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1.
Medicina UPB ; 41(1): 75-79, mar. 2022. Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362712

ABSTRACT

Los aneurismas de las arterias coronarias (AAC) son poco comunes, con una incidencia de 0.3-5.3%. Se definen como una dilatación 1.5 veces mayor al diámetro interno de la arteria normal adyacente. La arteria coronaria derecha es la más comúnmente afectada. Su fisiopatología es poco clara, pero se cree que una de sus principales causas es la aterosclerosis. Los AAC son generalmente asintomáticos o pueden estar asociados a isquemia miocárdica. Su tratamiento aún no está bien establecido, debido al desconocimiento general sobre su historia natural, e incluye desde un manejo conservador hasta el tratamiento quirúrgico. A continuación, se reporta el caso de un paciente con infarto agudo de miocardio y elevación del segmento ST, llevado a coronariografía que evidenció aneurisma de la coronaria derecha, que requirió trombectomía, angioplastia y manejo médico vitalicio ambulatorio.


Coronary artery aneurysms (CAA) are a rare entity with an incidence of 0.3-5.3%. They are dilations of 1.5 times larger than normal adjacent artery, with the right coronary artery as the most affected vessel. Its pathophysiology is unclear but atherosclerosis is believed to be the main cause. CAA are generally asymptomatic but can cause coronary ischemia. Its treatment is yet to be established due to general ignorance about its nature. It ranges from conservative management to surgery. In the following text, we report a case of a patient with acute myocardial infarction presenting ST-segment elevation, who showed a right coronary artery aneurysm in coronary angiography. The patient required thrombectomy, angioplasty and subsequent lifetime outpatient medical management.


Os aneurismas das artérias coronárias (AAC) são pouco comuns, com uma incidência de 0.3-5.3%. Se definem como uma dilatação 1.5 vezes maior ao diâmetro interno da artéria normal adjacente. A artéria coronária direita é a mais comumente afetada. Sua fisiopatologia é pouco clara, mas se crê que uma das suas principais causas é a aterosclerose. Os AAC são geralmente assintomáticos ou podem estar associados a isquemia miocárdica. Seu tratamento ainda não está bem estabelecido, devido ao desconhecimento geral sobre sua história natural, e inclui desde um manejo conservador até o tratamento cirúrgico. A continuação, se reporta o caso de um paciente com infarto agudo de miocárdio e elevação do segmento ST, levado a coronariografia que evidenciou aneurisma da coronária direita, que requereu trombectomia, angioplastia e manejo médico vitalício ambulatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aneurysm , Coronary Angiography , Myocardial Ischemia , Angioplasty , Coronary Vessels , Myocardial Infarction
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 607-613, mar. 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364344

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A ventriculografia esquerda é um método invasivo para avaliar a função sistólica do ventrículo esquerdo. Depois do advento de métodos não invasivos, o seu uso tem sido questionado por resultar em algum risco para o paciente. Objetivos Avaliar quais fatores associam-se independentemente com a decisão de realizar ventriculografia em pacientes com doença arterial coronariana. Métodos Tratou-se de um estudo analítico, retrospectivo, avaliando prontuários eletrônicos e banco de dados e comparando 21 variáveis de interesse pré-definidas entre pacientes submetidos a cineangiocoronariografia. Foi considerado significante p < 0,05. Resultados Avaliamos 600 pacientes consecutivos, e a ventriculografia esquerda foi realizada na maioria dos pacientes submetidos a uma cineangiocoronariografia (54%). Depois da análise multivariada, os pacientes com síndromes coronarianas crônicas ( odds ratio [OR] 1,72; intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC 95%]: 1,20-2,46; p < 0,01) tiveram maior chance de serem submetidos ao procedimento. Os pacientes com função ventricular conhecida (OR = 0,58; IC 95%: 0,40-0,85; p < 0,01), os revascularizados (OR 0,31; IC 95% 0,14-0,69; p < 0,01), os hipertensos (OR 0,58; IC 95%: 0,36-0,94; p = 0,02) e aqueles com maiores valores de creatinina (OR 0,42; IC 95% 0,26-0,69; p < 0,01) tiveram maior chance de não realizar ventriculografia. Conclusões Nos pacientes submetidos a cineangiocoronariografia, o diagnóstico de síndrome coronariana crônica associou-se de modo independente com uma maior realização da técnica, enquanto ter a função ventricular previamente conhecida, ser hipertenso, ter sido submetido a revascularização cirúrgica prévia e ter valores de creatinina mais elevados associaram-se a uma maior chance de não realizar o método.


