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1.
Pediatr. (Asunción) ; 50(2)ago. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1507002

ABSTRACT

La incidencia de hepatoblastoma alrededor del mundo permanece constante entre 0.5 y 1.5 casos por millón de niños por año. En los Estados Unidos de América se reporta para el hepatoblastoma una incidencia anual de aproximadamente 1 por millón en niños menores de 15 años de edad. En Ecuador, en una investigación realizada en la ciudad de Cuenca, ocupa el séptimo lugar entre los tumores pediátricos. Se trata de un tumor infrecuente, cuya incidencia parece aumentar en los últimos años. Puede aparecer de forma aislada o integrarse en el contexto de un síndrome de predisposición. Presentamos el caso de un paciente pediátrico, femenina, preescolar de 3 años de edad, sin antecedentes perinatales de importancia, producto de la tercera gesta, nacida por cesárea por distocia de presentación a las 39 semanas. Cuenta con esquema de vacunación completo para la edad. Como antecedentes patológicos personales requiere una hospitalización por enfermedad diarreica aguda a los 2 años. Sin antecedentes quirúrgicos, antecedentes patológicos familiares de tía materna con hipotiroidismo. Se realizó exámenes complementarios de sangre y de imagen, los cuales revelaron una masa abdominal dependiente de hígado compatible con hepatoblastoma con niveles de AFP superiores a 1000ng/ml


The incidence of hepatoblastoma around the world remains constant between 0.5 and 1.5 cases per million children per year. In the United States of America, an annual incidence of approximately 1 per million is reported for hepatoblastoma in children under 15 years of age. In Ecuador, in a study carried out in the city of Cuenca, it ranks seventh among pediatric tumors. It is an infrequent tumor, its incidence seems to have increased in recent years. It can appear in isolation or be part of a predisposing syndrome. We present the case of a 3-year-old preschool female pediatric patient with no significant perinatal history, product of a third pregnancy, born by cesarean section due to presentation of dystocia at 39 weeks. She had a complete vaccination for her age. As past medical history, she was hospitalized for acute diarrheal disease at 2 years of age. She had no surgical history, family pathological history except for a maternal aunt with hypothyroidism. Complementary blood and imaging tests were performed, which revealed an abdominal liver-dependent mass, compatible with hepatoblastoma with AFP levels greater than 1000 ng/ml.

2.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 1011-1014, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008160

ABSTRACT

One case with ascites and lower limb edema as the initial manifestations was reported.The echocardiography revealed inferior vena cava and right atrial occupation,which combined with increased alpha fetoprotein and imaging examination,suggested liver malignant tumor combined with tumor thrombus of inferior vena cava and right atrium.After targeted therapy combined with immunotherapy,the tumor shrank and alpha fetoprotein decreased significantly,suggesting that the treatment was effective.The median survival time of the patient was 3 months.This patient had a clear history of cirrhosis due to hepatitis B and was clinically diagnosed with advanced liver cancer,which suggested the importance of early liver cancer screening.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vena Cava, Inferior/pathology , alpha-Fetoproteins , Echocardiography , Heart Atria/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology
3.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 495-503, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986159

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study using isotope-labeled relative and absolute quantitative proteomics methodologies to screen for salivary biological markers as a simple, non-invasive tool for identifying hepatitis B-related HCC at an early stage. Methods: Saliva samples were collected to extract salivary proteins. Isotope-labeled relative and absolute quantitative proteomics were used to analyze the differentially expressed proteins between the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and non-HCC groups. Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to verify differential proteins and identify markers in liver cancer tissues and saliva. Statistical analysis was used to analyze the diagnostic efficiency of salivary biomarkers. Results: 152 differentially expressed salivary proteins were screened out between the HCC and non-HCC groups. Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays validated that the expressions of α-1-acid glycoprotein 1 (ORM1) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were significantly increased in HCC (P < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between salivary AFP and serum AFP (P < 0.05). HCC was diagnosed when salivary α-1-acid glycoprotein 1 combined with AFP. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.8726 (95% confidence interval: 0.8104 ~ 0.9347), the sensitivity was 78.3%, and the specificity was 88%. Conclusion: Salivary AFP and α-1-acid glycoprotein 1 can serve as potential biomarkers for hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/metabolism , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , alpha-Fetoproteins/metabolism , Biomarkers , Hepatitis B , ROC Curve , Glycoproteins , Biomarkers, Tumor
4.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 248-2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-965049

