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1.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 302-306, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920772

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To examine the effects of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol S ( BPS ), bisphenol F ( BPF ) and bisphenol AF ( BPAF ) on the proliferation and oxidative stress of BRL 3A rat liver cells, and to preliminarily evaluate their mutagenicities.@*Methods@#In vitro cultured BRL 3A rat liver cells were treated with BPA, BPS, BPF and BPAF at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 μmol/L for 48 h, respectively. Then, the cell viability was determined using the CCK-8 assay, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration ( IC50 ) was calculated. The minimum inhibitory concentration for BRL 3A cell proliferation was screened, and the intracellular reactive oxygen species ( ROS ) was measured in BRL 3A cells using the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate ( DCFH-DA ) assay. In addition, the effects of BPA, BPS, BPF and BPAF at concentrations of 1 000, 200, 40, 8 and 1.6 μg/plate on the mutant colonies of histidine-deficient Salmonella typhimurium ( TA1535, TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 ) were tested using the Ames test.@*Results@#Treatment with BPA and BPF at concentrations of 100 to 200 μmol/L and with BPAF at concentrations of 25 to 200 μmol/L inhibited BRL 3A cell survival at a concentration-dependent manner, while exposure to BPS at concentrations of 5 to 200 μmol/L resulted in no changes in BRL 3A cell survival. The IC50 values of BPA, BPS, BPF and BPAF were 131.7, >200, 187.5 and 21.6 μmol/L against BRL 3A cells, respectively. Treatment with BPS at 100 μmol/L or BPAF at 25 μmol/L caused no significant changes in the ROS level; however, exposure to BPA at 100 μmol/L and BPF at 100 μmol/L significantly increased the ROS level. Ames test showed that BPA, BPS, BPF and BPAF did not induce mutagenicity in TA1535, TA97a, TA98, TA100 or TA102 strains.@*Conclusions@#BPAF shows the highest cytotoxicity to BRL 3A cells, and low-concentration exposure to BPS has few effects on BRL 3A cells. The cytotoxicity of bisphenols against BRL 3A cells may be associated with the induction of oxidative stress. None of the four bisphenols show mutagenic effects under the present experimental conditions.

2.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 45: 38-45, May 15, 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177420

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Taraxacum species (commonly known as dandelion) used as herbal medicine have been reported to exhibit an antiproliferative effect on hepatoma cells and antitumor activity in non-small-cell lung cancer cells. Although several investigations have demonstrated the safety of Taraxacum officinale, the safety of tissue-cultured plants of T. formosanum has not been assessed so far. Therefore, the present study examines the safety of the water extract of the entire plant of tissue cultured T. formosanum based on acute and subacute toxicity tests in rats, as well as the Ames tests. RESULTS: No death or toxicity symptoms were observed in the acute and subacute tests. The results of the acute test revealed that the LD50 (50% of lethal dose) value of the T. formosanum water extract for rats exceeded 5 g/kg bw. No abnormal changes in the body weight, weekly food consumption, organ weight, or hematological, biochemical, and morphological parameters were observed in the subacute toxicity test. Thus, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of T. formosanum water extract was estimated to be higher than 2.0 g/kg. Finally, the results of the Ames test revealed that T. formosanum water extract was not genotoxic at any tested concentration to any of five Salmonella strains. CONCLUSIONS: The water extract of tissue-cultured T. formosanum was non-toxic to rats in acute and subacute tests and exhibited no genotoxicity to five Salmonella strains.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Taraxacum/toxicity , Tissue Culture Techniques/methods , Safety , Flavonoids/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Urinalysis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Phenol/analysis , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Herbal Medicine , Taraxacum/chemistry , Serum , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Toxicity Tests, Subacute , Mutagenicity Tests
3.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-203740

