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1.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 37(1,supl.1): 90-100, mayo 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248585

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La criptococosis es una enfermedad producida por levaduras encapsuladas que se adquiere por la inhalación de propágulos infectantes de Cryptoccoccus, principalmente por la C. neoformnas y en menor frecuencia por la C. gatti. La distribución de este hongo es global, pero se encuentra de manera habitual en excretas de aves como las palomas. El principal compromiso en las personas es a nivel de los pulmones, del cerebro o de forma diseminada. La criptococosis en el sistema nervioso central (SNQ se presenta con meningoencefalitis, rara vez en forma de lesiones localizadas granulomatosas conocidas como criptococoma. Esta micosis es una causa frecuente de meningitis que se encuentra, especialmente, en los pacientes con VIH/SIDA. Las manifestaciones clínicas de esta enfermedad en el SNC son: cefalea, alteración del estado mental, fiebre, náuseas, vómito, deterioro visual, parálisis del sexto nervio craneal y signos de irritación meníngea, entre otras. El diagnóstico se realiza por medio de cultivo, microscopía del líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) o detección del antígeno de criptococo. El tratamiento de la meningitis por criptococo se divide en tres fases: inducción, consolidación y mantenimiento. Los pilares del tratamiento son la anfotericina B, la flucitosina y el fluconazol.


SUMMARY Cryptococcosis is a disease produced by encapsulated yeast that is acquired by inhalation of infecting Cryp-tococcus propagules, mainly by C. neoformnas and less frequently by C gatti. The distribution of this fungus is global, but it is commonly found in the excreta of birds such as pigeons. The main commitment in people is at the level of the lungs, the brain or in a disseminated way. Cryptococcosis in the central nervous system (CNS) presents with meningoencephalitis, rarely as localized granulomatous lesions known as cryptococcoma. This mycosis is a frequent cause of meningitis especially found in patients with HIV / AIDS. The clinical manifestations of cryptococcosis in the CNS are: headache, altered mental status, fever, nausea, vomiting, visual impairment, sixth cranial nerve palsy, and signs of meningeal irritation, among others. Diagnosis is made by culture, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microscopy, or by detection of cryptococcal antigen. The treatment of cryptococcal meningitis is divided into three phases: induction, consolidation, and maintenance. The mainstays of treatment are amphotericin B, flucytosine, and fluconazole.

2.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 9(1): 1-4, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352545

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Mucormycosis is an infection caused by the ubiquitous saprophyte fungi with rapid and aggressive progression, especially in immunocompromised patients. Case report: A 57-year-old woman diagnosed with rhino-orbital mucormycosis presented with decreased renal function after treatment with amphotericin B deoxycholate which was discontinued. Renal function improved after amphotericin B lipid-complex, being also treated with itraconazole, and otorhinolaryngological surgery. Conclusion: The use of Amphotericin B deoxycholate may result in adverse effects. In this situation, Amphotericin B lipid formulation is usually the drug of choice.


Introdução: A mucormicose é uma infecção causada por fungos saprófitos com progressão rápida e agressiva, principalmente em pacientes imunocomprometidos. Relato de caso: Uma paciente de 57 anos, do sexo feminine, com diagnóstico de mucormicose rinorbital apresentou diminuição da função renal após tratamento com anfotericina B desoxicolato que foi descontinuada. A função renal foi recuperada após troca da terapia por anfotericina B complexo lipídico, sendo tratada também com itraconazol e cirurgia otorrinolaringológica. Conclusão: O uso de anfotericina B desoxicolato pode resultar em efeitos adversos. Nestas situações a formulação lipídica da anfotericina B é geralmente a droga de escolha.