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the role of preoperative serological indexes in predicting long-term survival and tumor recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after liver transplantation, aiming to explore its significance in expanding the Milan criteria. Methods Clinical data of 669 recipients undergoing liver transplantation for HCC were retrospectively analyzed. The optimal cut-off value was calculated by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The risk factors affecting the overall survival and recurrence-free survival rates of HCC patients after liver transplantation were identified by univariate and multivariate regression analyses. The correlation between preoperative serum liver enzymes and pathological characteristics in HCC patients was analyzed. The predictive values of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) combined with γ -glutamyl transferase (GGT) and different liver transplant criteria for the survival and recurrence of HCC patients after liver transplantation were compared. Results Exceeded Milan criteria, total tumor diameter (TTD) > 8 cm, AFP > 200 ng/mL and GGT > 84 U/L were the independent risk factors for the overall survival and recurrence-free survival rates of HCC patients after liver transplantation (all P < 0.05). Correlation analysis showed that preoperative serum GGT level was correlated with TTD, number of tumor, venous invasion, microsatellite lesions, capsular invasion, tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) stage, Child-Pugh score and exceeded Milan criteria (all P < 0.05). Milan-AFP-GGT-TTD (M-AGT) criteria were proposed by combining Milan criteria, TTD with serum liver enzyme indexes (AFP and GGT). The 5-year overall survival and recurrence-free survival rates of HCC recipients who met the M-AGT criteria (111 cases of exceeded Milan criteria) were significantly higher than those who met Hangzhou criteria (both P < 0.05), whereas had no significant difference from their counterparts who met the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF) criteria (both P > 0.05). Conclusions Preoperative serological indexes of AFP and GGT could effectively predict the long-term survival and tumor recurrence of HCC patients after liver transplantation. Establishing the M-AGT criteria based on serological indexes contributes to expanding the Milan criteria, which is convenient and feasible.

5.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-220551

ABSTRACT

Congenital anomalies in children are not infrequent and the birth defects of cardiovascular and digestive systems are the most common. Congenital spinal defects have prevalence and incidence of about 2.74% and 1-3 per 1000 live births respectively. The range of spinal defects may vary from a tuft of hair with an underlying spina bi?da to various types of spinal dysraphism. This observational study was undertaken to study the spectrum of neural tube defects among children attending the pediatric outpatient of a tertiary care hospital. Twenty-one children were included in the study. Fourteen infants were less than 1-year old and seven were between 2-7 years of age. Fourteen children had meningomyelocele (MMC). The commonest site was in the lumbosacral region. Seven patients of MMC had associated hydrocephalus, and seven had talipes deformity. Other accompanying defects included pes cavus, pectus carinatum, polydactyly and congenital heart defects, seen in one case each. Soft ?uctuant swelling over the spine, kyphoscoliosis, ?accid paralysis of lower extremities, and incontinence of urine were the cardinal symptoms. CT Scan and MRI in these children helped us to assess the quantum of de?cit involving the vertebra and spinal cord. This paper highlights the range of spinal abnormality seen in children with the similar clinical presentation, and therefore the need for neuroimaging in all cases with suspected neural tube defect (NTD) for proper management and prognostication

6.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 213-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920851