Abstract Background Left ventriculography is an invasive method for assessment of left ventricular systolic function. Since the advent of noninvasive methods, its use has been questioned, as it carries some risk to the patient. Objective To assess which factors are independently associated with the decision to perform ventriculography in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods Analytical, retrospective, database review study of electronic medical records comparing 21 predefined variables of interest among patients undergoing coronary angiography. P-values <0.05 were considered significant. Results We evaluated 600 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography. Left ventriculography was performed in the majority of cases (54%). After multivariate analysis, patients with chronic coronary syndrome (OR 1.72; 95% CI: 1.20-2.46; p < 0.01) were more likely to undergo the procedure. Patients with known ventricular function (OR 0.58; 95% CI: 0.40-0.85; p < 0.01); those with a history of CABG (OR 0.31; 95% CI: 0.14-0.69; p < 0.01) or hypertension (OR 0.58; 95% CI: 0.36-0.94; p = 0.02); and those with higher creatinine levels (OR 0.42; 95% CI: 0.26-0.69; p < 0.01) had greater odds of not undergoing ventriculography. Conclusions In patients undergoing coronary angiography, a diagnosis of chronic coronary syndrome was independently associated with greater likelihood of left ventriculography, while having previously determined ventricular function, a history of hypertension or CABG, and higher creatinine levels were associated with a decreased likelihood of undergoing this procedure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Ventricular Function, Left , Coronary Angiography , Heart
4.
International Eye Science ; (12): 327-330, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913047

ABSTRACT

@#AIM: To investigate the application value of optical coherence tomography angiography(OCTA)in observing retinal microvasculature in patients with diabetic retinopathy(DR). METHODS: Prospective research. The 84 patients(98 eyes)with DR admitted to our hospital during 2017-06/2019-12 were selected as the study group, and were further divided into non-proliferative DR group and proliferative DR group according to the degree of DR. Another 60 cases(68 eyes)with simple diabetes mellitus who underwent physical examination in our hospital during the same period were selected as the control group. The OCTA was used to quantitatively analyze the microvessels in the retinal macular area of the subject, and the built-in analysis software was used to obtain the blood flow density(SCP, DCP)of the superficial and deep parafoveal retina, the area and circumference of the foveal avascular zone(FAZ), the roundness index, full-thickness retinal blood flow density(FD-300). The differences of quantitative indexes, the correlation between OCTA parameters and DR severity and the diagnostic value of DR were compared.RESULTS: The study group's FD-300, SCP and DCP were lower than those of the control group(<i>t</i>=6.476, 8.907, 5.078; all <i>P</i><0.05), while the FAZ circumference and the roundness index were higher than those of the control group(<i>t</i>=4.380, 10.542; all <i>P</i><0.05). The FD-300, SCP and DCP of the proliferative DR group were lower than those of the non-proliferative DR group(<i>t</i>=2.668, 3.408, 3.103; all <i>P</i><0.05), while the FAZ circumference and the roundness index were higher than those of the non-proliferative DR group(<i>t</i>=2.550, 5.563; all <i>P</i><0.05). Pearson correlation analysis shows that FD-300, SCP, DCP were negatively correlated with disease severity(<i>r</i>= -0.485, -0.546, -0.522; all <i>P</i><0.05), FAZ circumference and morphological index were positively correlated with disease severity(<i>r</i>=0.426, 0.443; all <i>P</i><0.05). ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the curve for FD-300, SCP, DCP, FAZ circumference, and FAZ morphological index to diagnose DR were 0.835(95%<i>CI:</i> 0.722-0.947), 0.806(95%<i>CI</i>: 0.701-0.911), 0.849(95%<i>CI</i>: 0.770-0.928), 0.768(95%<i>CI</i>: 0.641-0.896), 0.742(95%<i>CI</i>: 0.633-0.850), respectively. CONCLUSION: OCTA can clearly monitor the morphology of superficial and deep capillaries in the macular area of patients with DR. The quantitative index of blood flow density is negatively correlated with the severity of the disease, which has high clinical value for the diagnosis of DR.