Subject(s)
Amphotericin B , Mucormycosis , Therapeutics , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Renal Insufficiency , Infections , Lipids
3.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 25(4): 101605, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339437

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis considered endemic and limited to Latin America with the majority of registered cases originating from Brazil. The purpose of this paper was to report a case of a female patient with paracoccidioidomycosis mimicking inflammatory bowel disease and to systematically review available cases of the intestinal presentation of this infectious disease. Case report: Female patient, 32-years old, previously asymptomatic, presenting with acute pain in the lower right abdomen, associated with signs of peritoneal irritation and abdominal distension. Urgent surgery was performed, which identified a severe suppurative perforated ileitis. The anatomopathological study revealed fungal structures shaped as a ship's pilot wheel in Grocott-Gomori's staining, suggestive of Paracoccidioides spp. Methods: Studies were retrieved based on Medical Subject Headings and Health Sciences Descriptors, which were combined using Boolean operators. Searches were run on the electronic databases Scopus, Web of Science, MEDLINE (PubMed), BIREME (Biblioteca Regional de Medicina), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online), Embase, and Opengray.eu. Languages were restricted to English, Spanish and Portuguese. There was no date of publication restrictions. The reference lists of the studies retrieved were searched manually. Simple descriptive analysis was used to summarize the results. Results: Our search strategy retrieved 581 references. In the final analysis, 34 references were included, with a total of 46 case reports. The most common clinical finding was abdominal pain and weight loss present in 31 (67.3%) patients. Most patients were treated with itraconazole (41.3%) and amphotericin B (36.9%). All-cause mortality was 12.8%. Conclusions: Paracoccidioidomycosis should be suspected in endemics areas, specially as a differential diagnosis for inflammatory bowel disease. Endoscopic tests and biopsy are useful for diagnosis and treatment with antifungal drugs seem to be the first treatment option to achieve a significant success rate.

4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e04542020, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155531

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to estimate the direct medical costs of the treatment for mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) using three therapeutic approaches in the Brazilian context. METHODS: We performed this economic assessment from the perspective of the Brazilian public healthcare system. The following therapeutic approaches were evaluated: meglumine antimoniate, liposomal amphotericin B, and miltefosine. Direct medical costs were estimated considering four treatment components: a) drug, b) combined medical products, c) procedures, and d) complementary tests. RESULTS: Treatment with meglumine antimoniate had the lowest average cost per patient (US$ 167.66), followed by miltefosine (US$ 259.92) in the outpatient treatment regimen. The average cost of treatment with liposomal amphotericin B was US$ 715.35 both in inpatient regimen. In all estimates, the drugs accounted for more than 60% of the total cost for each treatment approach. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the marked differences in costs between the therapeutic alternatives for ML. In addition to efficacy rates and costs related to adverse events, our data have the potential to support a complete cost-effectiveness study in the future. Complete analyses comparing costs and benefits for interventions will assist health managers in choosing drugs for ML treatment in Brazil as well as in establishing effective public health policies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/drug therapy , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Meglumine Antimoniate/therapeutic use
5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2585-2604, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888873

ABSTRACT

Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) represent a growing public concern for clinicians to manage in many medical settings, with substantial associated morbidities and mortalities. Among many current therapeutic options for the treatment of IFIs, amphotericin B (AmB) is the most frequently used drug. AmB is considered as a first-line drug in the clinic that has strong antifungal activity and less resistance. In this review, we summarized the most promising research efforts on nanocarriers for AmB delivery and highlighted their efficacy and safety for treating IFIs. We have also discussed the mechanism of actions of AmB, rationale for treating IFIs, and recent advances in formulating AmB for clinical use. Finally, this review discusses some practical considerations and provides recommendations for future studies in applying AmB for combating IFIs.

7.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 670-673, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909075

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of amphotericin B or its liposomes combined with antimony sodium gluconate (antimonial) in the treatment of refractory Kala-azar.Methods:Four patients with Kala-azar who relapsed or were resistant to antimony after treatment were admitted to the First Hospital of Lanzhou University. The clinical medical records were retrospectively analyzed, including the general information (gender, age, etc), diagnosis and treatment process, clinical manifestations, treatment methods and treatment effect.Results:The clinical symptoms of four patients were relieved after treatment with amphotericin B or its liposomes combined with antimonial. Reexamination of bone marrow smear showed no Leishman-Donovan body. There was no recurrence after six months of follow-up.Conclusion:Amphotericin B or its liposomes combined with antimonial can be used in the treatment of refractory Kala-azar.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837458

