposure to indoor TVOC was associated with significant negative changes in nocturnal HRV of young women. This study provides an important scientific basis for relevant prevention and control measures.

Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Air Pollutants/analysis , Heart Rate/physiology , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis , Carbon Dioxide , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Environmental Pollutants
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 555-557, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986070


In this paper, 177 cases of artificial stone-related silicosis in interior decoration workers from Israel, Spain, USA, Italy and Australia were analyzed. Interior decoration workers were from small businesses (or workshops), engaged in kitchen and/or bathroom artificial stone countertops cutting, grinding, polishing and other reprocessing. In the working environment, the content of crystalline silica in artificial stone was more than 70%, and the concentration of silica dust exceeded the relevant standards. Most workplaces used dry cutting without ventilation and dust removal and other dust-proof measures, and most workers did not wear qualified respiratory protective equipment. Taking comprehensive measures such as wet operation, ventilation and dust removal, and individual protection can effectively prevent the occurrence of artificial stone-related silicosis.

Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 139-141, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-862615


Objective@#To explore the indoor air quality of Harbin and its suburbs, and analyze the influence of indoor air quality on the pulmonary function indexes of schoolchildren, and to provide a reference for preventing the related respiratory diseases.@*Methods@#The concentration of CO 2, formaldehyde, benzene, PM 10 and total bacterial count in indoor of 80 residents in Harbin and its suburb were monitored. The IAAH model was used to evaluate the indoor air quality, and the correlation between the indoor air quality and the pulmonary function indexes of schoolchildren was analyzed.@*Results@#The levels of indoor air pollutant in suburb was higher than that in the urban of Harbin, and the concentration of CO 2, PM 10 and total bacteria count in the suburb of Harbin increase significantly during the heating season(t=5.86,4.92,21.16, P<0.05). Among the 40 households monitored by IAAH model in suburb during heating season, 37.5% had moderate air pollution, and 20.0% had severe air pollution. The IAAH was correlated with FVC, FEF75% and FEF25% after excluding the confounding factors by multiple linear regression(β=-0.17, -0.34, -0.43, P<0.05).@*Conclusion@#Indoor air pollution is very serious in the suburb of Harbin during heating season, which should be paid attention to by parents to prevent related respiratory diseases of schoolchildren.

Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 765-768, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821963


Objective@#To understand indoor air quality in middle and primary schools of Hangzhou in autumn and winter seasons, and to provide references of promoting indoor air quality of schools.@*Methods@#Totally 33 classrooms of 11 schools in urban area were selected into study during Sept.2018 to Jan.2019. Daily measurements of PM2.5 and CO2 were performed in selected classes during school working time by air quality monitors. Totally, monitoring data of 35 964 hours were analyzed using univariate and multiplicity analysis for PM2.5 and CO2 level, variability and possible influence factors.@*Results@#In autumn and winter, hourly average values of classroom PM2.5 and CO2 concentration level in Hangzhou were between 35.30 to 74.65 μg/m3 and between 949.17 to 2 029.98 mg/m3, respectively. The concentration levels of PM2.5 and CO2 were higher with the temperature(F=1 412.84, 775.66, P<0.01). No statistical significance was be found for the difference of PM2.5 concentration among monitoring times. Wave changes in CO2 were observed with time variation PM2.5 and CO2 concentration level of 68.42% monitoring times was complied with standards. School type and temperature correlated with PM2.5 concentration level. The PM2.5 concentration level in senior high school was higher than that in junior high school, while the value in primary school was the minimum(β=0.44, P<0.01). And the PM2.5 concentration increased with the temperature decreased(β=8.31, P<0.01). School type, temperature and monitoring time correlated with CO2 concentration level. CO2 concentration increased with the increase of grade, decrease in temperature and later time during the day(β=213.64, 162.38, P<0.01). The CO2 concentration level in later monitoring time was lower than that in earlier monitoring time(β=-16.28, P<0.01).@*Conclusion@#Classroom CO2 concentration level in Hangzhou was closed to that in European schools, while PM2.5 concentration level was much higher. Comparing with other cities in China, classroom PM2.5 and CO2 concentration level in Hangzhou is better. The results highlighted that school location, design and routine management should be advanced consideration for good air quality in classroom.

Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 360-364, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805083


Objective@#To evaluate the non-carcinogenic health risk of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) in residential indoor dust for young children around an e-waste dismantling area in South China.@*Methods@#A village around an e-waste dismantling area in South China was selected as a research site in October 2016. Convenience sampling method was used to select 36 houses in the village and 36 dust samples were collected by vacuum cleaner. The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) in each sample were determined and expressed by the average value. Non-carcinogenic health risk assessment was conducted using the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Health Risk Assessment (HRA) model, the American Toxicology and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Target-organ Toxicity Dose (TTD) approach and the ATSDR Binary Weight-of-Evidence (BINWOE) model.@*Results@#The mean ± SD of concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn were (48.90±33.91), (5.95±3.89), (173.57±580.37), (412.71±1 190.00), (612.82±540.70), (297.41±293.22) and (1 052.81±1 156.48) mg/kg, respectively. The HI value of TTD (2.670) and BINWOE (2.933) were higher than the safety threshold of EPA recommended non-carcinogenic health risk. The HI value of TTD and BINWOE were 1.93 and 2.12 times higher than the HI value of HRA (1.386).@*Conclusion@#There was non-carcinogenic health risk of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) via residential indoor dust around the e-waste dismantling area for local children.

Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 1706-1708, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-815823


Objective@#To understand the microbial pollution of indoor air in colleges and universities, and to provide a reference for controlling microbial pollution and improving indoor air quality.@*Methods@#In November 2018, the air microorganisms in different functional areas and at different times were sampled and cultured in a university in Beijing by Anderson’s six-level sampler.@*Results@#During the test, there were differences in microbial aerosol concentrations in different functional areas and at different times(F=3.99,7.77, P<0.05), the concentration of bacteria in toilets was relatively high, the average concentration was 659 CFU/m3 and the concentration of fungi in the campus was relatively high, the average concentration was 660 CFU/m3; the concentration of bacteria and fungi in the air at 12 o’clock noon was relatively low, the average concentration was 320 CFU/m3 and 322 CFU/m3. The particle size distribution of microorganisms in the air presents roughly the same law, and the peak concentration of microbial concentrations occurs at the Ⅳ and Ⅴ levels (1.1-3.3 μm), in which the highest concentration of bacteria (253 CFU/m3) appears at the Ⅴ level, and the highest concentration of fungi (249 CFU/m3) appears at the Ⅳ level.@*Conclusion@#The microbial concentration in the air of colleges and universities was mainly concentrated in the size of 1.1-3.3 μm, and it was necessary to take targeted comprehensive control measures to effectively improve air quality.

Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 57-63, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810404


Objective@#To assess the associations of indoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from outdoor and indoor sources with heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) of Beijing.@*Methods@#A total of 40 male patients in a stable stage of COPD were recruited from a hospital in a panel study in Beijing with 5 consecutive days of measurement for each subject. General information and disease history of the participants from questionnaires were obtained prior to the study. HR and HRV were repeatedly examined using dynamic electrocardiograph. HRV included standard deviation of all NN intervals (SDNN), root mean square of successive differences between adjacent NN intervals (rMSSD), total power (TP) power in the low-frequency band (LF) and the high-frequency band (HF). Iron was used as tracer element to separate indoor-originated PM2.5 and outdoor-originated PM2.5. Mixed-effect models were applied to assess the associations of outdoor-originated PM2.5 or indoor-originated PM2.5 and health effects.@*Results@#The P50 (P25, P75) values of daily indoor PM2.5, indoor-originated PM2.5 and outdoor-originated PM2.5 were 50.9 (26.8, 122.7), 16.0 (1.9, 43.7) and 27.3 (13.5, 61.8) μg/m3, respectively. The mean±SD of concentrations of real-time indoor PM2.5, indoor-originated PM2.5 and outdoor-originated PM2.5 were (61.5±58.8), (25.3±39.1) and (36.2±42.7) μg/m3, respectively. Compared with outdoor-originated PM2.5, indoor-originated PM2.5 had significant associations with HRV and HR. Each 10 μg/m3 increase at 4 h indoor-originated PM2.5 and outdoor-originated PM2.5 moving average was associated with 3.4% (95%CI: -4.7%, -2.1%) and 0.6% (95%CI: -2.0%, -0.8%) reduction in TP (P<0.001). Each 10 μg/m3 increase at 12 h indoor-originated PM2.5 moving average was associated with 7.6% (95%CI: -10.1%, -5.1%), 4.7% (95%CI: -6.7%, -2.7%), 3.3% (95%CI: -4.2%,-2.4%) and 3.0% (95%CI: -4.5%, -1.5%) reduction in HF, LF, SDNN and rMSSD, respectively. Each 10 μg/m3 increase at 12 h outdoor-originated PM2.5 moving average was associated with 0.7% (95%CI: -2.7%, -1.4%), 0.2% (95%CI: -1.9%, 1.4%), 0.7% (95%CI: -1.4%, -0.1%) and 0.2% (95%CI: -1.3%, 0.9%) reduction in HF, LF, SDNN and rMSSD, respectively (P<0.001). Each 10 μg/m3 increase at 8 h indoor-originated PM2.5 and outdoor-originated PM2.5 moving average was associated with 0.7% (95%CI: 0.4%, 1.0%) and 0.4% (95%CI: 0.2%, 0.6%) increase in HR.@*Conclusion@#Exposure to indoor-originated PM2.5 was more strongly associations with HRV indices and HR compared with outdoor-originated PM2.5 in male COPD patients.

Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 1315-1320, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-807795


In the past decades, people's work and life styles have dramatically changed during the rapid economic development and urbanization in China. A national survey reported that Chinese adults spend an average of 81% of daily time in indoor environment. Exposure to indoor air pollution plays key roles for human health but is likely to be neglected due on the relatively lower concentration levels and lower awareness among common people. Till now, published studies focus more on the pollution levels or the toxicological effects of indoor air pollutants but there is a lack of disease burden assessment attributable to indoor air pollution. In this review, several international studies were introduced on the disease burden estimation attributable to indoor air pollution, as well as the estimation methods. The current situation of national study was also reviewed. The strengths and limitations of the representative international studies were discussed. This review is helpful in providing data to guide the research on disease burden assessment attributable to indoor air pollution in China, and further helps to prioritize the indoor air pollution control based on disease burden ranking among pollutants and motivate public policies to protect the public health.

Military Medical Sciences ; (12): 17-20,37, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-606379


Objective To design a controller for the air environment of cabins of special vehicles .Methods The microprocessor was used to collect and store parameters ,and calculate automatically the operative mode of actuators ,such as the fan,air-conditioner,oxygenerator,air cleaner, filtering and boosting devices according to the preset target values .Output commands by RS485 were used to control actuators .Results and Conclusion The controller is capable of control integration for air-adjusting equipment while improving the control effect of the air quality in cabins of special vehicles .

Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 53-57, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-808078


Objective@#To assess the disease burden attributable to household air pollution in 1990 and 2013 in China.@*Methods@#Based on data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 in China (GBD 2013), we used population attributable fractions (PAF) to analyze the burden of different diseases attributable to solid-fuel household pollution in 2013 in China(not inclnding HongKang, Macao, Taiwan). We compared PAF, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) for diseases attributable to solid-fuel household pollution in 31 provinces in mainland China in 1990 and 2013, and stratified the burden by age group. The estimated world average population during 2000- 2025 was used to calculate age-standardized mortality and DALY rates.@*Results@#In 2013, 14.9% of lower respiratory infections in children <5, 32.5% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 12.0% of ischemic stroke, 14.2% of hemorrhagic stroke, 10.9% of ischemic heart disease, and 13.7% of lung cancer were attributable to solid-fuel household pollution. In addition, 807 000 deaths were attributable to solid-fuel household pollution, including 296 000 from COPD, 169 000 from hemorrhagic stroke, 152 000 from ischemic heart disease, 88 000 from ischemic stroke, 75 000 from lung cancer, and 28 000 from lower respiratory infections in children <5. The age-standardized mortality rate from solid-fuel household pollution decreased by 59.3% from 158.8/100 000 in 1990 to 64.6/100 000 in 2013. The age-standardized mortality rate from solid-fuel household pollution decreased in all 31 provinces, with the highest decline observed in Shanghai (96.3%), and lowest in Xinjiang (39.9%). In 2013, the age-standardized DALY rate from solid-fuel household pollution was highest in Guizhou (2 233.0/100 000) and lowest in Shanghai (27.0/100 000). The DALY rate was the highest for the >70 age group (7 006.0/100 000). Compared with 1990, the 2013 mortality rate and DALY rate from solid-fuel household pollution decreased in all age groups, with the highest decline observed in the <5 age group (91.9% and 91.8% , respectively).@*Conclusion@#Although the disease burden attributable to household air pollution decreased notably between 1990 and 2013, household pollution caused a high number of deaths and DALY loss in certain western provinces.

J. bras. pneumol ; 40(3): 259-268, May-Jun/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-714694


Objective: To determine whether indoor air quality in schools is associated with the prevalence of allergic and respiratory diseases in children. Methods: We evaluated 1,019 students at 51 elementary schools in the city of Coimbra, Portugal. We applied a questionnaire that included questions regarding the demographic, social, and behavioral characteristics of students, as well as the presence of smoking in the family. We also evaluated the indoor air quality in the schools. Results: In the indoor air of the schools evaluated, we identified mean concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) above the maximum reference value, especially during the fall and winter. The CO2 concentration was sometimes as high as 1,942 ppm, implying a considerable health risk for the children. The most prevalent symptoms and respiratory diseases identified in the children were sneezing, rales, wheezing, rhinitis, and asthma. Other signs and symptoms, such as poor concentration, cough, headache, and irritation of mucous membranes, were identified. Lack of concentration was associated with CO2 concentrations above the maximum recommended level in indoor air (p = 0.002). There were no other significant associations. Conclusions: Most of the schools evaluated presented with reasonable air quality and thermal comfort. However, the concentrations of various pollutants, especially CO2, suggest the need for corrective interventions, such as reducing air pollutant sources and improving ventilation. There was a statistically significant association between lack of concentration in the children and exposure to high levels of CO2. The overall low level of pollution in the city of Coimbra might explain the lack of other significant associations. .