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the expression levels of basic leucine zipper and W2 domain 2 (BZW2) and isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVD) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and evaluate their effect on clinical prognosis of liver transplant recipients with HCC. Methods Pathological specimens and clinical data of 87 liver transplant recipients with HCC were collected and retrospectively analyzed. The recurrence and metastasis of HCC after liver transplantation were assessed. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression levels of BZW2 and IVD. The relationship between BZW2, IVD and clinicopathological parameters of HCC and their effect on postoperative recurrence and clinical prognosis of the recipients was analyzed. Results Among 87 recipients, 31 cases recurred with a recurrence rate of 36%. HCC recurred at postoperative 2-49 months and the median recurrence time was postoperative 7 months. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that the positive expression rate of BZW2 in the HCC tissues was significantly higher than that in normal liver tissues (76% vs. 30%), and the positive expression rate of IVD was significantly lower compared with that in normal liver tissues (51% vs. 69%) (both P < 0.01). BZW2 expression was significantly correlated with tumor diameter and tumor capsule (both P < 0.05), whereas IVD expression was significantly associated with tumor diameter, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level, tumor, node and metastasis (TNM) staging and whether vascular invasion was found or not (all P < 0.05). In the high BZW2 expression group, the cumulative recurrence rate of HCC was significantly higher and the cumulative survival rate was significantly lower than those in the low BZW2 expression group. In the low IVD expression group, the cumulative recurrence rate of HCC was significantly higher and the cumulative survival rate was significantly lower compared with those in the high IVD expression group (all P < 0.05). Conclusions The expression level of BZW2 protein is up-regulated, whereas that of IVD protein is down-regulated in the HCC tissues. Moreover, the cumulative recurrence rate of HCC is relatively high and the cumulative survival rate is relatively low in liver transplant recipients with high BZW2 expression and low IVD expression.

7.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 66-70, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928781

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Primary lung squamous carcinoma that produces alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is rare and only four related cases have been reported so far. The specific reasons for elevated serum level of AFP and effective treatment regimens for AFP-producing lung squamous carcinoma are not clear. This paper reports the diagnosis and treatment of AFP-producing lung squamous carcinoma so as to provide some references for similar cases in clinical practice.@*METHODS@#The diagnosis and treatment of an AFP-producing lung squamous carcinoma patient admitted to the Shandong Cancer Hospital on October 23, 2020 was retrospectively analyzed, and literatures were reviewed.@*RESULTS@#A 52-year-old male patient was diagnosed as T4N3M0 stage, IIIc right upper lobe lung squamous cell carcinoma with mediastinal lymph node metastasis and multiple metastases in the lung. The main tumor marker was abnormally increased serum AFP. After the rapid progression of two lines chemotherapy, the patient was given anlotinib combined with carrizumab as third-line treatment. The efficacy evaluation reached to partial response (PR) and stable disease (SD) after 2 and 4 cycles of treatment, respectively. The treatment regimen was replaced with albumin paclitaxel plus carrizumab due to gastrointestinal bleeding after the fifth cycle. The patient's condition was under continuous control.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The AFP-producing lung squamous carcinoma patient had a good response to anlotinib and immunotherapy in the case report, which may provide some guidances for the clinical practice and the research on AFP-producing lung squamous carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Lung , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , alpha-Fetoproteins
8.
Rev. med. (La Paz) ; 28(2): 50-56, 2022. Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424107

ABSTRACT

Los tumores del saco vitelino (TSV) representan los tumores de células germinales (TCG) testiculares malignos más frecuentes en la edad pediátrica. Dicha neoplasia se ha visto vinculados con factores de riesgo tales como criptorquidia, antecedentes familiares, disgenesia gonadal y microlitiasis testicular. En general, se presentan como masas testiculares asintomáticas, por lo que comúnmente los padres o los médicos de atención primaria son los primeros en identificarlas. Los TSV característicamente son productores de alfa feto proteína (AFP), por lo que este se considera el marcador serológico más importante, para el diagnóstico y el seguimiento posterior al tratamiento. El ultrasonido escrotal se considera la herramienta diagnóstica más importante para la caracterización de las masas testiculares por lo general los tumores del saco vitelino se presentan como masas sólidas, hipervasculares. La mayoría de los pacientes se presentan inicialmente con enfermedad estadío I, siendo la orquiectomía radical la única terapia requerida en esta fase. Caso clínico: Niño de 1 año y 11 meses presenta masa de consistencia dura, indolora en el testículo izquierdo identificada por la madre, al ultrasonido testicular muestra masa sólida, homogénea hipervascularizada asociado a adenopatías inguinales y retroperitoneales. El único marcador tumoral elevado fue Alfafetoproteina. Se le realiza orquiectomía izquierda radical con evolución postquirúrgica satisfactoria, se confirma el diagnóstico por anatomía patológica e inmunohistoquímica; Tumor de células germinales, no seminomatoso de saco vitelino prepuberal.


