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1.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 37(1,supl.1): 90-100, mayo 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248585

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La criptococosis es una enfermedad producida por levaduras encapsuladas que se adquiere por la inhalación de propágulos infectantes de Cryptoccoccus, principalmente por la C. neoformnas y en menor frecuencia por la C. gatti. La distribución de este hongo es global, pero se encuentra de manera habitual en excretas de aves como las palomas. El principal compromiso en las personas es a nivel de los pulmones, del cerebro o de forma diseminada. La criptococosis en el sistema nervioso central (SNQ se presenta con meningoencefalitis, rara vez en forma de lesiones localizadas granulomatosas conocidas como criptococoma. Esta micosis es una causa frecuente de meningitis que se encuentra, especialmente, en los pacientes con VIH/SIDA. Las manifestaciones clínicas de esta enfermedad en el SNC son: cefalea, alteración del estado mental, fiebre, náuseas, vómito, deterioro visual, parálisis del sexto nervio craneal y signos de irritación meníngea, entre otras. El diagnóstico se realiza por medio de cultivo, microscopía del líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) o detección del antígeno de criptococo. El tratamiento de la meningitis por criptococo se divide en tres fases: inducción, consolidación y mantenimiento. Los pilares del tratamiento son la anfotericina B, la flucitosina y el fluconazol.


SUMMARY Cryptococcosis is a disease produced by encapsulated yeast that is acquired by inhalation of infecting Cryp-tococcus propagules, mainly by C. neoformnas and less frequently by C gatti. The distribution of this fungus is global, but it is commonly found in the excreta of birds such as pigeons. The main commitment in people is at the level of the lungs, the brain or in a disseminated way. Cryptococcosis in the central nervous system (CNS) presents with meningoencephalitis, rarely as localized granulomatous lesions known as cryptococcoma. This mycosis is a frequent cause of meningitis especially found in patients with HIV / AIDS. The clinical manifestations of cryptococcosis in the CNS are: headache, altered mental status, fever, nausea, vomiting, visual impairment, sixth cranial nerve palsy, and signs of meningeal irritation, among others. Diagnosis is made by culture, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microscopy, or by detection of cryptococcal antigen. The treatment of cryptococcal meningitis is divided into three phases: induction, consolidation, and maintenance. The mainstays of treatment are amphotericin B, flucytosine, and fluconazole.

2.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(3): e524, sept.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156542

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Leishmaniasis is a tropical and subtropical disease highly reported in Southeast Asia, East Africa, Latin America, and the Mediterranean basin, with an incidence of two million new cases by year and 500,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis. One of the more severe and rare complications of visceral leishmaniasis is hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with visceral leishmaniasis Methods: We performed a literature review based on the case reports indexed in MEDLINE/PubMed. Results: Twenty-five cases were included; 52 percent under two years of age. All cases presented splenomegaly and 84 percent hepatomegaly. Cytopenias were described in all patients: 100 prcent thrombocytopenia, 96 percent anemia, and 84 percent leukopenia or neutropenia. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypofibrinogenemia were found in 68 percent and 32 percent, respectively, and hyperferritinemia in 80 percent. Additionally, hemophagocytosis was documented in 84 percent, with Leishmania detection in 92 percent. All patients were treated against Leishmania: 80% with liposomal amphotericin B. regarding the treatment for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis; corticosteroid were used in 36 percent, endovenous immunoglobulin in 28 percent, cyclosporine in 28 prcent and etoposide in 16 percent The complications reported included gastrointestinal hemorrhage (8 percent), disseminated intravascular coagulation (8 percent), autoimmune hemolytic anemia (12 percent), multiple-organ dysfunction/septic shock (12 prcent), petechial rash (16 percent), and four patients deceased. Variables such as fever (p=0.031), hemoglobin level (p=0.031), platelet count (p=0.0048), and ferritin (p=0.0072) were associated with mortality Conclusions: During visceral leishmaniasis, the hemophagocytic syndrome is a rare condition that mainly affects pediatric patients, but with excellent outcomes using liposomal amphotericin B. However, there is a lack of strong evidence to make a recommendation(AU)


Introducción: La leishmaniasis es una enfermedad tropical y subtropical con una elevada incidencia, dos millones de casos nuevos por año y 500 000 de leishmaniasis visceral. La linfohistiocitosis hemofagocítica es una complicación grave y rara de la leishmaniasis visceral. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas de la linfohistiocitosis hemofagocítica asociada con leishmaniasis visceral. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica basada en los informes de casos indexados en MEDLINE/PubMed. Se identificaron 34 publicaciones; después de analizarlas en función de los criterios de inclusión se trabajó con 22 trabajos. Resultados: En los trabajos incluidos se informaron 25 casos; el 52 por ciento fueron pacientes menores de 2 años. Todos presentaron esplenomegalia y 84 por ciento hepatomegalia. Se describieron citopenias en todos los pacientes: 100 por ciento trombocitopenia, 96 por ciento anemia y 84 por ciento leucopenia o neutropenia. Se encontró hipertrigliceridemia e hipofibrinogenemia en 68 por ciento y 32 por ciento, respectivamente, e hiperferritinemia en 80 por ciento. Todos los pacientes fueron tratados contra leishmania, 80 por ciento con anfotericina B liposomal. Las complicaciones incluyeron: hemorragia gastrointestinal, coagulación intravascular diseminada, anemia hemolítica autoinmune, falla multiorgánica/shock séptico, erupción petequial y cuatro pacientes fallecieron. Conclusiones: En la leishmaniasis visceral, el síndrome hemofagocítico es una afección poco frecuente que afecta principalmente a pacientes pediátricos. Para el tratamiento, usando la anfotericina B liposomal se obtienen excelentes resultados; sin embargo, la evidencia es insuficiente para hacer una recomendación(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/epidemiology , Neglected Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology
3.
Rev. Fac. Med. UNAM ; 63(2): 7-17, mar.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155391