Objetivo: Determinar se há uma associação entre a qualidade do ar interno em escolas e a prevalência de patologias alérgicas e respiratórias nas crianças que as frequentam. Métodos: Foram avaliados 1.019 alunos de 51 escolas de ensino básico na cidade de Coimbra, Portugal. A avaliação foi realizada através de um questionário com questões referentes a características demográficas, sociais e comportamentais dos alunos, assim como presença de hábitos tabágicos na família. Foi ainda avaliada a qualidade do ar interno nas escolas. Resultados: Foram identificadas concentrações médias de dióxido de carbono (CO2) no interior das salas de aula acima da concentração máxima de referência, principalmente no período de outono/inverno, chegando a valores de 1.942 ppm, o que implica elevado risco potencial para a saúde das crianças. Os sintomas/patologias respiratórias mais prevalentes nas crianças foram crises de espirros, rinite alérgica, estertores/sibilos e asma. Outros sinais e sintomas verificados foram falta de concentração, tosse, dores de cabeça e irritação das mucosas. A falta de concentração das crianças foi associada ao ar interno das salas de aula com valores acima do máximo recomendado para CO2 (p = 0,002). Não houve outras associações significativas. Conclusões: A maioria das escolas estudadas apresentava razoável qualidade do ar e conforto térmico, embora a concentração de vários poluentes, sobretudo CO2, sugere a necessidade de intervenções corretivas, como redução de fontes emissoras de poluentes e melhorias da ventilação. Houve uma associação estatisticamente significativa entre a falta de concentração nas crianças ...

Child , Female , Humans , Male , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution, Indoor/adverse effects , Environmental Monitoring , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Portugal/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Seasons , Students , Schools/standards , Ventilation
Rev. saúde pública ; 47(6): 1059-1068, dez. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-702729


OBJETIVO : Analisar a qualidade do ar em escolas de educação básica e suas condições estruturais e funcionais. MÉTODOS : Foi avaliada a qualidade do ar de 51 escolas (81 salas de aula) de educação básica da cidade de Coimbra, Portugal, tanto na parte interior das salas como na exterior, durante as quatro estações do ano, de 2010 a 2011. Foram avaliadas a temperatura (Tº), umidade relativa (Hr), concentrações de monóxido de carbono (CO), dióxido de carbono (CO 2 ), ozona (O 3 ), dióxido de nitrogênio (NO 2 ), dióxido de enxofre (SO 2 ), compostos orgânicos voláteis (COV), formaldeído e material particulado (PM 10 ), de novembro de 2010 a fevereiro de 2011 (outono/inverno) e de março de 2011 a junho de 2011 (primavera/verão). Procedeu-se ao preenchimento de uma grelha de caracterização das condições estruturais e funcionais das escolas. Aplicaram-se os testes estatísticos t- Student para amostras emparelhadas e o teste t de Wilcoxon. RESULTADOS : Em 47 escolas, as concentrações médias de CO 2 encontravam-se acima da concentração máxima de referência (984 ppm) mencionada na legislação portuguesa. Os valores máximos de concentração encontrados no interior das salas foram críticos, principalmente no outono/inverno (5.320 ppm). As concentrações médias de COV e de PM 10 no interior ultrapassaram a concentração máxima de referência legislada em algumas escolas. Não foram detetados valores relevantes (risco) de CO, formaldeído, NO 2 , SO 2 e O 3 . CONCLUSÕES : Houve maior concentração de poluentes no interior das salas, comparativamente com o exterior. A inadequada ventilação está associada à elevada concentração de CO 2 nas salas de aula. .

OBJETIVO : Analizar la calidad del aire en escuelas de educación básica y sus condiciones estructurales y funcionales. MÉTODOS : Se evaluó la calidad del aire de 51 escuelas (81 salas de aula) de educación básica de la ciudad de Coimbra, Portugal, tanto en el interior de las salas como en el exterior, durante las cuatro estaciones del año, de 2010 a 2011. Se evaluaron la temperatura (T°), humedad relativa (Hr), concentraciones de monóxido de carbono (CO), dióxido de carbono (CO2), ozono (O3), dióxido de nitrógeno (NO2), dióxido de azufre (SO2), compuestos orgánicos volátiles (COV), formaldehido (HCHO) y material particulado (PM10), de noviembre de 2010 a febrero de 2011 (otoño/invierno) y de marzo de 2011 a junio de 2011 (primavera/verano). Se procedió a llenar una tabla de caracterización de las condiciones estructurales y funcionales de las escuelas. Se aplicaron las pruebas estadísticas t-Student para muestras pareadas y la prueba t de Wilcoxon. RESULTADOS : En 47 escuelas, las concentraciones promedio de CO2 estaban por encima de la concentración máxima de referencia (984 ppm) mencionada en la legislación portuguesa. Los valores máximos de concentración encontrados en el interior de las salas fueron críticos, principalmente en el otoño/invierno (5.320 ppm). Las concentraciones promedio de COV y de PM10 en el interior sobrepasaron la concentración máxima de referencia legislada en algunas escuelas. No fueron detectados valores relevantes (riesgo) de CO, HCHO, NO2, SO2 y O3. CONCLUSIONES : Hubo mayor concentración de contaminantes en el interior de las salas, en comparación con el exterior. La inadecuada ventilación está asociada con la elevada concentración de CO2 en las salas de aula. .