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the in vitro interaction of amphotericin B (AmB) and fluconazole (FLC) at different time points and provide a reference for clinical combined treatment therapy of polyenes and azoles.@*Methods@#Candida albicans ATCC SC5314 was used in the study. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antifungal drugs was determined using the double microdilution broth method. The same amount of DMSO and low concentration drugs were added to the DMSO treatment group at different time points (0, 2, 4, 6 h) to determine whether the solvent background environment affected the growth of Candida albicans. In the experimental group, to observe the effect of low concentration AmB on the antifungal effect of FLC, the experimental group was administered a low concentration of AmB (0.25 μg/mL or 0.125 μg/mL) added to FLC at different time points (0, 2, 4, 6 h), and the same amount of DMSO was added to FLC at different time points in the single drug control group. In the experimental group, to observe the effect of low concentration of FLC on the antifungal effect of AmB, the experimental group was administered a low concentration of FLC (0.06 μg/mL or 0.03 μg/mL) in AmB at different time points (0, 2, 4, 6 h), and the same amount of DMSO was used at different time points as the single drug control group. In the solvent group, the same amounts of DMSO and low concentration drugs were added at different time points. After resuscitation, the colony growth of each solvent control group, single-drug control group and experimental group was observed to evaluate the interaction between drug concentration and time. Compared with the AmB single-drug control group, there was no significant change in the experimental group with added low concentrations of FLC at 0 h (F=0.27, P=0.775), which was 1.74-1.93 times that of the control group at 2-4 h (P < 0.001), and there was no significant difference in colony count after 6 h (P > 0.05). @*Results@# Under the treatment of FLC at an inhibitory concentration (0.25 μg/ml), adding low concentration AMB did not affect the antifungal effect of FLC, and the multiple of colony count differences were not significant (P > 0.05).@*Conclusion@#The interaction between AmB and FLC was time-dependent. At the early stage (0 h), the interaction effect between fluconazole and amphotericin B was not clear. The fungicidal effect of AmB could be weakened when FLC was supplied at 2-4 h, and the effect of FLC on AmB was absent after 6 h.

9.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(3): e524, sept.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156542

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Leishmaniasis is a tropical and subtropical disease highly reported in Southeast Asia, East Africa, Latin America, and the Mediterranean basin, with an incidence of two million new cases by year and 500,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis. One of the more severe and rare complications of visceral leishmaniasis is hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with visceral leishmaniasis Methods: We performed a literature review based on the case reports indexed in MEDLINE/PubMed. Results: Twenty-five cases were included; 52 percent under two years of age. All cases presented splenomegaly and 84 percent hepatomegaly. Cytopenias were described in all patients: 100 prcent thrombocytopenia, 96 percent anemia, and 84 percent leukopenia or neutropenia. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypofibrinogenemia were found in 68 percent and 32 percent, respectively, and hyperferritinemia in 80 percent. Additionally, hemophagocytosis was documented in 84 percent, with Leishmania detection in 92 percent. All patients were treated against Leishmania: 80% with liposomal amphotericin B. regarding the treatment for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis; corticosteroid were used in 36 percent, endovenous immunoglobulin in 28 percent, cyclosporine in 28 prcent and etoposide in 16 percent The complications reported included gastrointestinal hemorrhage (8 percent), disseminated intravascular coagulation (8 percent), autoimmune hemolytic anemia (12 percent), multiple-organ dysfunction/septic shock (12 prcent), petechial rash (16 percent), and four patients deceased. Variables such as fever (p=0.031), hemoglobin level (p=0.031), platelet count (p=0.0048), and ferritin (p=0.0072) were associated with mortality Conclusions: During visceral leishmaniasis, the hemophagocytic syndrome is a rare condition that mainly affects pediatric patients, but with excellent outcomes using liposomal amphotericin B. However, there is a lack of strong evidence to make a recommendation(AU)