Yolk sac tumors (SVT) represent the most frequent malignant testicular germ cell tumors (GCT) in the pediatric age. This neoplasm has been linked to risk factors such as cryptorchidism, family history, gonadal dysgenesis and testicular microlithiasis. They generally present as asymptomatic testicular masses, so parents or primary care physicians are often the first to identify them. SVT are characteristically producers of alpha feto protein (AFP), which is why this is considered the most important serological marker for diagnosis and follow-up after treatment. Scrotal ultrasound is considered the most important diagnostic tool for characterizing testicular masses. Yolk sac tumors generally present as solid, hypervascular masses. Most patients initially present with stage I disease, with radical orchiectomy being the only therapy required in this phase. Clinical case: A 1-year-oid and 11-month-old boy presented with a hard, painless mass in the left testicle identified by the mother. Testicular ultrasound shows a solid, homogeneous hypervascularized mass associated with inguinal and retroperitoneal lymphadenopathies. The only elevated tumor marker was Alpha-fetoprotein. A radical left orchiectomy was performed with satisfactory post-surgical evolution, the diagnosis was confirmed by pathological anatomy and immunohistochemistry; Nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the prepubertal yolk sac.


Subject(s)
Testis , Yolk Sac , Pediatrics
9.
Cancer Research on Prevention and Treatment ; (12): 738-744, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986577

ABSTRACT

Alpha-fetoprotein producing gastric cancer (AFPGC) is a special type of gastric cancer. AFPGC is considered to be the most highly invasive tumor with a high degree of malignancy and prone to metastasis. As a consequence, it usually causes unsatisfied treatment effect and the prognosis is poor. At present, treatment methods and monitoring indicators have limited effect on AFPGC. VEGF, HER2, AFP, GPC3 and SALL4 are cogently associated with tumor genesis and development. If we can reasonably guide the treatment and prognosis of AFPGC patients, it will greatly improve the situation of patients and improve the survival of patients. This article reviews the research progress of the genes related to the treatment and prognosis of AFPGC.

10.
Cancer Research on Prevention and Treatment ; (12): 347-351, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986520

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the value of preoperative LAR combined with AFP in evaluating the prognosis of patients with HCC. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 106 patients with HCC. Kaplan-Meier method was used to draw the survival curve. Univariate analysis was used to analyze possible variables affecting LAR. Cox risk regression model was used to evaluate the clinical value of preoperative LAR and AFP on the prognosis of HCC patients. Results The DFS and OS of the high LAR group and the high AFP group were shorter than those of the low LAR group and the low AFP group (P < 0.05). LAR≥4.58, AFP≥400μg/L and T3-T4 were independent risk factors affecting DFS and OS of HCC patients (P < 0.05). Postoperative interventional surgery was an independent factor influencing OS prolongation (P < 0.05). The DFS and OS were the shortest in the high LAR and high AFP group, and the DFS and OS were the longest in the low LAR and low AFP group (P < 0.05). Conclusion Preoperative LAR and AFP are independent poor prognostic factors of HCC. Preoperative LAR combined with AFP has a certain value in judging the prognosis of HCC patients.