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Los primeros compuestos con actividad antifúngica específica fueron identificados a mediados del siglo pasado como un producto del metabolismo secundario de bacterias del orden Actinomycetales, y su uso en la clínica redujo de manera importante la morbilidad y la mortalidad relacionadas con infecciones severas por hongos de varios géneros. Muchos de estos compuestos biosintéticos se caracterizan por tener una estructura química de tipo poliénico, con un número variable de dobles enlaces carbono-carbono. Actualmente, además de los fármacos poliénicos, existe otro tipo de compuestos con actividad antimicótica, como los azoles, que se utilizan con mayor frecuencia y que presentan menor toxicidad en los pacientes; sin embargo, se han documentado casos de falla terapéutica con tales compuestos, por lo que el uso de los poliénicos se ha mantenido como la mejor alternativa en esos casos. El presente trabajo brinda información acerca de las propiedades y las aplicaciones de los antifúngicos poliénicos teniendo como modelo a la anfotericina B.


Abstract The first compounds with specific antifungal activity were identified in the middle of the last century as a product of the secondary metabolism of bacteria of the order Actinomycetales, and their clinical use significantly diminished the morbidity and mortality associated with severe fungal infections. Many of such biosynthetic compounds are characterized by a chemical polygenic structure, with a variable number of carbon-carbon double bonds. Currently, besides polygenic antimycotics, there are other antifungal agents, such as the azole compounds, that have less toxicity in patients; however, cases of therapeutic failure with such compounds have been documented, therefore, the use of polygenics is still the best alternative in such cases. This review presents data about the properties and applications of antifungal-polygenic compounds using amphotericin B as a model.

4.
J. Bras. Patol. Med. Lab. (Online) ; 56: e1722020, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134626

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Cryptococcosis is caused by yeasts of the Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii complex, presenting cutaneous, respiratory and disseminated forms. A 44-year-old immunocompetent male with facial lesion and latent pneumonia was hospitalized and misdiagnosed with paracoccidioidomycosis. Computerized tomography scans showed pulmonary and neurological involvement, and cultures/China ink, cryptococcal antigen test and restriction fragment length polymorphism of urease gene (URA5-RFLP) confirmed C. neoformans genotype VNI. Hemoculture indicated ampicillin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (healthcare-associated infection). Fluconazole was administered, but after resistance detection, amphotericin B was chosen (cumulative dose/1500 mg). The patient was discharged with clinical remission (75 days) and amphotericin for one year (maintenance phase).


RESUMEN La criptococosis es causada por levaduras del complejo Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii y se presenta en las formas cutánea, respiratoria y diseminada. Un hombre inmunocompetente de 44 años de edad con lesión facial y neumonía latente fue hospitalizado y erróneamente diagnosticado con paracoccidioidomicosis. Tomografías computarizadas mostraron afectación pulmonar y neurológica, y culturas/tinta china, prueba del antígeno criptocócico y URA5-polimorfismos en la longitud de los fragmentos de restricción (RFLP) confirmaron C. neoformans genotipo VNI. El hemocultivo indicó Klebsiella pneumoniae resistente a la ampicilina (infección asociada a la atención en salud). El fluconazol le fue administrado, pero tras detección de resistencia, se optó por anfotericina B (dosis acumulativa/1500 mg). Al paciente le dieron el alta en remisión clínica (75 días) y administración de anfotericina B durante un año (fase de mantenimiento).


RESUMO A criptococose é causada por leveduras do complexo Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii e se apresenta nas formas cutânea, respiratória e disseminada. Um homem imunocompetente de 44 anos com lesão facial e pneumonia latente foi hospitalizado e erroneamente diagnosticado com paracoccidioidomicose. Tomografias computadorizadas mostraram envolvimento pulmonar e neurológico, e culturas/tinta da China, teste do antígeno criptocócico e técnica de polimorfismo de comprimento de fragmentos de restrição dogene urease (URA5-RFLP) confirmaram C. neoformans genótipo VNI. Hemocultura indicou Klebsiella pneumoniae resistente à ampicilina (infecção relacionada com a assistência à saúde). Fluconazol foi administrado, mas após detecção de resistência, optou-se por anfotericina B (dose cumulativa/1500 mg). O paciente recebeu alta com remissão clínica (75 dias) e administração de anfotericina B por um ano (fase de manutenção).