ABSTRACT

The integral biological testing of soil samples of four districts of the Tula region was performed. The Tula regionwas selected for the study because it was subjected to radioactive contamination in 1986 but at present, it isconsidered to be fairly safe for that matter. The districts were selected according to both the presence of industrialpollution and relative ecological safety. The use/non-use of land for crop production was also taken into account(eight sites in total, samples № 1-8). Three different bioassays were used: microorganisms Salmonellatyphimurium, cell culture of mammalian Cricetulus griseus, and invertebrates Ceriodaphnia affinis. A relativelyhigh direct mutagenic activity was detected at the sites of the Efremovsky and Shchekino districts (№ 1 and № 3respectively), where the mutagenic index was 3.3 and 3.9 respectively. Substances contained in the № 2 and № 4soil extract samples turned out to be pro-mutagens, i.e. induced mutations upon using metabolic activation. Thesoil samples, such as № 1 and № 3 also showed genotoxicity in Cricetulus griseus cells with the increase of thefrequency of chromosomal and chromatid-type aberrations by several times, compared with control. In theexperiments on Ceriodaphnia affinis, toxicity was detected in the № 1, № 3, № 5 and № 7 samples, in which thedeath rate of the crustaceans was 35-45 %, whereas, in the remaining samples, the decrease in the survival rateof the crustaceans did not exceed 15 %. Therefore, the integral bio testing enables detection not only in thepresence of ecotoxicants but also it can indicate their origin - industrial or agricultural.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873845

ABSTRACT

Objective We explored the stability of the bacteria strains used in the Ames test to provide a basis for determining the appropriate passage number at which the biological characteristics of the strains would not change. Methods The Salmonella typhimurium (TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 strains) were selected as the experimental strains.The original frozen strains and frozen strains with different passage times were used to compare the biological characteristics and the spontaneously reverting colonies. Results The biological characteristics of four kinds of strains, which were histidine deficiency, lipidpolysaccharide barrier defect, ampicillin resistance, UV sensitivity, and tetracycline resistance, did not change at F1-F6 generation when compared with the F0 generation.However, as for the number of spontaneously reverting colonies, a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) occurred at F3 generation when compared with F0 generation for the TA97a strain, and a significant difference (P < 0.05) occurred at F4 generation for TA100 and TA102 strains. Conclusion Passage number of strains used in Ames test could affect their spontaneous reversion mutation rate.The passage number should be less than 4 for TA98、TA100、TA102 strains, and less than 3 for TA97a in Ames test.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829958

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the genetic toxicity of Wentilactone A. Methods The classical genotoxicity test combination (Ames test, in vitro CHO cell chromosome aberration test and mouse bone marrow micronucleus test) was used to detect the genotoxicity of Wentilactone A. Results Ames test suggested that Wentilactone A was not mutagenic against Salmonella typhimurium with or without the metabolic activation system (S9) at five doses of 5 000, 500, 50, 5, and 0.5 μg/dish. CHO cell chromosome aberration test suggested that the CHO cells cultured in 4 h and 24 h did not induce chromosomal aberrations in three dose groups at the final concentration of 23.74, 47.48, 94.96 μg/ml, with and without S9. The mouse bone marrow micronucleus test showed no significant difference in the bone marrow micronucleus induction rate of cells at three doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg treated for 24 h and at dose of 400 mg/kg treated for 48 h compared with the solvent control group (P>0.05). Conclusion These results indicated that Wentilactone A did not exhibit genetic toxicity based on the Ames test, CHO chromosomal aberration test and micronucleus assay. It was suggested that Wentilactone A had no genetic toxicity and potential carcinogenicity.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776621

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the genotoxicity and embryotoxicity of bicyclol methyl ether (BME), the main impurity in bicyclol.@*METHODS@#Five concentrations of BME (0.5, 5, 50, 500 and 5000 μg/plate) were used in the Ames test to detect gene mutation. In the chromosome aberration test, Chinese hamster lung cells were used to detect chromosomal aberration of BME (15, 30, 60, 120 μg/mL) with or without S9 mixture. Embryotoxicity test was also conducted to determine any embryotoxicity of BME (7.5, 22.5, 67.5 μg/L) using zebrafish embryos.@*RESULTS@#No significant differences were observed in the Ames test and the chromosome aberration test in the BME groups compared with the vehicle control group. The zebrafish embryos toxicity test also showed no embryo development toxicity of BME, including hatching rate, body length, pericardial area and yolk sac area.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Bicyclol methyl ether has no genotoxicity in vitro and embryotoxicity in zebrafish embryos, and the impurity in bicyclol is qualified.