11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2252-2267, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929389

ABSTRACT

Aristolochic acids (AAs) have long been considered as a potent carcinogen due to its nephrotoxicity. Aristolochic acid I (AAI) reacts with DNA to form covalent aristolactam (AL)-DNA adducts, leading to subsequent A to T transversion mutation, commonly referred as AA mutational signature. Previous research inferred that AAs were widely implicated in liver cancer throughout Asia. In this study, we explored whether AAs exposure was the main cause of liver cancer in the context of HBV infection in mainland China. Totally 1256 liver cancer samples were randomly retrieved from 3 medical centers and a refined bioanalytical method was used to detect AAI-DNA adducts. 5.10% of these samples could be identified as AAI positive exposure. Whole genome sequencing suggested 8.41% of 107 liver cancer patients exhibited the dominant AA mutational signature, indicating a relatively low overall AAI exposure rate. In animal models, long-term administration of AAI barely increased liver tumorigenesis in adult mice, opposite from its tumor-inducing role when subjected to infant mice. Furthermore, AAI induced dose-dependent accumulation of AA-DNA adduct in target organs in adult mice, with the most detected in kidney instead of liver. Taken together, our data indicate that AA exposure was not the major threat of liver cancer in adulthood.

12.
Journal of Chinese Physician ; (12): 817-821, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909625

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the value of high frequency ultrasound combined with serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the accurate qualitative diagnosis of pediatric testicular tumors.Methods:The ultrasound characteristics (physical properties, calcification, alder blood flow classification) and AFP levels of 47 testicular tumors confirmed by operation and pathology were analyzed retrospectively. The tumors were further divided into two ways: malignant tumor group and benign tumor group, yolk sac tumor group and non yolk sac tumor group. The characteristics of ultrasound and the accurate qualitative diagnosis efficiency of AFP in testicular tumors were analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC).Results:18 cases of yolk sac tumor showed solid or almost solid mass, which may be accompanied by several small anechoic areas without calcification. The Alder blood flow grade were grade 3. 29 cases of nonyolk sac tumor showed cystic, solid or mixed mass, most of them have calcification and some of them showed honeycomb echo. Alder blood flow grade were 0-3 grade. ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the curve, sensitivity and specificity of the ultrasound characteristics and AFP in the diagnosis of pediatric testicular malignancies were: solid or almost solid mass (0.894, 83.3%, 95.5%), and no calcification (0.904, 94.4%, 86.4%), Alder blood flow level 3 (0.941, 88.9%, 95.5%), AFP by best cut-off value 18.8 ng/ml (0.972, 100%, 95.5%), ultrasound features combined with AFP (0.992, 100%, 90.9%). All the testicular malignancies, such as yolk sac tumor, immature teratoma, teratoma combined with yolk sac tumor, can be identified by ultrasound features combined with AFP. Further analysis showed that the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of yolk sac tumor with combined solid or almost solid and no calcification were both 100.0%, which can accurately distinguish all cases of yolk sac tumor.Conclusions:Pediatric testicular yolk sac tumor has specific ultrasound performance, high-frequency ultrasound can make a relatively accurate diagnosis, combined with serum AFP can further make a relatively accurate qualitative diagnosis of other malignant tumors of the testis in children.

13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3042-3060, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921405

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths and the fifth most common cancer worldwide. Clinically therapeutic options for HCC are very limited, and the overall survival rate of patients is very low. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment of HCC have important impact on overall survival of patients. At present, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is one of the most widely used serological markers for HCC. Many evidences have shown that as a specific onco-protein, AFP has great research value in the occurrence, development, diagnosis and treatment of HCC. Here, we briefly introduce the molecular mechanism of AFP in the regulation of HCC occurrence and development, and its role in tumor escape from immune surveillance. We focus on the application of AFP as an important HCC target or carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) in HCC clinical diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Early Detection of Cancer , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , alpha-Fetoproteins
14.
Mongolian Medical Sciences ; : 10-16, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-974334