5.
Rev. colomb. nefrol. (En línea) ; 6(1): 63-68, ene.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1093027

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las micosis por Exophiala xenobiotica comprenden un amplio espectro clínico en pacientes inmunosuprimidos, desde infecciones localizadas, hasta diseminadas. Son incluidas como etiología de las feohifomicosis, actualmente consideradas como infecciones fúngicas emergentes en pacientes trasplantados de órgano sólido. Presentamos 2 casos de micosis por Eexophiala xenobiotica en paciente trasplantado renal, una micosis cutánea localizada y una infección sistémica con afectación del sistema nervioso central.


Abstract Mycosis by exophiala xenobiotica comprise a broad clinical spectrum in immunosuppressed patients, from localized to disseminated infections. They are a recognized etiology of phaeohyphomycosis, currently considered as emerging fungal infections in transplanted solid organ recipients. We present 2 cases of mycosis by exophiala xenobiotica in kidney transplant recipients, a localized cutaneous mycosis and a systemic infection with central nervous system involvement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Exophiala , Kidney Transplantation , Mycoses , Spain , Amphotericin B , Itraconazole , Phaeohyphomycosis
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 673-678, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951612

ABSTRACT

Abstract Amphotericin B is a fungicidal substance that is treatment of choice for most systemic fungal infections affecting immunocompromised patients. However, severe side effects have limited the utility of this drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal effect of the combination of amphotericin B with black tea or white tea and protective of citotoxic effect. The present study shows that white and black teas have additive effects with amphotericin B against some species Candida. In addition, the combination of white and black tea with amphotericin B may reduce the toxicity of amphotericin B to red blood cells. Our results suggest that white and black tea is a potential agent to combine with amphotericin for antifungal efficacy and to reduce the amphotericin dose to lessen side effects.


Resumo A anfotericina B é o tratamento de escolha para a maioria das infecções fúngicas sistémicas que afetam os doentes imunocomprometidos. No entanto, efeitos secundários graves têm limitado a utilidade desta droga. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito antifúngico da combinação de anfotericina B com chá preto ou chá branco, bem como o efeito citotóxico desta combinação sobre hemáceas. O presente estudo demonstra que o chá branco e preto de Camellia sinensis têm efeitos aditivos com anfotericina B contra algumas espécies de Candida sp. Além disso, a combinação de chá branco e preto com anfotericina B pode reduzir a toxicidade da anfotericina B em hemáceas. Nossos resultados sugerem que o chá branco e preto são agentes potenciais para associação com anfotericina B contribuindo para eficácia antifúngica, bem como redução de toxicidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida/drug effects , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Camellia sinensis/adverse effects , Erythrocytes/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Hemolysis/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/adverse effects
7.
Rev. salud pública ; 20(1): 89-93, ene.-feb. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-962097

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos Describir las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y el tratamiento de niños con leishmaniasis visceral en Neiva, Huila. Metodologia Se realizó un estudio descriptivo del brote de leshmaniasis visceral en niños de la zona urbana de Neiva, Huila, entre los meses de abril a junio de 2012. Resultados Se presentaron siete casos, en niños menores de cinco años, con fiebre prolongada, hepato-esplenomegalia, anemia severa y leucopenia. Cinco ingresaron con trombocitopenia severa, sin manifestaciones hemorrágicas. Seis pacientes recibieron manejo de primera línea con miltefosine, cinco presentaron fracaso terapéutico y se escalonó tratamiento a anfotericina B, de los cuales dos recibieron anfotericina liposomal y tres anfotericina deoxicolato. El principal vector identificado fue la Lutzomyia gomezi y los reservoirios indentifiacados fueron caninos. Conclusión Se describe el primer brote de leishmaniasis visceral en zona urbana, en población pediátrica sin casos de mortalidad. La mayoría de los casos con buena respuesta a Anfotericina B.(AU)


ABSTRACT Objectives To describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics and treatment of children with visceral Leishmaniasis in Neiva- Huila, from April to June 2012. Methodology We performed a descriptive study of an outbreak of visceral leshmaniasis in children from the urban area of Neiva. Results There were seven cases in children younger than five years. All of them had prolonged fever, hepato-splenomegaly, severe anemia and leukopenia. Five were admitted with severe thrombocytopenia, without hemorrhagic manifestations. Six patients received first-line treatment with miltefosine, five of them had treatment failure requirirng therapy escalation to amphotericin B, two received liposomal amphotericin B and three deoxycholate amphotericin B. The main vector identified was the Lutzomyia gomezi and its main reservoir were canines. Conclusion We describe the first visceral leishmaniasis outbreak in children living in an urban area, with no mortality. Most of the cases had a good response to amphotericin B.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Disease Outbreaks , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Colombia/epidemiology
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(5): 612-616, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978078

ABSTRACT

Resumen La leishmaniasis es una infección producida por protozoos del género Leishmania, transmitida por insectos hematófagos. La forma de presentación más frecuente es la leishmaniasis cutánea (LC), en la cual se observan úlceras crónicas e indoloras, usualmente localizadas en el sitio de la picadura del insecto. El diagnóstico y tratamiento de esta enfermedad son especialmente desafiantes en zonas no endémicas como nuestro país, requiriendo el uso de diversas técnicas de laboratorio y el apoyo de expertos. Se reporta el caso clínico importado de un varón de 42 años con LC causada por L. braziliensis con respuesta exitosa al tratamiento con anfotericina B liposomal.