Introducción: La leishmaniasis es una enfermedad tropical y subtropical con una elevada incidencia, dos millones de casos nuevos por año y 500 000 de leishmaniasis visceral. La linfohistiocitosis hemofagocítica es una complicación grave y rara de la leishmaniasis visceral. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas de la linfohistiocitosis hemofagocítica asociada con leishmaniasis visceral. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica basada en los informes de casos indexados en MEDLINE/PubMed. Se identificaron 34 publicaciones; después de analizarlas en función de los criterios de inclusión se trabajó con 22 trabajos. Resultados: En los trabajos incluidos se informaron 25 casos; el 52 por ciento fueron pacientes menores de 2 años. Todos presentaron esplenomegalia y 84 por ciento hepatomegalia. Se describieron citopenias en todos los pacientes: 100 por ciento trombocitopenia, 96 por ciento anemia y 84 por ciento leucopenia o neutropenia. Se encontró hipertrigliceridemia e hipofibrinogenemia en 68 por ciento y 32 por ciento, respectivamente, e hiperferritinemia en 80 por ciento. Todos los pacientes fueron tratados contra leishmania, 80 por ciento con anfotericina B liposomal. Las complicaciones incluyeron: hemorragia gastrointestinal, coagulación intravascular diseminada, anemia hemolítica autoinmune, falla multiorgánica/shock séptico, erupción petequial y cuatro pacientes fallecieron. Conclusiones: En la leishmaniasis visceral, el síndrome hemofagocítico es una afección poco frecuente que afecta principalmente a pacientes pediátricos. Para el tratamiento, usando la anfotericina B liposomal se obtienen excelentes resultados; sin embargo, la evidencia es insuficiente para hacer una recomendación(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/epidemiology , Neglected Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology
10.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(5): 623-626, Sept.-Oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130949

ABSTRACT

Abstract The authors report a rare case of primary cutaneous mucormycosis caused by Mucor irregularis and cutaneous Klebsiella pneumoniae infections in a 67-year-old Chinese woman. After the administration of liposomal amphotericin B combined with cefoperazone/sulbactam sodium, the patient recovered. Invasive fungal infection combined with cutaneous bacterial infection should receive attention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Coinfection/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Skin , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Mucor , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(5): 789-796, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137325

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Although it is the most common agent among the fungal causes of endocarditis, Candida albicans endocarditis is rare. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of amphotericin B in the treatment of C. albicans endocarditis beyond a systematic review. Data search: Articles in English, Spanish and Portuguese, conducted in the following databases: MEDLINE, LILACS, IBECS and SciELO, in humans and published in the last 25 years. Study selection: Observational studies, clinical trials, and case series providing data on the amphotericin B use in patients with a C. albicans endocarditis diagnosis without age limitations. Data synthesis: From the initial search (n=79), 25 articles were fully evaluated, of which 19 were excluded for meeting one or more exclusion criteria, remaining five articles (two observational studies and three case series). Patients using amphotericin B demonstrated improvement in survival rates, and its main use was in association with the surgical method as well as with caspofungin association. Conclusion: Literature lacks evidence to conclude about efficacy and safety of amphotericin B in the treatment of fungal endocarditis. Randomized clinical trials are necessary to provide better evidence on the subject.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Child , Candida albicans , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Endocarditis/microbiology , Endocarditis/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies
12.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-212278

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis is the third invasive mycosis in order of importance after candidiasis and aspergillosis and is caused by fungi of the class Zygomycetes. The most important species causing Mucormycosis is Rhizopus arrhizus (oryzae). Identification of the agents responsible for mucormycosis is based on macroscopic and microscopic morphological criteria, carbohydrate assimilation and the maximum temperature compatible with its growth. The incidence of mucormycosis is approximately 1.7 cases per 1000 000 inhabitants per year. Clinical diagnosis of mucormycosis is difficult, and is often made at a late stage of the disease or post-mortem. We present here a series of five cases of different types of mucormycosis that were reported in our hospital till date. Of which three patients had good recovery and other two had a fatal outcome. Treatment of mucormycosis requires a rapid diagnosis, correction of predisposing factors, surgical resection or debridement as part of source control-and appropriate anti-fungal therapy. Liposomal amphotericin B is the drug of choice for this condition. The overall rate of mortality of mucormycosis is approximately 40%.