OBJECTIVE : To analyze the air quality in elementary schools and their structural and functional conditions. METHODS : Air quality in 51 elementary schools (81 classrooms) in the city of Coimbra, Portugal, both inside and outside of the rooms was evaluated during the four seasons, from 2010 to 2011. Temperature (T°), relative humidity (Hr), concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), compounds were evaluated, as were volatile organics (VOC), formaldehyde and particulate matter (PM10), from November 2010 to February 2011 (autumn/winter) and March 2011 to June 2011 (spring/summer). A grid characterizing the structural and functional conditions of the schools was created. The statistical Student t test for paired samples and the Wilcoxon t test were applied. RESULTS : In 47 schools, the average CO2concentrations were above the maximum reference concentration (984 ppm) mentioned in Portuguese legislation. The maximum concentration values found inside the rooms were critical, especially in the fall/winter (5,320 ppm). In some schools the average concentrations of VOC and PM10within the maximum concentration exceeded the reference legislated. The values (risk) of CO, formaldehyde, NO2, SO2and O3detected were not relevant. CONCLUSIONS : There was a higher concentration of pollutants inside the rooms compared with outside. Inadequate ventilation is associated with high CO2concentration in the classroom. .

Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Air Pollutants/chemistry , Air Pollution, Indoor/statistics & numerical data , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Carbon Monoxide/analysis , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Portugal , Risk Assessment , Seasons
Cienc. Trab ; 12(37): 349-354, jul.-sept. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-579570


Nuestra experiencia en evaluación de sistemas de ventilación existentes en edificios destinados a trabajos de oficina nos ha permitido detectar con una frecuencia relativamente alta problemas relacionados con el diseño y gestión de estos sistemas, que dificultan la obtención de ambientes sanos y confortables. En cuanto al diseño, éste requiere considerar las bases, parámetros y estándares que permitan obtener de ellos las condiciones que las personas necesitan y, una vez logrado lo anterior, la gestión correspondiente para controlar su aplicación y existencia permanente, que implica la evaluación periódica de los parámetros a través de mediciones y dispositivos de observación, así como de regulación y mantención de sus elementos constituyentes. Los resultados de las mediciones de estos parámetros deben ser verificados con estándares nacionales o internacionales reconocidos, utilizados en el diseño.

Our experience in evaluation of ventilation systems installed in buildings intended for offices has allowed us to detect rather frequent problems related to the design and management of these systems, which hamper the achievement of healthy and comfortable environments. With regard to design, it is necessary to consider the bases, parameters and standards that allow the achievement of the conditions that people require, and once this has been achieved, the corresponding management for controlling its application and continuous existence that implies the periodic evaluation of parameters through measurements and observation devices, as well as the regulation and maintenance of its constituent elements. The results of the measurements of these parameters must be verified with recognized national or international standards used in the design.

Air Quality Standards , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Ventilation/standards
J. bras. pneumol ; 36(4): 441-446, jul.-ago. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-557134


OBJETIVO: Determinar a associação de sintomas respiratórios e bronquite crônica com o uso de biocombustíveis entre mulheres habitantes de áreas rurais do estado de Ekiti, sudoeste da Nigéria. MÉTODOS: De janeiro a junho de 2009, realizou-se um estudo transversal com uma amostra de 269 mulheres adultas. Um questionário adaptado do European Community Respiratory Health Survey foi aplicado para a obtenção de dados sobre características sociodemográficas, tipo de combustível utilizado para a preparação de alimentos, sintomas respiratórios e história de tabagismo. Todas as participantes foram convidadas a realizar espirometria. RESULTADOS: Das 269 mulheres no estudo, 161 (59,9 por cento) utilizavam biocombustíveis para a preparação de alimentos. As mulheres que utilizavam biocombustíveis relataram mais sintomas respiratórios que aquelas que não os utilizavam - tosse (13,7 por cento vs. 3,7 por cento); sibilância (8,7 por cento vs. 2,8 por cento); dor no peito (7,5 por cento vs. 1,9 por cento); falta de ar (11,8 por cento vs. 6,5 por cento); sintomas nasais (9,3 por cento vs. 4,6 por cento); e bronquite crônica (10,6 por cento vs. 2,8 por cento). A análise multivariada por regressão logística confirmou que o uso de biocombustíveis está associado às seguintes variáveis: tosse (OR = 4,82; p = 0,01); bronquite crônica (OR = 3,75; p = 0,04); sibilância (OR = 2,22; p = 0,23); dor no peito (OR = 3,82; p = 0,09); falta de ar (OR = 1,54; p = 0,35); e sintomas nasais (OR = 2,32; p = 0,20). Todos os parâmetros espirométricos avaliados (VEF1, CVF, VEF1/CVF e PFE) foram menores nas mulheres que utilizavam biocombustíveis do que naquelas que não os utilizavam. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos resultados enfatizam a necessidade de se substituir o uso de biocombustíveis nos domicílios pelo de um tipo de combustível atóxico, como eletricidade ou gás.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether respiratory symptoms and chronic bronchitis are associated with the use of biomass fuels (BMFs) among women residing in rural areas of the Ekiti State, in southwestern Nigeria. METHODS: From January to June of 2009, we carried out a cross-sectional study including 269 adult women. To collect data on sociodemographic status, type of fuel used for cooking in the household, respiratory symptoms, and smoking history, we used a questionnaire adapted from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. All of the participants were invited to undergo spirometry. RESULTS: Of the 269 women in the study, 161 (59.9 percent) used BMFs for cooking. The proportion of women who reported respiratory symptoms was greater among those using BMFs than among those using a non-BMF-cough (13.7 percent vs. 3.7 percent); wheezing (8.7 percent vs. 2.8 percent); chest pain (7.5 percent vs. 1.9 percent); breathlessness (11.8 percent vs. 6.5 percent); nasal symptoms (9.3 percent vs. 4.6 percent); and chronic bronchitis (10.6 percent vs. 2.8 percent). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the use of BMFs was associated with the following variables: cough (OR = 4.82; p = 0.01); chronic bronchitis (OR = 3.75; p = 0.04); wheezing (OR = 2.22; p = 0.23); chest pain (OR = 3.82; p = 0.09); breathlessness (OR = 1.54; p = 0.35); and nasal symptoms (OR = 2.32; p = 0.20). All of the spirometric parameters evaluated (FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, and PEF) were lower in the women using BMFs than in those using a non-BMF. CONCLUSIONS: Our results underscore the need for women using BMFs in their households to replace them with a nontoxic type of fuel, such as electricity or gas.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Biofuels/toxicity , Bronchitis, Chronic/etiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Air Pollution, Indoor/adverse effects , Biofuels/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cooking/instrumentation , Logistic Models , Nigeria , Risk Factors , Spirometry
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (6): 190-192, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-643356