Leishmaniasis is an infection caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania sp. and transmitted by sandfly vectors. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the most frequent form of presentation. Clinically, chronic and painless ulcers are observed, which usually occur at the site of the sandfly bite. The diagnosis and treatment of this disease is specially challenging in non-endemic countries such as Chile, requiring the use of diverse laboratory techniques as well as the support of expert physicians. Herein we report an imported case of a healthy 42-year-old male with CL caused by L. braziliensis with successful response to liposomal amphotericin B.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
9.
Rev. Nac. (Itauguá) ; 10(1): 17-35, 20180600.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-914219

ABSTRACT

Introducción En las últimas décadas, el agente de elección para el tratamiento de la mayoría de las micosis sistémicas ha sido la anfotericina B que, a pesar de los efectos tóxicos, sigue teniendo un papel importante en el tratamiento de las infecciones micóticas. Objetivo Determinar los efectos adversos asociados al empleo de anfotericina B en neonatos del Servicio de Neonatología del Hospital Nacional de Itauguá, en el periodo 2013 - 2015. Materiales y métodos Estudio de serie de casos, retrospectivo, de recién nacidos con tratamiento con anfotericina B. Resultados: Entre 28 recién nacidos tratados con anfotericina B, hubo mayor prevalencia en el sexo masculino. Con respecto a la edad más de la mitad de los recién nacidos fueron pre-término en el grupo estudiado. Hubo predominio de bajo peso al nacer (32,14%). Los factores de riesgo arrojaron que 53,5% no contaba con antecedentes de sepsis. La edad media de inicio de anfotericina fue 19±9 días, más de la mitad de los neonatos utilizó dosis progresiva de 0,5 mg/kp/día a 1 mg/kp/día, en 24 hs.El 96,4% recibió infusión de anfotericina B de 4 horas, 1 caso requirió 6 horas. Entre los efectos secundarios, 35,7% de los pacientes presentó anemia, el disturbio hidroelectrolítico más frecuente fue la hipokalemia, entre los signos se destacaron la taquicardia e hipotensión. Conclusiones Los efectos secundarios más llamativos encontrados durante el tratamiento con anfotericina B fueron la anemia, alteraciones de Sodio y Potasio


Introduction In recent decades, the agent of choice for the treatment of most systemic mycoses has been amphotericin B which, despite the toxic effects, continues to play an important role in the treatment of fungal infections. Objective To determine the adverse effects associated with the use of amphotericin B in neonates of the Neonatology Service of the National Hospital of Itauguá, in the period 2013 - 2015. Materials and methods: retrospective case series study of newborns treated with amphotericin B. Results Among 28 newborns treated with amphotericin B, there was a higher prevalence in males. With regard to age, more than half of the newborns were pre-term in the group studied. There was a predominance of low birth weight (32.14%). The risk factors showed that 53.5% did not have a history of sepsis. The mean age of onset of amphotericin was 19 ± 9 days, more than half of the infants used progressive dose from 0.5 mg / kp / day to 1 mg / kp / day, in 24 hours. 96.4% received infusion of amphotericin B for 4 hours, 1 case required 6 hours. Among the side effects, 35.7% of the patients presented anemia, the most frequent water and electrolyte disturbance was hypokalemia, among the signs were tachycardia and hypotension. Conclusions The most striking side effects found during treatment with amphotericin B were anemia, Sodium and Potassium alterations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Deoxycholic Acid/adverse effects , Mycoses/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/adverse effects , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Premature , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Retrospective Studies , Deoxycholic Acid/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage
10.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(5): 553-559, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978069

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El tratamiento y evolución de endocarditis infecciosa por Candida spp en niños debe basarse en guías de manejo; sin embargo, aún existen controversias al respecto. Objetivo: Describir nuestra experiencia en el tratamiento de EI por Candida spp en pacientes pediátricos. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo, analítico, realizado entre enero de 2006 y diciembre 2017. Análisis paramétrico de variables cuantitativas; razones, proporciones, comparación por medio de χ2 y prueba exacta de Fisher con IC al 95% para variables no paramétricas. Tasa de mortalidad. Resultados: Veinticinco episodios de endocarditis por Candida spp recibieron tratamiento anti fúngico estándar. La mortalidad fue superior en pacientes sometidos a resección de la vegetación endocárdica (66,7%) RR 3,16, χ2 p = 0,029, en niños con síndrome linfo-hemofagocítico SLHF (50%), RR= 1,18 (χ2 NS), en co infección con bacterias multi-resistentes (57,1 %) RR= 2, (χ2 NS) y en EI trombótica (88,9%) RR = 4,74 (χ2 p = 0,004). Conclusiones: Co-infección de EI por Candida sp con bacterias multi-resistentes, SLHF y/o manejo quirúrgico de la vegetación endocárdica, pueden considerarse factores de mal pronóstico.