7.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(2): 345-350, May-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888873

ABSTRACT

Abstract Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Ex. Schult.) G. Don. is a bush which belongs to Celastraceae family and occurs specially in Brazilian Cerrado. Its leaves, stem, seeds and fruits are popularly used for several medicinal purposes, such as antitumoral, antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial. In this study, the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of S. crassifolia stem bark fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate and hydroalcoholic) were evaluated by the Ames mutagenicity assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. By the obtained results, all S. crassifolia fractions did not significantly increase the number of prototrophic revertants for histidine (His+) in both S. typhimurium strains tested (p > 0.05), suggesting absence of mutagenicity. Regarding antimutagenicity, the fractions ethyl acetate and hydroalcoholic significantly decreased the number of His+ revertants colonies induced by positive control for strain TA98 (p < 0.05), demonstrating protection against mutagenicity induced by 4-nitroquinolile1-oxide, whereas the hexane fraction did not show antimutagenic effect in this strain. In the TA100 strain, all fractions of S. crassifolia protected DNA against the harmful action of sodium azide, and the hexane fraction exhibited the greatest protection in this work. Thus, it's possible conclude that the fractions of S. crassifolia tested in this study could be used in chemoprevention.


Resumo Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Ex. Schult.) G. Don. é uma árvore que pertence à família Celastraceae e ocorre especialmente no Cerrado Brasileiro. Suas folhas, caule, sementes e frutos são popularmente utilizados para vários fins medicinais, tais como antitumoral, antirreumático, anti-inflamatório e antimicrobiano. Neste estudo, nós avaliamos as atividades mutagênica e antimutagênica de frações da casca do caule de S. crassifolia (hexânica, acetato de etila e hidroalcoólica) pelo ensaio de mutagenicidade de Ames em Salmonella typhimurium, cepas TA98 e TA100. Pelos resultados obtidos todas as frações de S. crassifolia não aumentaram significativamente o número de revertentes prototróficas para histidina (His+) em ambas as cepas de S. typhimurium testadas (p > 0.05), sugerindo ausência de mutagenicidade. Em relação à antimutagenicidade, as frações acetate de etila e hidroalcoólica reduziram significativamente o número de colônias revertentes His+ induzidas pelo controle positive para a cepa TA98 (p < 0.05), demonstrando sua ação protetora contra a mutagenicidade induzida por 4-nitroquinolile1-oxide, enquanto a fração hexânica não demonstrou efeito antimutagênico nesta cepa. Na cepa TA100, todas as frações de S. crassifolia protegeram o DNA contra a ação lesiva de azida sódica, e a fração hexânica exibiu a maior proteção desse trabalho. Assim, concluímos que as frações de S. crassifolia testadas neste estudo poderiam ser utilizadas em quimioprevenção.


Subject(s)
Antimutagenic Agents/pharmacology , Salacia/chemistry , Mutagens/toxicity , Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects , Salmonella typhimurium/genetics , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Mutagenicity Tests , 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide/toxicity
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-732520