13.
Rev. Fac. Med. UNAM ; 63(2): 7-17, mar.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155391

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Los primeros compuestos con actividad antifúngica específica fueron identificados a mediados del siglo pasado como un producto del metabolismo secundario de bacterias del orden Actinomycetales, y su uso en la clínica redujo de manera importante la morbilidad y la mortalidad relacionadas con infecciones severas por hongos de varios géneros. Muchos de estos compuestos biosintéticos se caracterizan por tener una estructura química de tipo poliénico, con un número variable de dobles enlaces carbono-carbono. Actualmente, además de los fármacos poliénicos, existe otro tipo de compuestos con actividad antimicótica, como los azoles, que se utilizan con mayor frecuencia y que presentan menor toxicidad en los pacientes; sin embargo, se han documentado casos de falla terapéutica con tales compuestos, por lo que el uso de los poliénicos se ha mantenido como la mejor alternativa en esos casos. El presente trabajo brinda información acerca de las propiedades y las aplicaciones de los antifúngicos poliénicos teniendo como modelo a la anfotericina B.


Abstract The first compounds with specific antifungal activity were identified in the middle of the last century as a product of the secondary metabolism of bacteria of the order Actinomycetales, and their clinical use significantly diminished the morbidity and mortality associated with severe fungal infections. Many of such biosynthetic compounds are characterized by a chemical polygenic structure, with a variable number of carbon-carbon double bonds. Currently, besides polygenic antimycotics, there are other antifungal agents, such as the azole compounds, that have less toxicity in patients; however, cases of therapeutic failure with such compounds have been documented, therefore, the use of polygenics is still the best alternative in such cases. This review presents data about the properties and applications of antifungal-polygenic compounds using amphotericin B as a model.

14.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-194561

ABSTRACT

Aspergillus is a fungus found in the environment. In an immunocompetent person, inhalation of spores may cause localized infection. In immune compromised patients, these fungi can cause life-threatening invasive infections which has high morbidity and mortality. Invasive aspergillosis has a poor prognosis. Intracranial aspergillosis is an extremely rare manifestation of invasive aspergillosis in immunocompetent individuals. A case of 60-year-old immunocompetent male is reported who had multiple Aspergillus brain abscess.

15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20180463, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057304

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The therapeutic efficacy of daily amphotericin B infusion is related to its maximum concentration in blood; however, trough levels may be useful in intermittent regimens of this antifungal drug. METHODS : High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the minimum concentration (Cmin) of amphotericin B in the serum of patients receiving deoxycholate (D-Amph) or liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis (n=28), histoplasmosis (n=8), paracoccidioidomycosis (n=1), and leishmaniasis (n=1). RESULTS: Daily use of D-Amph 30 to 50 mg or L-AmB 50 mg resulted in a similar Cmin, but a significant increase ocurred with L-AmB 100 mg/day. The geometric mean Cmin tended to decrease with a reduction in the dose and frequency of intermittent L-AmB infusions: 357 ng/mL (100 mg 4 to 5 times/week) > 263 ng/mL (50 mg 4 to 5 times/week) > 227 ng/mL (50 mg 1 to 3 times/week). The impact on Cmin was variable in patients whose dose or therapeutic scheme was changed, especially when administered the intermittent infusion of amphotericin B. The mean Cmin for each L-AmB schedule of intermittent therapy was equal or higher than the minimum inhibitory concentration of amphotericin B against Cryptococcus isolates from 10/12 patients. The Cmin of amphotericin B in patients with cryptococcal meningitis was comparable between those that survived or died. CONCLUSIONS: By evaluating the Cmin of amphotericin B, we demonstrated the therapeutic potential of its intermittent use including in the consolidation phase of neurocryptococcosis treatment, despite the great variability in serum levels among patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amphotericin B/blood , Deoxycholic Acid/blood , Antifungal Agents/blood , Paracoccidioidomycosis/drug therapy , Leishmaniasis/drug therapy , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Amphotericin B/pharmacokinetics , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/drug therapy , Deoxycholic Acid/administration & dosage , Deoxycholic Acid/pharmacokinetics , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics
16.
J. Bras. Patol. Med. Lab. (Online) ; 56: e1722020, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134626