Objective To investigate the distribution status of coal-burning fluorosis (endemic fluorosis) areas in Luoyang and to provide scientifc evidence for making strategies in prevention and control. Methods In 2006, a household per village was chosen to carry the general survey so as of disease condition, living habits and housing structure among 941 coal-burning pollution fluorine sickness natural villages in Yanshi, Mengjin, Xin'an, Luanchuan counties and Geely area which were under the jurisdiction of Luoyang. In the general survey, the sampled village having a population of more than 500 person was considered as a major survey village, and water fluoride, 8 - 12 year-old child fluorine spot on tooth and the urinary fluoride were surveyed. Water fluoride and the child urinary fluoride determination used the fluoride ion selective electrode method, and the children's dental fluorosis used Dean method. Results The endemic fluorosis of Luoyang existed 742 in endemic fluomsis villages, compared with history, a decrease of 199 in number. Ninety-six point seven per cent( 142 543/147 419) of the households were consuming smoke-free coal. Households using intact kitchens accounted for 93.6%( 137 919/147 419). Of which 63.0%(86 889/137 919) of kitchens were mixed up with bedrooms. Total 125 060 people were using coal- fired furnace for heating, of which 87.8%(109 802/125 060) had smoke-free facilities, 12.2%(15 258/125 060) had none. Among 52 endemic villages with population of more than 500 people surveyed, a total of 183 water samples were collected, 2 had water fluoride exceeding 1.0 rag/L, the highest water fluoride being 1.04 rag/L, averaging 0.39 mg/L Sixteen villages had a prevalence rate of dental fluorosis for children less than 30.00%, accounting for 30.8% (16/52), 36 endemic villages the prevalence of dental fluorosis detection rate of more than 30.00%, accounting for 69.2%(36/52). Twenty-thrce villages had a dental fluorosis index greater than 0.6, severe dental fluorosis was not found. Real-time measurement of 1408 urine samples of children aged 8 - 12 showed that urine fluoride highest value 6.88 nag/L, the minimum value of 0.10 mg/L, geometric mean 1.10 mg/L. The prevalence rate of dental fluorosis for children was 36.06%. Conclusions In Luoyang city, numbers of coal-burning endemic fluorosis villages are less than before, children's dental fluorosis has significantly declined, however some people still use kitchens connecting with bedrooms and lack smoke-free facilities, they need to be educated to change lifestyle and improve furnace to reduce soot fluoride pollution.

Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (6): 536-539, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-642275


Objective To explore the effect of different processing and drying methods of corn and hot pepper on fluorine content in coal-burning type of the endemic fluorosis areas, and to screen food processing and drying methods which meet the quality requirements of grain drying and able to effectively reduce the total fluoride intake of local population. Methods Farmers of endemic fluorosis area in Bijie, Guizhou province were divided into 3 groups: sun-baked drying group, stove drying group with air-tight cover and stove drying group with no cover, 10 households in each group. Corn and fresh hot pepper and samples dried for 2 weeks, or 1, 3, 6-month were collected, and water and fluoride content were detected, and the total daily fluoride intake were calculated in accordance with the "Determination of Water in Food" (GB/T 5009.3-2003) and "Determination of Fluorine in Foods"(GB/T 5009.18-2003). Results Fluoride content in fresh corn and dried for 2 weeks, or 1, 3, 6-month [of sunbaked drying group: (1.40 ± 0.16), (1.56 ± 0.14), (2.15 ± 0.47), (2.70 ± 0.64), (4.06 ± 1.75)mg/kg, stove drying group with air-tight cover: (1.41 ± 0.16), (2.39 ± 0.56), (4.60 ± 0.97), (8.46 ± 5.55), (11.36 ± 3.60)mg/kg,stove drying group with no cover: (1.40 ± 0.13), (4.69 ± 3.97), (4.47 ± 2.77), (9.65 ± 6.47), (26.12 ± 14.52)mg/kg] and pepper[sun-baked drying group: (5.41 ± 1.61), (16.60 ± 7.62), (32.60 ± 7.88), (50.26 ± 17.60),(240.20 ± 272.49)mg/kg, stove drying group with air-tight cover: (754 ± 2.95), (3238 ± 11.50), (119.18 ± 156.45),(224.00 ± 196.58), (495.70 ± 417.29)mg/kg, stove drying group with no cover: (4.82 ± 1.25), (44.30 ± 13.48),(122.89 ± 66.43), (334.23 ± 166.05), (531.01 ± 397.40)mg/kg] increased with elongation of drying time, and the group difference was significant(F = 44.77, 128.71, 126.87, 41.61, 53.63, 170.63, all P < 0.05), with the largest rate of increase in stove drying group with no cover, and the lowest in sun-baked drying group;fluoride was significantly lower (t = 7.93,63.07,5.36,11.98,55.76,7.45, all P < 0.05) after sample washing;total fluoride intake per person per day was 2.57 mg in local adult when ate washed and sun-baked corn, peppers, the total fluoride intake were 5.92, 8.14 mg when ate the food processed by other two drying methods and washed corn, peppers,respectively. Conclusions In the coal-burning type of fluorosis endemic area, should take appropriate health education measures, and instruct local residents to use sun bake their edible corn and pepper for human consumption, and cultivate a habit of washing corn and pepper before cooking, which can reduce the population total fluoride intake, and control endemic fluorosis.

Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (6): 66-70, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-643404


Objective To comparatively analyze the changes of environmental risk factors in 9 years in an area polluted by arsenic coal-burning in Xingren County of Guizhou Province,in order to provide evidence for reasoning the occurrence and development as well as its effective prevention and control.Methods Epidemiological sampling methods was used to conduct follow-up investigation on 181 arsenism patients who were diagnosed in 1998 in arsenic polluted area.Control group included 65 residents who lived far from polluted area of 12 km.The follow up investigation included age,sexuality,family economic situation,time of use or stop use of arsenic coal, ventilation of the room,desiccation of food etc.Diethyl dithiocarbamate silver(Ag-DDC)method was used to detect arsenic content of coal,soil,air,water and rice,corn,chili;Single factor and multivariate factors non-conditional Logistic regression models were used to analyze exposure factors of patients and related environmental risk factom, and the differences of those in 1998 and 2006 were compared. Results The arsenic content in indoor and outdoor air,coal,chili and corn went down from 0.0880 and 0.0220 mg/m3,397.20,45.07 and 2.64 mg/kg in 1998 to 0.0790 and 0.0070 mg/m3,93.01,3.46 and 1.50 mg/kg in 2006. Arsenic contents of other samples were less than national standard. The analysis of single factor and multivariate factors non-conditional Logistic regression showed that time of using high arsenic coal,age,fluorosis and smoking(x2 = 50.159,12.195,37.69,6.358,P < 0.05 or < 0.01 ) were still the main risk factors for arsenism,while family economic situation was still influential factors (X2 = 4.614,P < 0.05);Ventilation of the room changed from a risk factors at 1998 to an influencing factors at 2006(X2 = 38.093,P < 0.01 ). Single factor non-conditional Logistic regression model analysis showed that food desiccation by arsenic coal-burning and educational level were no longer risk and influencing factors,while food preservation and gender had become influencing factors(x2 = 17.463,11.004,all P < 0.01 ) nine years after. Conclusions Environmental arsenic pollution in arsenism area in Guizhou Province has been obviously improved after nine years. However,the continued existence of low doses of arsenic pollution is still a major cause of failure of controlling arsenism. Time of using high arsenic coal,age,smoking,fluorosis,family economic situation and ventilating room are closely related to the occurrence and the development of arsenism. Prohibition of use of high arsenic coal,furnace improvement,health education and economic development are effective measures