Background: Treatment and outcome of Candida spp infectious endocarditis in children it most be based on treatment guidelines, however there are some controversies. Aim: To describe our experience on treatment of pediatric candidal infective endocarditis. Methods: Analytic prospective study, from January 2006 to December 2017. Parametric analysis for quantitative variable. Proportions were compared by χ2 and exact Fisher Test CI 95%. Mortality rate. Results: 25 episodes of Candida spp infective endocarditis were treated with standard antifungal drugs. Mortality rate was higher on patients submited to endocardic vegetation resection (66.7%) RR= 3.16, (χ2 p = 0.029), children with lymphohemophagocytic syndrome (LHFS) (50 %) RR= 1.18 (χ2 = N.S.), in multidrug resistant bacterial co infection (57.14%), RR = 2, (χ2 = NS) also thrombotic endocarditis (88.9%) RR= 4.74 (χ2 p = 0.004). Conclusion: Multidrug resistant bacteria co infection with Candida sp IE, LHFS, and/or surgical treatment of endocardic vegetation, might be considered as bad prognostic factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Candida/classification , Candidiasis/microbiology , Endocarditis, Bacterial/microbiology , Candidiasis/mortality , Candidiasis/therapy , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Endocarditis, Bacterial/mortality , Endocarditis, Bacterial/therapy
11.
Rev. salud pública ; 19(6): 800-805, nov.-dic. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-962074

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifungal susceptibilities of isolates of Fusarium to amphotericin B, itraconazole and voriconazole. Methods The susceptibility of 44 isolates of Fusarium was tested by the E-test methodology. Results All the isolates were resistant to itraconazole, and 89 % and 54,5 % were resistant to amphotericin B and voriconazole, respectively. Discussion The results confirm the high level of resistance reported, regardless of the species or the strain of Fusarium involved. The high MICs level observed are worrying and suggest that new drugs are needed.(AU)


RESUMEN Objetivo Evaluar la susceptibilidad antifúngica in vitro de aislamientos de Fusarium a los antimicóticos amfotericina B, itraconazol y voriconazol. Métodos La susceptibilidad de 44 aislamientos clínicos de Fusarium fue evaluada por el método de difusión en disco, E-test. Resultados Todos los aislamientos fueron resistentes al itraconazol, y 89 % y 54,5 % fueron resistentes a la amfotericina B y al voriconazol, respectivamente. Discusión Los resultados confirman el alto nivel de resistencia reportado, independiente de la especie o la cepa de Fusarium involucrada. Los valores tan altos de MICs son preocupantes y sugieren la necesidad de evaluar nuevos medicamentos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Itraconazole/pharmacology , Voriconazole/pharmacology , Fusarium/isolation & purification , Colombia , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests/instrumentation
12.
Case reports (Universidad Nacional de Colombia. En línea) ; 3(2): 60-69, July-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-989552

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction. Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by the dimorphic fungus known as Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. This entity compromises mainly the lungs, but can spread to other organs, with particular trophism, through oral mucosa, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, among others. Case presentation. This paper reports the case of a male patient with pulmonary PCM treated at the Hospital Universitario de Santander. The patient was admitted with initial suspicion of active pulmonary tuberculosis due to the presence of multiple cavitations and nodules of random distribution in the lung parenchyma observed in the chest tomography, and subsequent isolation of yeasts compatible with Paracoccidioides. Amphotericin B deoxycholate was administered without favorable outcomes and development of septic shock by extended spectrum Klebsiella pneumoniae. In spite of multi-conjugate antibiotic management, the patient presented multiple organ failure syndrome with fatal outcome at 21 days of hospitalization. Conclusion. Pulmonary PCM is an endemic disease that leads to an inadequate immune response of the host that -along with risk factors such as smoking, alcohol abuse, malnutrition and low socioeconomic status- facilitates the onset of life-threatening infections or coexisting diseases. Timely diagnosis based on early clinical suspicion potentially influences the patient's survival.


Subject(s)
Humans , Paracoccidioidomycosis , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Paracoccidioides , Amphotericin B , Sepsis , Fungi
13.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 37(4): 452-459, oct.-dic. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-888489

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. En Cuba se desconoce el comportamiento de la sensibilidad de Aspergillus spp. a los antifúngicos recomendados para el tratamiento de la aspergilosis: la anfotericina B, el itraconazol, el voriconazol y las equinocandinas. La influencia del ambiente puede condicionar la aparición de resistencia en estos microorganismos. Objetivo. Evaluar la sensibilidad in vitro de cepas de Aspergillus spp. a la anfotericina B, el itraconazol y el voriconazol, y la relación de los patrones de sensibilidad con su origen. Materiales y métodos. Se determinaron las concentraciones inhibitorias mínimas de la anfotericina B, el itraconazol y el voriconazol para 60 cepas de Aspergillus spp. de origen clínico y ambiental mediante el método M38-A2 del Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute. Resultados. Se encontraron 21 cepas resistentes a la anfotericina B (principalmente en muestras clínicas y ambientes hospitalarios) y tres cepas resistentes al itraconazol (en ambientes interiores y exteriores no hospitalarios). No se hallaron cepas resistentes al voriconazol. No se encontró relación entre el origen de las cepas y su sensibilidad. Conclusiones. Se sugiere la posible existencia de factores ambientales o interacciones con genotipos resistentes que pueden dar origen a fenotipos resistentes en Cuba. Este es el primer reporte del país de cepas de Aspergillus spp. resistentes in vitro. Los resultados ameritan ampliar el estudio para incluir análisis moleculares y filogenéticos.