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims@#Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cause of cancer related death in Mongolia. Early diagnosis is the very important management to increase successful treatment and survival rate. Glypican-3 (GPC3) protein is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue and in serum of HCC patients. Recent studies have been conducted and suggested as a diagnostic biomarker for detecting HCC in the early stage. Therefore, we investigated the diagnostic value of the serum GPC3 level and compared it to the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level as a diagnostic biomarker of HCC.@*Methods@#We enrolled a total of 90 participants and divided into 3 groups with HCC (30), with liver cirrhosis (LC/30) and healthy (30) as the control group (30). GPC3 and AFP serum (sGPC-3, sAFP) levels were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The diagnostic accuracy was analyzed using the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve and estimated sensitivity and specificity of each biomarker. @*Results@#sGPC3 was significantly elevated in the HCC group as compared to liver cirrhosis and healthy subjects (658±138.2 pg/ml, 378±25.5 pg/ml, 356.3±29 pg/ml) respectively. sGPC-3 sensitivity was 96.6% and specificity was 100%. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for GPC3 was 0.999 (0.996- 1.0).</br> In comparison, the mean of AFP was significantly higher in HCC (16.9±11.7 ng/ml) than in LC (6.7±7.6 ng/ml) and in healthy subject (3.3±2.1 ng/ml) and AFP sensitivity was 43,3 %, specificity was 95 % with an AUC of 0.808 (0.696- 0.921). </br> The combination of GPC-3 with AFP achieved the highest sensitivity (97.1%) and specificity (97%).@*Conclusion@#Serum GPC3 has a higher sensitivity than AFP for the early diagnosis of HCC. Combination of two markers showed greatest diagnostic accuracy.

15.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 309-2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876691

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effect of microvascular invasion (MVI) on prognosis of recipients after liver transplantation for primary liver cancer (liver cancer). Methods Clinical data of 177 recipients after liver transplantation for liver cancer were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were divided into the MVI-positive group (n=64) and MVI-negative group (n=113) according to postoperative pathological examination results. Clinical data were statistically compared of all recipients between the negative and positive MVI groups. The prognosis and risk factors of liver transplantation recipients for liver cancer were analyzed. Results Among 177 recipients, 64 cases (36.2%) were positive for MVI and 113 (63.8%) negative for MVI. Compared with the MVI-negative recipients, MVI-positive recipients had significantly lower degree of tumor differentiation, higher preoperative alpha-fetaprotein (AFP) level, larger maximal tumor diameter, a larger quantity of tumors, more satellite lesions and more recipients who did not meet the Milan criteria (all P < 0.05). The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) of recipients after liver transplantation for liver cancer were 80.2%, 62.1%, 58.5% and 66.3%, 57.5%, 51.2%, respectively. The 1-, 3- and 5-year OS and RFS of MVI-positive recipients were 70%, 39%, 35% and 53%, 39%, 33%, significantly lower than 86%, 75%, 72% and 73%, 68%, 63% of their counterparts negative for MVI (all P < 0.05). Cox regression analysis showed that the maximal tumor diameter >8 cm, preoperative AFP level ≥20 ng/mL, low degree of tumor differentiation and positive MVI were the independent risk factors for OS of recipients after liver transplantation for liver cancer (all P < 0.05). Positive MVI, low degree of tumor differentiation and preoperative down-staging failure were the independent risk factors for RFS of recipients after liver transplantation for liver cancer (all P < 0.05). Conclusions MVI is of significant clinical value in predicting clinical prognosis of recipients after liver transplantation for liver cancer.

16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1978-1992, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888846

ABSTRACT

Tumor recurrence after surgery is the main cause of treatment failure. However, the initial stage of recurrence is not easy to detect, and it is difficult to cure in the late stage. In order to improve the life quality of postoperative patients, an efficient synergistic immunotherapy was developed to achieve early diagnosis and treatment of post-surgical tumor recurrence, simultaneously. In this paper, two kinds of theranostic agents based on gold nanorods (AuNRs) platform were prepared. AuNRs and quantum dots (QDs) in one agent was used for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technology to indicate the occurrence of

17.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 357-362, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888436