J. bras. pneumol ; 34(9): 667-674, set. 2008. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-495687


OBJETIVO: Descrever e analisar sintomas respiratórios e alterações espirométricas em pacientes portadores de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC), com história de exposição à fumaça de lenha e de tabaco. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados retrospectivamente dados de 170 pacientes distribuídos em 3 grupos: 34 pacientes expostos somente à fumaça de lenha, 59 pacientes, somente à de tabaco e 77 pacientes expostos a ambas. RESULTADOS: Os grupos não diferiram quanto a idade (p = 0,225) e grau de exposição, considerando cada tipo de exposição isoladamente ou em associação (p = 0,164 e p = 0,220, respectivamente). No grupo exposto à fumaça de lenha predominou o sexo feminino.Não houve diferença entre os grupos quanto à freqüência dos sintomas respiratórios (p > 0,05), e houve predominância de grau moderado de dispnéia nos três grupos (p = 0,141). O grupo exposto à fumaça de lenha apresentou melhores percentuais da relação volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo/capacidade vital forçada e de volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (p < 0,05). A prova broncodilatadora positiva ocorreu com maior freqüência no grupo exposto ao tabaco.O percentual de obstrução brônquica grave e muito grave foi significantemente maior no grupo exposto ao tabaco (44,1 por cento) que no grupo exposto somente à fumaça de combustão de lenha (11,8 por cento; p = 0,006). CONCLUSÕES: Os sintomas respiratórios e alterações da função pulmonar compatíveis com DPOC foram observados nos grupos expostos à fumaça de lenha. Todavia, estas alterações foram menos intensas do que as observadas nos grupos expostos ao tabaco.Este trabalho ressalta a importância de realizar-se um estudo prospectivo para avaliar o risco de DPOC associado à exposição à fumaça de lenha no Brasil assim como a necessidade de ações preventivas neste âmbito.

OBJECTIVE: To describe and analyze clinical symptoms and spirometric alterations of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and history of exposure to wood and tobacco smoke. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated data related to 170 patients distributed into 3 groups: 34 exposed only to wood smoke, 59 patients exposed only to tobacco smoke and 77 patients exposed to both. RESULTS: The groups did not differ significantly in terms of age (p = 0.225) or degree of exposure, considering each type of exposure in isolation or in combination (p = 0.164 and p = 0.220, respectively). Females predominated in the group exposed to wood smoke. There were no differences among the groups regarding respiratory symptoms (p > 0.05), and moderate dyspnea predominated in the three groups (p = 0.141). The group exposed to wood smoke presented higher percentages of forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity ratio and of forced expiratory volume in one second (p < 0.05). Positive results on bronchodilator testing occurred more frequently in the group exposed to tobacco smoke. The percentage of severe and extremely severe obstruction was significantly higher in the group exposed to tobacco smoke (44.1 percent) than in that exposed to wood smoke (11.8 percent; p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function alterations consistent with COPD were observed in the groups of patients exposed to wood smoke. However, those alterations were not as significant as the alterations observed in the groups exposed to tobacco smoke. This study emphasizes the importance of prospective studies in evaluating the risk of wood-smoke-related COPD in Brazil, as well as the need for preventive measures in this area.

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Air Pollution, Indoor/adverse effects , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution, Indoor/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Methods , Forced Expiratory Volume , Inhalation Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Spirometry , Smoke/adverse effects , Vital Capacity , Wood
Rev. méd. Chile ; 136(6): 767-774, jun. 2008. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-490764


Background: Indoor air pollution, is the main cause of population exposure to polluting agents. Aim: To establish an environmental profile of indoor contamination emission sources in families of children under 5years that assist to kindergartens in Temuco and Padre Las Casas. To associate respiratory disease episodes in children with indoor contamination. Material and methods: Cross sectional analysis of 355 family groups subjected to questionnaires about indoor contamination and number of respiratory disease episodes. Results: Forty six percent of mothers or caregivers smoked, 37 percent smoked at home and 93 percent smoked one to two cigarettes per day. There was a significant association between respiratory diseases in children and drying clothes in the kitchen, using firewood for heating and the presence of humidity in the dwelling. Mothers identified as indoor contaminants the use of braziers in 76 percent of cases and firewood stoves in 24 percent. Ninety seven percent considered that these appliances were detrimental for respiratory health. Conclusions: The lack of awareness about indoor contamination among subjects of low socioeconomic status, should prompt educational campaigns to modify behaviors in their dwellings.

Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Air Pollution, Indoor/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Housing/statistics & numerical data , Nurseries, Infant/statistics & numerical data , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Air Pollution, Indoor/adverse effects , Chile/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dust , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Heating/adverse effects , Heating/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Risk Factors , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Ventilation/statistics & numerical data
Journal of Environment and Health ; (12)2007.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-547968


Objective To know the risk factors of indoor environment associated with childhood asthmas. Methods Using 1∶1 matched case-control study design,140 cases and 140 age-sex-matched controls from the Affiliated Hospital of Ningxia Medical University were investigated for the indoor environment risk factors,from July 2004 to May 2008. Conditional Logistic regression model was used for data analysis. Results It was revealed in univariate and multivariate conditional Logistic regression analysis that there was significant correlation between using coal for cooking,newly indoor decoration,raising pets and the childhood asthma with odds ratios of 1.67,6.46 and 3.06 respectively(P