Abstract Introduction: The behavior of antifungal susceptibility of Aspergillus spp. in Cuba remains unknown. The antifungals recommended to treat aspergillosis are amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole and echinocandins. The influence of the environment may set off the emergence of drug-resistance in these microorganisms. Objective: To evaluate in vitro susceptibility of Aspergillus spp. strains to amphotericin B, itraconazole and voriconazol, and the relationship between susceptibility patterns and their origin. Materials and methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations of amphotericin B, itraconazole and voriconazole were determined for 60 Aspergillus spp. strains of clinical and environmental origin using the M38-A2 method of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: We found 21 amphotericin B resistant strains (mainly from clinical samples and hospital environments), as well as three itraconazole resistant strains (from non-hospital outdoor and indoor environments). No voriconazole resistance was found. No relationship was found between strain origin and susceptibility. Conclusions: Results suggest the possible existence of environmental factors or interactions with resistant genotypes which may give rise to resistant phenotypes in our country. This is the first report of in vitro Aspergillus spp. resistant strains in Cuba. These studies should be broadened and include molecular and phylogenetic analyses.

14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 15(2): 124-126, 20170000. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-875612

ABSTRACT

A criptococose é uma doença fúngica sistêmica causada por Cryptococcus neoformans, que acomete principalmente indivíduos imunocomprometidos, podendo eventualmente acometer imunocompetentes. Existem duas variedades da espécie (neoformans e gattii), com características diferentes, mas clinicamente semelhantes, sendo possível sua distinção apenas por do teste de identificação da espécie. O tratamento preconizado é constituído por anfotericina B e fluconazol endovenosos, com duração de meses, existindo pouco relato na literatura sobre resistência à terapêutica habitual ou tratamento alternativo. Neste trabalho, é relatado um caso de neurocriptococose por C. gattii resistente a fluconazol em imunocompetente, no qual foi realizada anfotericina B endovenosa associada a intratecal sem sucesso, evoluindo o paciente a óbito por provável complicações da hidrocefalia obstrutiva.(AU)


Cryptococcosis is a systemic fungal disease caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, which primarily affects immunocompromised individuals, but may occasionally affect immunocompetent individuals. There are two varieties of the species, with different, but clinically similar characteristics, with their distinction being possible only through the species identification test. The recommended treatment consists of intravenous amphotericin B and fluconazole, for some months. There are few reports in the literature on resistance to standard therapy, or an alternative treatment. In this study, we describe a case of fluconazole-resistant neurocryptococcosis by Cryptococcus gattii in immunocompetent individuals, who unsuccessfully received intravenous and intrathecal amphotericin B , with the patient progressing to death from probable complications of obstructive hydrocephalus.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Fluconazole/administration & dosage , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Meningitis, Cryptococcal , Immunity
15.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 49(3): 224-226, set. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041789

ABSTRACT

Human protothecosis is a rare infection caused by algae of the genus Prototheca. Prototheca wickerhamii has been recognized as the main species that causes infection in immunocompromised hosts with deficits in innate or cellular immunity. We report a case of persisting subcutaneous protothecosis in a patient with T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia, who also presented a history of disseminated histoplasmosis.


La prototecosis humana es una infección rara causada por algas del género Prototheca. Prototheca wickerhamii ha sido reconocida como la principal especie causante de infección en huéspedes inmunocomprometidos, con déficit de inmunidad innata o celular. Presentamos un caso de prototecosis subcutánea persistente en un paciente con leucemia linfocítica granular de células T, con antecedentes de histoplasmosis diseminada.

16.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(2): 186-189, abr. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844462

ABSTRACT

Vesical fungus ball is a mobile, oval and echogenic mass as a result of accumulation of long and wide numerous hyphae. Fungal urinary tract infection incidence has increased notoriously and there are isolated yeast in 7 to 8% of urine cultures. Different species of Candida are cause of urinary tract infection. Epidemiologically, the first isolated pathogen is Candida albicans, followed by Candida tropicalis. Bladder poll has been documented as the most important risk factor for candiduria in critical patients into intensive care.