ABSTRACT

This study analyzed RNA expression of genes for three serum tumor markers, alpha fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), in patients with testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) type 2. The gene AFP encodes AFP, the gene for chorionic gonadotropin beta polypeptide 5 (CGB5) encodes a major part of the specific beta subunit of hCG, and the genes for LDH subunit A (LDHA), LDH subunit B (LDHB), and LDH subunit C (LDHC) encode three different subunits of LDH. LDHB encodes the LDHB subunit present as a tetramer in LDH isoenzyme 1 (LDH-1). We examined three datasets with 203 samples of normal testis tissue (NT) and TGCT type 2. Yolk sac tumor (YST) expressed RNA of AFP fourteen thousand times higher than seminoma (SE), embryonal carcinoma (EC), and teratoma (TER) combined (P = 0.00015). In the second microarray, choriocarcinoma (CC) expressed RNA of CGB5 ten times higher than other histologic types of TGCT combined. EC expressed RNA of LDHB twice higher than SE, YST and TER combined (P = 0.000041). EC expressed RNA of LDHB higher than that YST expressed RNA of AFP and that CC expressed RNA of CGB5. In conclusion, TGCT type 2 expressed RNA of LDHB markedly higher than the RNA of 23 other candidate genes for TGCT type 2.

18.
Ginecol. obstet. Méx ; 89(12): 1002-1008, ene. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375566

ABSTRACT

Resumen ANTECEDENTES: El tumor de células de la granulosa representa del 2 al 5% de las neoplasias del ovario. Su manifestación clínica no siempre es específica. OBJETIVO: Analizar el comportamiento del tumor de las células de la granulosa y aportar experiencia para su tratamiento. CASO CLÍNICO: Paciente de 52 años, con proliferación de células de la granulosa con escaso citoplasma y núcleos ovoides, algunos de ellos con surcos prominentes, con patrón de crecimiento trabecular y difuso. La manifestación inicial fue un episodio de sangrado posmenopáusico que hizo sospechar la patología endometrial. La inmunohistoquímica reportó positividad para inhibina y débilmente positivo para alfa-fetoproteína, negativo para citoqueratinas de amplio espectro, EMA y cromogranina; ki-67: 5-10%. Se indicó histerectomía y doble anexectomía por laparoscopia y omentectomía. Con el diagnóstico de tumor de células de la granulosa estadio IC se indicó tratamiento coadyuvante con quimioterapia, 3 ciclos de bleomicina, etopósido y cisplatino. El seguimiento se efectuó con ecografía y concentraciones de inhibina B, que han permanecido en límites de normalidad en el control periódico. CONCLUSION: El tumor de células de la granulosa es de bajo grado de malignidad y diseminación preferentemente local. Su pronóstico es excelente, aunque debido a su recurrencia, años después del diagnóstico inicial parece razonable prolongar la vigilancia con exámenes físicos y el estudio de marcadores tumorales.


Abstract BACKGROUND: Granulosa cell tumor represents 2 to 5% of ovarian neoplasms. Its clinical manifestation is not always specific. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the behavior of granulosa cell tumor and to provide experience for its treatment. CLINICAL CASE: A 52-year-old patient with granulosa cell proliferation with scant cytoplasm and ovoid nuclei, some of them with prominent grooves, with trabecular and diffuse growth pattern. The initial manifestation was an episode of postmenopausal bleeding that raised suspicion of endometrial pathology. Immunohistochemistry was positive for inhibin and weakly positive for alpha-fetoprotein, negative for broad-spectrum cytokeratins, EMA and chromogranin; ki-67: 5-10%. Hysterectomy and double adnexectomy by laparoscopy and omentectomy were indicated. With the diagnosis of granulosa cell tumor stage IC, adjuvant treatment with chemotherapy was indicated, 3 cycles of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin. Follow-up was carried out with ultrasound and inhibin B concentrations, which have remained within normal limits in the periodic control. CONCLUSION: Granulosa cell tumor is of low malignancy grade and preferably local dissemination. Its prognosis is excellent, although due to its recurrence, years after the initial diagnosis it seems reasonable to prolong surveillance with physical examinations and the study of tumor markers.