ABSTRACT

Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from the localfermented durian (tempoyak) was determined by Ames test (Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay). Our study alsoinvolved pre-incubation assay against Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100 bacterial strain in the presence andabsence of metabolic activator S9 system. It was found that the L. plantarum showed no mutagenic activity on bothS. typhimurium strain TA 98 and TA 100 in the presence and absence of metabolic activator. Significant antimutagenicactivity (p < 0.05) was observed in both cell-free supernatant and bacterial cell suspension of L. plantarum as comparedto the mutagenicity induced by 2-Aminoanthracene in the presence of metabolic activator. Meanwhile, in the absence ofmetabolic activator, only the bacterial cells of L. plantarum showed antimutagenicity acitivity against Sodium Azide and2-Nitrofluorene. In conclusion, L. plantarum could play a vital role as chemopreventive agent by binding to mutagensand suppressing mutagenesis. Thus, L. plantarum could be consider as a good candidate for functional food developmentas a supplement product to prevent development of colon cancer.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-852688

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate toxicological safety of Cordyceps sinensis and Panax quinquefolium compound according to the genetic toxicity study. Methods: Mice acute oral toxicity test, Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation test, micronucleus test of mice bone marrow and mice sperm shape abnormality test were carried out in the compound. Results: The MTD of the compound was greater than 12.0 g/kg BW for both male and female mice in the acute oral toxicity test, which shows non-toxic substance. The reverse mutation number of Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation test in five dose groups did not exceed 2-fold of the spontaneous revertant colony number, nor was there a dose-response relationship, the result of Ames test was negative. Micronucleus rate of each dose group for female mouse were 0.32%, 0.36%, and 0.40%, respectively. Micronucleus rate of each dose group for male mouse were 0.30%, 0.32%, and 0.40%, respectively. Sperm shape abnormality rate of each dose group were 2.4%, 2.3%, and 2.3%, respectively. Micronucleus rate and sperm shape abnormality rate had no significant increase compared with the negative control. The results of micronucleus test of mice bone marrow and mice sperm shape abnormality test were negative. Conclusion: Under this experimental condition, the genetic toxicity of the compound is not found, and it is classified as non-toxic.

10.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 24(1): 33-47, jul. 2016. mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-837852

ABSTRACT

El Río Matanza-Riachuelo y sus afluentes atraviesan zonas con diferente grado de contaminación generada por las actividades agrícola-ganaderas, urbana e industrial. Los contaminantes que llegan al agua y son depositados en los sedimentos pueden ser liberados nuevamente al agua generando efectos tóxicos y/o genotóxicos sobre los organismos acuáticos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la genotoxicidad de muestras de sedimentos de la cuenca Matanza-Riachuelo obtenidas de zonas con diferentes usos del suelo. Se seleccionaron cuatro sitios de muestreo. Se utilizaron 2 métodos de extracción de contaminantes (agitación y sonicación), 2 solventes orgánicos (metanol y diclorometano) y 2 solventes inorgánicos (agua y solución ácida), obteniéndose un total de 5 extractos para cada muestra. Se realizaron mediciones de metales pesados e hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos (HAPs) mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica y CG/MS, respectivamente. La genotoxicidad se evaluó mediante el test de Ames con 2 cepas de Salmonella typhimurium (TA98 y TA100), con y sin fracción microsomal S9, y el test de Allium cepa. De los cuatro sitios estudiados, los sedimentos del Riachuelo mostraron mayores concentraciones de metales pesados y HAPs. Para el test de Ames, sólo los extractos obtenidos en diclorometano resultaron genotóxicos para la TA100 +S9 mix. Tanto los extractos inorgánicos como los orgánicos fueron citotóxicos y genotóxicos para A. cepa. Se observó una correlación negativa entre algunos compuestos HAPs y la frecuencia de micronúcleos, indicando la presencia de efectos antagónicos con otros compuestos genotóxicos. Los extractos con mayor efecto tóxico y genotóxico fueron los obtenidos con diclorometano y solución ácida. Este estudio mostró que los contaminantes orgánicos e inorgánicos extraídos de muestras de sedimento de la Cuenca Matanza-Riachuelo, con diferente grado de impacto, presentan un potencial riesgo tóxico y genotóxico para el ecosistema acuático.