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Cryptococcosis is caused by yeasts of the Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii complex, presenting cutaneous, respiratory and disseminated forms. A 44-year-old immunocompetent male with facial lesion and latent pneumonia was hospitalized and misdiagnosed with paracoccidioidomycosis. Computerized tomography scans showed pulmonary and neurological involvement, and cultures/China ink, cryptococcal antigen test and restriction fragment length polymorphism of urease gene (URA5-RFLP) confirmed C. neoformans genotype VNI. Hemoculture indicated ampicillin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (healthcare-associated infection). Fluconazole was administered, but after resistance detection, amphotericin B was chosen (cumulative dose/1500 mg). The patient was discharged with clinical remission (75 days) and amphotericin for one year (maintenance phase).


RESUMEN La criptococosis es causada por levaduras del complejo Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii y se presenta en las formas cutánea, respiratoria y diseminada. Un hombre inmunocompetente de 44 años de edad con lesión facial y neumonía latente fue hospitalizado y erróneamente diagnosticado con paracoccidioidomicosis. Tomografías computarizadas mostraron afectación pulmonar y neurológica, y culturas/tinta china, prueba del antígeno criptocócico y URA5-polimorfismos en la longitud de los fragmentos de restricción (RFLP) confirmaron C. neoformans genotipo VNI. El hemocultivo indicó Klebsiella pneumoniae resistente a la ampicilina (infección asociada a la atención en salud). El fluconazol le fue administrado, pero tras detección de resistencia, se optó por anfotericina B (dosis acumulativa/1500 mg). Al paciente le dieron el alta en remisión clínica (75 días) y administración de anfotericina B durante un año (fase de mantenimiento).


RESUMO A criptococose é causada por leveduras do complexo Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii e se apresenta nas formas cutânea, respiratória e disseminada. Um homem imunocompetente de 44 anos com lesão facial e pneumonia latente foi hospitalizado e erroneamente diagnosticado com paracoccidioidomicose. Tomografias computadorizadas mostraram envolvimento pulmonar e neurológico, e culturas/tinta da China, teste do antígeno criptocócico e técnica de polimorfismo de comprimento de fragmentos de restrição dogene urease (URA5-RFLP) confirmaram C. neoformans genótipo VNI. Hemocultura indicou Klebsiella pneumoniae resistente à ampicilina (infecção relacionada com a assistência à saúde). Fluconazol foi administrado, mas após detecção de resistência, optou-se por anfotericina B (dose cumulativa/1500 mg). O paciente recebeu alta com remissão clínica (75 dias) e administração de anfotericina B por um ano (fase de manutenção).

17.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e17509, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132046

ABSTRACT

Amphotericin B is a broad spectrum antifungal agent used to treat fungal infections. Organogel is a semisolid preparation in which the apolar phase gets immobilized within spaces of the three-dimensional structure. The current study aimed at the formulation and comparative evaluation of sorbitan monostearate organogels and pluronic lecithin organogels (PLO). Different compositions of span 60 based organogels were prepared by varying the concentrations of the span 60 and PLO gels were prepared by varying the concentration of Pluronic F 127. The developed organogels were subjected to various characteristics such as pH, viscosity, spreadability, extrudability, and drug release studies. The optimized formulations were evaluated against Candida albicans and carried out ex vivo release study. The optimized formulation was selected from span 60 based organogels, and pluronic lecithin organogels were S1 and P1, respectively. The optimized formulation (S1) showed effective inhibition against Candida albicans. The skin irritation test was carried out on albino mice for optimized formulations and results showed that no irritation to the skin. Based on the results, organogels prepared by sorbitan monostearate showed better antifungal activity, and also all the formulations were found to be stable and safe throughout the study period.