19.
Journal of International Oncology ; (12): 723-728, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930028

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the risk factors for recurrence after liver transplantation in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and to further construct a predictive model.Methods:The clinical data of 106 patients with HCC undergoing liver transplantation in the First Affiliated Hospital of Hebei North University from January 2015 to May 2020 were retrospec-tively analyzed. The χ2 test was used to analyze the factors influencing HCC recurrence, and multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the influencing factors of HCC recurrence. According to the selected risk factors, the predictive model of HCC recurrence was constructed, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the predictive model. Results:Of the 106 HCC patients, 23 had recurrence, with a recurrence rate of 21.70%, and 20 died. Tumor differentiation ( χ2=6.066, P=0.014), maximum tumor diameter ( χ2=4.916, P=0.027), with or without envelope invasion ( χ2=5.543, P=0.019), preoperative alpha fetoprotein (AFP) ( χ2=5.458, P=0.019), HBV-DNA ( χ2=5.446, P=0.020), neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) ( χ2=12.161, P<0.001), the expressions of miR-424 ( χ2=4.400, P=0.036), chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 8 (CHD8) ( χ2=10.561, P=0.001), T-cadherin (T-cad) ( χ2=48.723, P<0.001), laminin (LN) ( χ2=18.506, P<0.001) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) ( χ2=11.178, P=0.001) were related to the recurrence of HCC. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the maximum tumor diameter≥6.5 cm ( OR=1.69, 95% CI: 1.25-3.17, P=0.002), preoperative AFP>400 ng/ml ( OR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.09-1.92, P=0.038), positive CHD8 ( OR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.52-0.89, P=0.021), positive T-cad ( OR=0.84, 95% CI: 0.68-0.92, P=0.006), positive LN ( OR=1.22, 95% CI: 1.03-1.50, P=0.013) were the risk factors of HCC recurrence. According to the results of logistic analysis, the regression equation logit( P)=0.262+ 0.523 X1+ 0.326 X2-0.259 X3-0.286 X4+ 0.203 X5 was constructed, where X1, X2, X3, X4, X5 were the maximum tumor diameter, AFP, CHD8, T-cad and LN. ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the curve for predicting HCC recurrence was 0.849 (95% CI: 0.763-0.894, P<0.001), the accuracy rate was 83.02%, the sensitivity was 86.96%, the specificity was 81.93%, and the cut-off value was 0.736. According to the logit( P) function model, P=1/(1+ e - Y), where Y=0.262+ 0.523 X1+ 0.326 X2-0.259 X3-0.286 X4+ 0.203 X5. One patient was randomly selected. According to his clinical data, P=0.564, which was less than the cut-off value (0.736). It could be considered that this patient would not have HCC recurrence with an accuracy rate of 83.02%. Conclusion:Tumor maximum diameter, preoperative AFP, CHD8, T-cad, LN expression are related to the recurrence of HCC after liver transplantation. The prediction model constructed based on this can effectively predict the risk of HCC recurrence.

20.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-207815

ABSTRACT

Immature teratomas are usually derived from a malignant transformation of mature teratoma. The pure immature teratoma accounts for less than 1% of all ovarian cancers. It is the second most common germ cell malignancy and accounts for 10-20% of all ovarian malignancies seen in women younger than 20 years of age. Extragonadal origin are extremely rare and the most common extragonadal site of these teratomas is the omentum. We hereby describe a case report of a 29-year-old lady who presented with abdominal pain and her imaging with an ultrasound revealed a mass with features suggestive of a subserosal fibroid. She underwent a laproscopic myomectomy. A histopathologic diagnosis of Immature teratoma was made following her primary surgery. She subsequently underwent a staging laparotomy which was followed by chemotherapy. Immature teratomas predominantly occur in young patients, and preservation of fertility is an important factor in its management. Treatment should be initiated as soon as possible after surgery, preferably within 7-10 days, in those patients who require chemotherapy.

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