Un fungoma vesical es una masa móvil, oval y ecogénica en la vejiga resultante del acúmulo de hifas largas y anchas. La incidencia de la infección urinaria de etiología fúngica se ha incrementado notablemente. Se aíslan levaduras en 7 a 8% de los urocultivos. Diferentes especies de Candida son causantes de infección urinaria, siendo Candida albicans la más frecuente, seguida de Candida tropicalis. Presentamos el caso de un niño varón de cuatro años, con un síndrome de Guillain Barré, catéter urinario permanente, estadía prolongada en UCI y expuesto a tratamiento antibacteriano de amplio espectro que desarrolló un fungoma vesical, diagnosticado por ecotomografía, con aislamiento de C. tropicalis en orina. Se trató con anfotericina B deoxicolato y extracción del fungoma por cistoscopia, con buena respuesta clínica. El cateterismo vesical se ha documentado como el factor de riesgo más importante para candiduria en pacientes de terapia intensiva.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Urinary Bladder Diseases/microbiology , Candidiasis/microbiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Candida tropicalis/isolation & purification
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(4): 1029-1034, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828088

ABSTRACT

Abstract Amphotericin B is a fungicidal substance that is treatment of choice for most systemic fungal infections affecting as cryptococcosis the immunocompromised patients. However, severe side effects have limited the utility of this drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal effect of the combination of amphotericin B with quercetin or rutin and as a protective of citotoxic effect. The antifungal activity to amphotericin B, quercetin and rutin alone and in combination was determined in Candida sp and Cryptococcus neoformans strains. Cytotoxicity test on erythrocytes was performed by spectrophotometric absorbance of hemoglobin. The amphotericin B MIC was reduced when used in combination with quercetin or rutin to C. neoformans ATCC strain and reduced when combined with rutin to a clinical isolate of C. neoformans. In addition, the combination of quercetin with amphotericin B may reduce the toxicity of amphotericin B to red blood cells. Our results suggest that quercetin and rutin are potential agents to combine with amphotericin B in order to reduce the amphotericin dose to lessen side effects and improve antifungal efficacy.


Resumo A anfotericina B é uma substância fungicida e é o tratamento de escolha para a maioria das infecções fúngicas sistêmicas que afetam os pacientes imunocomprometidos, como a criptococose. No entanto, as severas reações adversas têm limitado a utilização desta droga. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito antifúngico e o potencial efeito protetor de citotoxicidade da combinação de anfotericina B com quercetina ou rutina. A atividade antifúngica de anfotericina B, quercetina e rutina, isoladamente e em combinação foi determinada em cepas de Candida sp e Cryptococcus neoformans. O teste de citotoxicidade em eritrócitos foi realizado por espectrofotometria, através da determinação da absorbância da hemoglobina. A concentração inibitória mínima da anfotericina B foi reduzida quando utilizada em combinação com a quercetina e rutina em C. neoformans ATCC e reduzida quando combinados com rutina em um isolado clínico de C. neoformans. Além disso, a combinação de quercetina com anfotericina B pode reduzir a toxicidade da droga em eritrócitos. Os resultados sugerem que quercetina e rutina são potenciais agentes para combinação com anfotericina B, a fim de reduzir a dose de anfotericina, diminuindo os efeitos colaterais e melhorando sua eficácia antifúngica.


Subject(s)
Quercetin/pharmacology , Rutin/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Cryptococcus neoformans/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/growth & development , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cryptococcus neoformans/growth & development
18.
Acta méd. peru ; 33(3): 232-235, jul.-Set. 2016.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-989096

ABSTRACT

La criptococosis es una micosis causada por dos hongos levaduriformes encapsulados del género Cryptoccoccus, ingresa al organismo por vía inhalatoria con diseminación al sistema nervioso central, su prevalencia es mayor en inmunodeprimidos por VIH SIDA. Presentamos el caso de un paciente masculino de 13 años de edad, VIH negativo, de la etnia Lenca, procedente de zona rural de Honduras, con historia de contacto prolongado con heces de paloma (Columba livia), quien se presentó con síndrome de hipertensión endocraneana. Tinta china de líquido cefalorraquídeo reportó levaduras encapsuladas compatibles con Cryptococcus neoformans spp confirmado por cultivo. Su único antecedente de inmunosupresión fue la desnutrición. Tuvo evolución favorable con la terapia combinada anfotericina b y fluconazol


Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection caused by two encapsulated yeasts of the genus Cryptoccoccus. The microorganism enters the body through inhalation and it disseminates to the central nervous system. Its prevalence is higher in immunocompromised patients, especially those with HIV-AIDS. We report the case of a 13-year old male patient, negative for HIV infection, who belongs to the Lenca ethnic group, from a rural area in Honduras and a positive history of contact with pigeon feces (Columba livia). The patient presented with intracranial hypertension syndrome. An India-ink examination of his cerebrospinal fluid revealed encapsulated yeasts compatible with Cryptococcus neoformans spp., confirmed by culture. The presentation of this case is important because of being a pediatric HIV negative patient, whose only previous immunosuppression was malnutrition. Additionally, he had a history of contact with pigeon feces, resulting in risk factors for developing the disease. We should also take into account the imp ortance of the epidemiological correlation in order to achieve an early diagnosis and an adequate response to therapy. In this case, the combined therapy with fluconazole and amphotericin, led to a favorable outcome