18.
Colomb. med ; 50(4): 293-298, Oct.-Dec. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114722

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Candida auris is an emerging yeast frequently reported as resistant to multiple antifungal drugs commonly used to treat Candida infections. This specie can colonize the patient's skin and has great ability for producing outbreaks in hospitals. C. auris is phylogenetically related to other Candida species, can be misidentified using conventional biochemical or commercial methods and requires specific technology for its identification. Case report: We report the first isolate of C. auris in Cali, Colombia, from a central venous catheter in a 37-year-old patient with rheumatoid arthritis and endocarditis who did not have symptoms of sepsis. The yeast was initially misidentified as C. haemulonii using the Phoenix system and subsequently identified as C. auris by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration; the isolate was susceptible to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and amphotericin B. Conclusions: This report contributes to knowledge of the epidemiology of C. auris infections in individuals with underlying disease and describes an isolate with a behavior different from what is usually reported.


Resumen Antecedentes: Candida auris es una levadura emergente, informada con frecuencia como resistente a diversos antifúngicos usados comúnmente para tratar infecciones por Candida. Esta especie puede colonizar la piel y tiene gran capacidad de producir brotes en ambientes hospitalarios. Está filogenéticamente relacionada con otras especies de Candida, es mal identificada por los métodos bioquímicos o comerciales, y requiere tecnología específica para su identificación. Reporte de caso: Se informa el primer aislamiento de C. auris en Cali, Colombia en un paciente de 37 años con artritis reumatoide y endocarditis, sin síntomas de sepsis, a partir de la punta de catéter venoso central. La levadura inicialmente se identificó como C. haemulonii por el sistema Phoenix® y posteriormente como C. auris por espectrometría de masas desorción/ionización láser asistida por una matriz con detección de masas por tiempo de vuelo (MALDI-TOF MS). Se determinó la concentración inhibitoria mínima por el método de microdilución en caldo que mostró un aislamiento sensible a fluconazol, itraconazol, voriconazol y anfotericina B. Conclusión: Este informe contribuye al conocimiento de la epidemiología de las infecciones por C. auris en individuos con enfermedad subyacente y describe un aislamiento con un comportamiento diferente a lo indicado en otros estudios.

19.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 451-461, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089312

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Papiliotrema laurentii is one of several non-neoformans cryptococci that have rarely been associated with human infection, since it was previously considered saprophyte and thought to be non-pathogenic to humans. Nevertheless, increasing number of reports of human infection have emerged in recent years, mostly in oncologic patients. Aim: To report a case of a female patient with pyloric obstructive cancer with a catheter-related Papiliotrema laurentii blood stream infection and systematically review the available evidence on P. laurentii infection in humans. Methods: Retrieval of studies was based on Medical Subject Headings and Health Sciences Descriptors, which were combined using Boolean operators. Searches were run on the electronic databases Scopus, Web of Science, MEDLINE (PubMed), BIREME (Biblioteca Regional de Medicina), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), Cochrane Library for Systematic Reviews and Opengray.eu. There was no language or date of publication restrictions. The reference lists of the studies retrieved were searched manually. Results: The search strategy retrieved 1703 references. In the final analysis, 31 references were included, with the description of 35 cases. Every patient but one had a previous co-morbidity - 48.4 % of patients had a neoplasm. Amphotericin B was the most used treatment and only a single case of resistance to it was reported. Most patients were cured of the infection. Conclusion: P. laurentii infection in humans is usually associated to neoplasia and multiple co-morbidities, and amphotericin B seems to be a reliable agent for treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Catheter-Related Infections/diagnostic imaging , Stomach Neoplasms/microbiology , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy , Biopsy , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/microbiology , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
20.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-185585

ABSTRACT

Introduction: -Oral candidiasis is an infection of oral cavity caused by an over growth of candida species. The proportions of yeast in the periodontal pockets are similar to some of periodontal bacteria, thus suggesting the possible role of Candida species in pathogenesis of periodontal pocket. The plant extract such as garlic and propolis, contain bioactive components which act against these organisms with no or less side effects than by the conventional antibiotics. Objectives: - To evaluate the efficacy of garlic and propolis extracts against candida albicans and compare it with Amphotericin-B as control at 3 different concentrations Methodology: - Subgingival plaque samples were collected and selectively cultivated for candida albicans. The antimicrobial activity of propolis and garlic was assessed and compared with Amphotericin-B. Conclusion: Garlic extract can be used as a potent agent in the eradication of candida albicans in chronic periodontitis patient.

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