The Matanza-Riachuelo River and its tributaries traverse areas with different degrees of contamination due to farming, urban and industrial activities. The pollutants entering the water are deposited in sediments, and can be released back into the water producing toxic and/or genotoxic effects on aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to analyze the genotoxicity of sediment samples from the Matanza-Riachuelo Basin with different land uses. Four sampling sites according to the characteristics of land use were selected. Two methods of extraction (stirring and sonication), two organic solvents (methanol and dichloromethane) and two inorganic solvents (water and acid solution) were used, yielding a total of 5 extracts for each sample. Measurements of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and GC/MS, respectively were performed. Genotoxicity was assessed using the Ames test with 2 strains of Salmonella typhimurium (TA98 and TA100) with and without S9 microsomal fraction, and the Allium cepa test. Taking into account the four sites, sediments from Riachuelo showed higher concentrations of heavy metals and PAHs. Only the dichloromethane extracts were genotoxic to the Ames test using the TA100 strain +S9 the mix. Both organic and inorganic extracts were cytotoxic and genotoxic to A. cepa. A negative correlation between some PAHs compounds and micronucleus frequency were observed, indicating the presence of antagonistic effects with other genotoxic compounds in samples. The extracts with high toxic and genotoxic effects were obtained with dichloromethane and acid solution. This study showed that organic and inorganic contaminants extracted from sediment samples from the Matanza-Riachuelo Basin, with varying degrees of impact, have potential toxic and genotoxic risk to the aquatic ecosystem.


Subject(s)
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/isolation & purification , Sediments/analysis , Metals, Heavy/isolation & purification , Genotoxicity , Spectrophotometry, Atomic/methods , River Pollution/analysis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Mutagenicity Tests/methods
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-501596

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the mutagenicity of hydrolysate of Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus soft tissue, so as to provide experimental basis for its exploitation.Methods Three mutagenicity tests were used to evaluate the mutagenic effects, including Ames test, CHL chromosome aberration assay and bone marrow micronucleus assay in mice.Results In Ames test, the revertant colonies numbers in each group were twice less than the numbers of spontaneous revertant colo-nies, five bacterial strains showed negative results with or without S9 activation, and the result of Ames test was negative. The CHL chromosome aberration assay and bone marrow micronucleus assay showed that the chromosome aberration rate and micronucleus rate of each dose group showed no significant difference compared with the negative control group, respec-tively ( P>0.05) .Conclusions Under this condition, the results show that all of the Ames test, chromosome aberration assay and bone marrow micronucleus assay are negative, and no mutagenicity is observed in the hydrolysate of Meretrix mer-etrix Linnaeus soft tissue.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-790594

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the genotoxicity of triptolide ,an important active component of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f .Methods Ames test ,in vitro chromosomal aberration test of CHO cell and in vivo micronucleus assay were per-formed to investigate the genotoxicity of triptolide .Results The Ames test showed that triptolide did not increase mutagenicity for TA97 ,TA98 ,TA100 ,TA102 and TA1535 strains at the dosage of 1 .6~1000 μg per plate with and without metabolic ac-tivation system S9 .Results of in vitro CHO cell chromosomal aberration test indicated that there was no statistical difference between the triptolide groups (doses of 0 .01 ,0 .02 and 0 .04 μg/ml) and the solvent control group with and without metabolic activation system S9 .However ,triptolide significantly increased polychromatophilic erythrocyte micronucleus formation at the dosage of 720 μg/kg in ICR mice .Conclusion Triptolide did not induce genetic toxicity based on the Ames test and chromo-somal aberration test ,but could increase micronucleus formation at the dosage of 720 μg/kg .These results indicated that trip-tolide may have potential genotoxicity on human health .

13.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Apr; 53(4): 228-231
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158428

ABSTRACT

Sclerotiorin, isolated from the fermented broth of Penicillium frequentans, exhibited potent inhibition against human polymorphonuclear leukocytes 5-lipoxygenase and human platelet aggregation with a half maximal value 36 µM and 250 µM, respectively. Further, the Ames test has demonstrated the sclerotiorin to be non-mutagenic.