19.
Rev. Fac. Med. UNAM ; 59(2): 28-38, mar.-abr. 2016. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-957081

ABSTRACT

Resumen La mucormicosis es una infección causada por hongos del orden de los mucorales; las infecciones causadas por estos hongos generalmente se adquieren por vía respiratoria ya que las esporas de estos se encuentran en el ambiente. En pacientes inmunocomprometidos o diabéticos descompensados, estos microorganismos pueden causar cuadros fatales. Puede presentarse en varias localizaciones, en este caso se tratará la localización pulmonar. La fiebre, la hemoptisis y el infarto tisular son característicos de la mucormicosis pulmonar. Radiológicamente, se puede encontrar consolidación lobar, lesiones aisladas, enfermedad nodular y cavitación. Una vez realizado el diagnóstico de mucormicosis de cualquier localización, se deben identificar los factores predisponentes y corregirlos o atenuarlos. En esta ocasión se presenta el caso clínico de una paciente de 61 años de edad con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) de 10 años de evolución que ingresa al servicio de urgencias de esta institución con descontrol glucémico de 520 mg/dL, acompañado de fiebre y con cuadro clínico de infección de vías respiratorias en tratamiento. Se realiza la presentación del caso, su comparación con la literatura disponible y las conclusiones a las que se llegaron.


Abstract Mucormycosis is an infection caused by organisms that belong to a group of fungi called Mucoromycotina in the order Mucorales; Infections caused by these microorganisms, are usually acquired through the respiratory route since the spores of fungi are found in the environment. These infections are more common among people with a weakened immune system or diabetic people, and they could be fatal. Mucormycosis can be found in several localizations but this case will focus specifically in the lung. The symptoms associated with it are fever, hemoptysis, and tissular infarct. Radiographically, lobar consolidation, isolate mass, nodular component and cavitation can be found. Once the diagnostics is made, in any location, its important to identify the risk factors, and try to correct or improve them. In this occasion, the we present the case of a 62-years-old female, with diabetes mellitus type 2 with and 10 years of evolution,. She arrives to the emergency room of this institution with uncontrolled blood glucose (520 mg / dL), accompanied by fever.and respiratory infection, and is treated by a multidisciplinary team (internal medicine, surgery and infectology). This is the presentation of the case, its comparison with the available literature and the conclusions of the author.

20.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-758436

ABSTRACT

A anfotericina B (AmB) é fármaco o “padrão ouro” para o tratamento de infecções fúngicas invasivas desde 1960, Entretanto, a anfotericina B apresenta elevada toxicidade, a qual manifesta-se mais frequentemente nos rins e no fígado, Sabe-se, desde 1985, que a auto-oxidação da AmB origina diferentes formas de espécies reativas oxidativas e estas, por serem tóxicas para a célula, seriam responsáveis, em parte, pela toxicidade, Diferentes estudos indicam que a hesperidina contribui por meio do decréscimo do estresse oxidativo, para a proteção renal e contra a injúria gerada pela isquemia, Tal fato e o envolvimento da AmB na geração de radicais livres tornam interessante a avaliação preliminar do efeito da hesperidina e AmB (isoladamente ou associadas) frente a espécies reativas do oxigênio e radicais livres, bem como o estudo das mesmas em modelos de citoxicidade, Frente ao ABTS•+, a AmB apresentou IC50 igual a 0,0124mg/mL, mas quando associada à hesperidina este valor caiu para 0,0003mg/mL, Frente ao HOCl, a Amb apresentou IC50 igual a 0,0056, mas quando associada à hesperidina este valor caiu para 0,0023mg/mL, No ensaio com DPPH• e radical ânion superóxido as amostras não foram efetivas, No ensaio com células endoteliais em cultivo (HUVEC), as associações reduziram a viabilidade celular, Estes resultados preliminares evidenciam a interação dos compostos com espécies reativas bem como indicam possibilidade de exacerbação do dano pela AmB na presença dos antioxidantes em um modelo in vitro...


Amphotericin B (AmB) is drug “gold standard” for the treatment of invasive fungal infections since 1960. However, amphotericin B has high toxicity, which manifests itself most often in the kidneys and in the liver. It is known, since 1985, that self-oxidation of AmB gives different forms of reactive oxidative species and these, being toxic to the cell, would be responsible, in part, by its toxicity. Different studies indicate that hesperidin contributes, through the reduction of oxidative stress, to protect against renal injury generated by ischemia. This fact and the involvement of AmB in the generation of free radicals make it interesting the preliminary evaluation of the effect of hesperidin and AmB (alone or associated) against reactive oxygen species and free radicals, as well as the study on models of cytotoxicity. Front ABTS•+, AmB presented IC50 equal to 0.0124 mg/mL, but when it was associated to hesperidin this value has decreased to 0.0003 mg/mL. Front HOCl, Amb presented IC50 equal to 0.0056, but when it was associated to hesperidin this value has decreased to 0.0023 mg/mL. In the trials with DPPH• and the superoxide anion radical samples were not effective. In the assay with endotelial cell culture (HUVEC cells), the association has decreased cell viability. These preliminary results demonstrate the interaction of the compounds with reactive species as well as indicate the possibility of damage exacerbation by AmB in the presence of antioxidants in an in vitro model...


Subject(s)
Humans , Amphotericin B , Antifungal Agents , Hesperidin , Oxidative Stress
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