Subject(s)
Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase/drug effects , Benzopyrans/pharmacology , Mutagenicity Tests , Neutrophils/enzymology , Penicillium/metabolism , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Salmonella typhimurium/genetics
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-264545

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>In this study, a pilot-scale investigation was conducted to examine and compare the biotoxicity of the organic compounds in effluents from five treatment processes (P1-P5) where each process was combination of preoxidation (O3), coagulation, sedimentation, sand filtration, ozonation, granular activated carbon, biological activated carbon and chlorination (NaClO).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Organic compounds were extracted by XAD-2 resins and eluted with acetone and dichlormethane (DCM). The eluents were evaporated and redissolved with DMSO or DCM. The mutagenicity and estrogenicity of the extracts were assayed with the Ames test and yeast estrogen screen (YES assay), respectively. The organic compounds were detected by GC-MS.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The results indicated that the mutation ratio (MR) of organic compounds in source water was higher than that for treated water. GC-MS showed that more than 48 organic compounds were identified in all samples and that treated water had significantly fewer types and concentrations of organic compounds than source water.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>To different extents, all water treatment processes could reduce both the mutagenicity and estrogenicity, relative to source water. P2, P3, and P5 reduced mutagenicity more effectively, while P1 reduced estrogenicity, most effectively. Water treatment processes in this pilot plant had weak abilities to remove Di-n-butyl phthalate or 1, 2-Benzene dicarboxylic acid.</p>


Subject(s)
Estrogens , Toxicity , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Mutagens , Toxicity , Organic Chemicals , Toxicity , Pilot Projects , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Toxicity , Water Purification , Methods
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-137601

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Cigarette smoking is associated with carcinogenesis owing to the mutagenic and genotoxic effects of cigarette smoke. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenic and genotoxic effects of Korean cigarettes using in vitro assays. METHODS: We selected 2 types of cigarettes (TL and TW) as benchmark Korean cigarettes for this study, because they represent the greatest level of nicotine and tar contents among Korean cigarettes. Mutagenic potency was expressed as the number of revertants per μg of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) total particulate matter whereas genotoxic potency was expressed as a concentration-dependent induction factor. The CSC was prepared by the International Organization for Standardization 3308 smoking method. CHO-K1 cells were used in vitro micronucleus (MNvit) and comet assays. Two strains of Salmonella typhimurium (Salmonella enterica subsp.enterica; TA98 and TA1537) were employed in Ames tests. RESULTS: All CSCs showed mutagenicity in the TA98 and TA1537 strains. In addition, DNA damage and micronuclei formation were observed in the comet and MNvit assays owing to CSC exposure. The CSC from the 3R4F Kentucky reference (3R4F) cigarette produced the most severe mutagenic and genotoxic potencies, followed by the CSC from the TL cigarette, whereas the CSC from the TW cigarette produced the least severe mutagenic and genotoxic potencies. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that the mutagenic and genotoxic potencies of the TL and TW cigarettes were weaker than those of the 3R4F cigarette. Further study on standardized concepts of toxic equivalents for cigarettes needs to be conducted for more extensive use of in vitro tests.


Subject(s)
Benchmarking , Carcinogenesis , Comet Assay , DNA Damage , In Vitro Techniques , Kentucky , Methods , Micronucleus Tests , Nicotine , Particulate Matter , Salmonella typhimurium , Smoke , Smoking , Tobacco Products
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-137600

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Cigarette smoking is associated with carcinogenesis owing to the mutagenic and genotoxic effects of cigarette smoke. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenic and genotoxic effects of Korean cigarettes using in vitro assays. METHODS: We selected 2 types of cigarettes (TL and TW) as benchmark Korean cigarettes for this study, because they represent the greatest level of nicotine and tar contents among Korean cigarettes. Mutagenic potency was expressed as the number of revertants per μg of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) total particulate matter whereas genotoxic potency was expressed as a concentration-dependent induction factor. The CSC was prepared by the International Organization for Standardization 3308 smoking method. CHO-K1 cells were used in vitro micronucleus (MNvit) and comet assays. Two strains of Salmonella typhimurium (Salmonella enterica subsp.enterica; TA98 and TA1537) were employed in Ames tests. RESULTS: All CSCs showed mutagenicity in the TA98 and TA1537 strains. In addition, DNA damage and micronuclei formation were observed in the comet and MNvit assays owing to CSC exposure. The CSC from the 3R4F Kentucky reference (3R4F) cigarette produced the most severe mutagenic and genotoxic potencies, followed by the CSC from the TL cigarette, whereas the CSC from the TW cigarette produced the least severe mutagenic and genotoxic potencies. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that the mutagenic and genotoxic potencies of the TL and TW cigarettes were weaker than those of the 3R4F cigarette. Further study on standardized concepts of toxic equivalents for cigarettes needs to be conducted for more extensive use of in vitro tests.


Subject(s)
Benchmarking , Carcinogenesis , Comet Assay , DNA Damage , In Vitro Techniques , Kentucky , Methods , Micronucleus Tests , Nicotine , Particulate Matter , Salmonella typhimurium , Smoke , Smoking , Tobacco Products
17.
Rev. colomb. quím. (Bogotá) ; 43(2): 18-24, mayo 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-762740

ABSTRACT

Se evaluó la mutagenicidad del agua del río Cauca debida a la presencia de metales pesados en la zona urbana de la Ciudad de Santiago de Cali, a partir de muestras tomadas en la temporada seca y lluviosa en el año 2013. Los metales se extrajeron pasando el agua por la resina Amberlite XAD-16. Las concentraciones de los metales pesados se midieron por absorción atómica y la mutagenicidad se evaluó por medio del test de Ames, con las cepas TA98 y TA100 de Salmonella typhimurium con y sin activador enzimático S9. Los resultados mostraron índices de mutagenicidad (IM) positivos (IM > 2,0) para muestras colectadas en temporada lluviosa en tres de los cinco puntos evaluados: puente El Hormiguero (IM = 3,6), desembocadura del Canal Colector Sur (IM = 2,9) y desembocadura del río Cali (IM = 2,7), todos con la cepa TA98 sin S9. Estos sitios presentaron a su vez las mayores concentraciones totales de metales pesados en sus extractos. El análisis de la variación espacio-temporal del índice mutagénico se realizó haciendo un análisis de varianza multifactorial del IM. Los resultados encontrados indican que la época de muestreo contribuye significativamente a la variabilidad del IM , mientras que los puntos de muestreo no.


The mutagenicity of the Cauca River water due to the presence of heavy metals was evaluated in the urban area of the city of Santiago de Cali, from samples taken during the rainy and dry season of 2013. The metals were extracted from water samples using the resin Amberlite XAD-16. The concentrations of heavy metals were measured by atomic absorption and mutagenicity was evaluated by the Ames test, using the TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium with and without the S9 enzymatic activator. The results showed mutagenicity indices (MI > 2.0) in three of the five points evaluated: El Hormiguero Bridge (MI = 3.6), the mouth of southern collector channel (MI = 2.9) and the mouth of Cali River (MI = 2.7), all with strain TA98 without S9. These sampling points in turn presented the highest total concentrations of heavy metals in the extracts. The determination and analysis of spatio-temporal variation of the mutagenic effects obtained was done by conducting multifactorial variance analysis of MI, finding that the effect of sampling season contributes significantly to the variability of MI unlike the sampling points.


A mutagenicidade da água do rio Cauca, devido à presença de metais pesados foi avaliada-na área urbana da cidade de Santiago de Cali, a partir de amostras coletadas durante as estaçãoes chuvosa e seca em 2013. Os metais foram extraídos, passando a água pela a resina Amberlite XAD-16. As concentrações de metais pesados foram medidas por Absorção Atômica e a mutagenicidade foi avaliada através do teste de Ames, com TA98 e TA100 de Salmonella typhimurium estirpes com e sem S9 activador da enzima. Os resultados mostraram índices de mutagenicidade positiva (MI > 2,0) para amostras coletadas na estação chuvosa em três dos cinco pontos avaliados: El Hormiguero ponte (MI = 3,6), foz do canal coletor (IM = 2, 9) e foz do rio Cali (MI = 2,7), todos com a linhagen TA98 sem S9. Esses locais, a presentaram as maiores concentrações totais de metais pesados em seus extratos. A determinação e análise da variação espaço-temporal do índice mutagénico foi realizada utilizando-se a análise de variância multivariada do IM, sendo encontrado que o efeito da época de amostragem contribui significativamente na a variabilidade de IM ao contrário dos pontos de amostragem.

18.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 24(1): 51-59, Jan-Feb/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-710155

ABSTRACT

Mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of roots, stems and leaves of Limonium globuliferum Kuntze, Plumbaginaceae, aqueous extracts were studied by Allium, Ames, and MTT tests. These are plant, bacterial and mammalian cell assays, respectively. The Allium test analyses showed that aqueous extracts of this species have dose-dependent toxicity and induce chromosomal anomalies based on defects in the spindle fibers. EC50 values of root stem and leaf aqueous extracts were 32.5, 50, and 50 g/l, respectively. It was observed that there was an inverse correlation between root growth and extract concentration. The lowest mitotic index value (22.72 %) was found in L. globuliferum root extract. As a result of the chromosome aberrations test, sticky chromosomes, anaphase bridges, laggard chromosomes, and anaphase-telophase disorders were highly detected especially in high concentration of the extract. In the Ames test, mutagenic effects were determined at all concentrations of stem and leaf aqueous extracts and only two concentrations of root extracts of L. globuliferum. Most of the extracts induced cytotoxic effects by the MTT test based on mitochondrial activity. Nevertheless, some of the extracts induced t cell proliferation.

19.
Toxicological Research ; : 279-283, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167292

ABSTRACT

Acanthopanax koreanum Nakai, a well known traditional herb grown in Jeju Island, South of Korea, has been used as a tonic and sedative agent, as well as in the treatment of diabetes and immune diseases. Mutagenicity of two lignans, syringaresinol and tortoside A isolated from A. koreanum, was assessed using Salmonella/microsome (Ames) test. Tester strains used were Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA. The mutagenic activity was determined both in the absence or presence of S9 mixture. As a result, tortoside A did not cause any increase in the number of his+ revertants in S. typhimurium and E. coli WP2uvrA strains in the presence or absence of S9 mix, compared to the controls. Similarly, low concentrations of syringaresinol (750 and 1,500 microg/plate) did not show any mutagenic properties in all bacterial strains, in the presence or absence of S9 mixture. However, in the high concentration of syringaresinol (3,000 microg/plate), the number of revertants were increased in TA1535 strains, in the absence of S9 metabolic activation. Therefore, in vivo experiments such as comet assay are needed to further determine the genotoxic/carciogenic potential of syringaresinol isolated from A. koreanum.


Subject(s)
Eleutherococcus , Biotransformation , Comet Assay , Escherichia coli , Immune System Diseases , Korea , Lignans , Salmonella typhimurium
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-670319

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the mutagenic potential of Trois using the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test) and in vitro chromosomal aberration test.Methods:typhimurium (TA 98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537) and Escherichia coli (WP2 uvrA) with and without metabolic activation system (S9 mix) at the dose range of 313 to 5000 μg/plate. Chromosomal aberrations were evaluated in Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cell line at the dose levels of 15, 7.5, 3.7, 1.9 and 0.9 mg/mL in the absence and presence of S9 mix.Results:The ability of Trois to induce reverse mutations was evaluated in Salmonella Trois used in the study with and without S9 mix in all tester strains. Trois did not produce any structural aberration in CHL cells in the presence or absence of S9 mix. There were no increases in the number of revertant colonies at any concentrations of Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that Trois is non-mutagenic.

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