5.
International Eye Science ; (12): 287-292, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913039

ABSTRACT

@#AIM:To quantitatively evaluate the macular microvasculature and visual function in patients with macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion(RVO)by optical coherence tomography angiography(OCTA)combined with microperimetry. <p>METHODS: Totally 36 patients(36 eyes)with monocular RVO complicated with macular edema were enrolled, including 15 patients(15 eyes)in central retinal vein occlusion(CRVO)group and 21 patients(21 eyes)in branch retinal vein occlusion(BRVO)group(all with superior temporal vein occlusion), 15 age-matched healthy subjects(24 eyes)were included as controls. OCTA was used to scan macular retina in the range of 3mm×3mm in all three groups and measure the vascular density(VD)of superficial capillary plexus(SCP)and deep capillary plexus(DCP), the area of foveal avascular zone(FAZ)and the central retinal thicknes(CRT); the retinal mean sensitivity(RMS)at 10°was measured by MP-3 microperimetry. VD and RMS in BRVO group were further divided into lesion area(superior), non-lesion area(inferior)VD and RMS. The lesion area and non-lesion area of the control group were divided according to corresponding regions of the BRVO group. The changes of above indexes in CRVO group and BRVO group were compared with control group respectively, and the correlation between RMS and VD, CRT and FAZ areas in CRVO group and BRVO group was analyzed.<p>RESULTS:The overall VD(SCP and DCP)in CRVO group were lower than those in control group(<i>t</i>= -2.536, <i>P</i>=0.016; <i>t</i>= -8.834, <i>P</i><0.001); the area of FAZ was larger than that in control group(<i>t</i>=3.354, <i>P</i>=0.002); the CRT was thicker than that in control group(<i>t</i>=13.888, <i>P</i><0.001); the overall RMS was significantly lower than that in control group(<i>t</i>= -6.250, <i>P</i><0.001). The overall VD(SCP and DCP)in BRVO group were decreased compared to those in control group(<i>t</i>= -5.186, <i>P</i><0.001; <i>t</i>= -5.238, <i>P</i><0.001); the VD of SCP and DCP in the affected sector were decreased compared to those in the corresponding sector of the control group(<i>t</i>= -5.611, <i>P</i><0.001; <i>t</i>= -6.940, <i>P</i><0.001); the VD in the unaffected sector was significantly less than that in the corresponding sector of the control group only in DCP, but not in SCP(<i>t</i>= -3.047, <i>P</i>=0.004; <i>t</i>= -1.459, <i>P</i>=0.156); the area of FAZ was larger than that in control group(<i>t</i>=2.722, <i>P</i>=0.011); the CRT was thicker than that in control group(<i>t</i>=7.764, <i>P</i><0.001); the overall RMS was significantly lower than that in control group(<i>t</i>= -10.931, <i>P</i><0.001); the RMS in both the affected sector and the unaffected sector were lower than those in the corresponding sector of the control group(<i>t</i>= -13.183, <i>P</i><0.001; <i>t</i>= -8.074, <i>P</i><0.001). In CRVO group,the overall VD of SCP and DCP was positively correlated with the overall RMS(<i>r</i>=0.571, <i>P</i>=0.026; <i>r</i>=0.813, <i>P</i><0.001)and the area of FAZ and CRT was negatively correlated with the overall RMS(<i>r</i>= -0.621, <i>P</i>=0.014; <i>r</i>= -0.533, <i>P</i>=0.041). In BRVO group,the overall VD of SCP and DCP was positively correlated with the overall RMS(<i>r</i>=0.465, <i>P</i>=0.034; <i>r</i>=0.611, <i>P</i>=0.003), and the CRT was negatively correlated with the overall RMS(<i>r</i>= -0.547, <i>P</i>=0.01), while there was no correlation between the area of FAZ and the overall RMS(<i>r</i>= -0.421, <i>P</i>=0.057).<p>CONCLUSION: The combined application of OCTA and microperimetry can corresponding quantitatively evaluate the structure and function of macular area in patients with macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion, providing more detailed information for clinical decision makers to explain the disease well.

6.
International Eye Science ; (12): 280-286, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913038

ABSTRACT

@#AIM: To quantitatively analyze the microcircular and structural changes of the macular and peripapillary area in patients with diabetic kidney disease(DKD), exploring non-invasive effective monitoring indexes that can predict the occurrence and development of diabetic kidney disease used optical coherence tomography angiography(OCTA).<p>METHODS: A cross-sectional study. The diabetic patients(52 cases)and healthy subjects(20 cases)who came to Shanxi Provincial People's Hospital from January 2020 to January 2021 were collected, and the diabetes mellitus(DM)patients were further divided into DKD group(23 cases)(complicated with diabetic kidney disease)and non-DKD group(29 cases)(not complicated with diabetic kidney disease). All patients underwent slit-lamp microscopy, best corrected visual acuity(BCVA), OCTA and fundus color photography. OCTA was used to scan the macula and peripapillary area of all participants, measuring the shallow and deep blood flow density, the area and circumference of the fovea(FAZ), vascular density in the 300μm area around FAZ(FD300), retinal thickness, peripapillary-VD, retinal nerve fiber layer(RNFL)thickness, and ganglion cell complex(GCC)thickness. The correlation between the changes of these parameters in OCTA, DR staging and DKD staging was analyzed. <p>RESULTS: Parafoveal SCP-VD, perifoveal DCP-VD, peripapillary-VD, and FD300 showed a decreasing trend among the healthy group, non-DKD group, and DKD group(<i>P</i><0.05). The foveal DCP-VD was decreased only in the DKD group(<i>P</i><0.05), and there was no significant difference in the SCP-VD of fovea among the three groups(<i>P></i>0.05). FAZ area and GCC thickness were gradually increased among healthy group, non-DKD group and DKD group(<i>P</i><0.05). DR staging was positively correlated with DKD staging(<i>rs</i>=0.648, <i>P</i><0.05). Parafoveal SCP-VD, parafoveal DCP-VD, and perifoveal DCP-VD were negatively correlated with DKD staging(<i>rs</i>= -0.535, <i>P</i>=0.009; <i>rs</i>= -0.712, <i>P</i><0.001; <i>rs</i>= -0.641, <i>P</i>=0.001). Compared with non-DKD group, DKD group had higher SBP, lower eGFR, and higher UACR(<i>P</i><0.05). <p>CONCLUSION: OCTA can detect retinal microcirculation and structural changes in patients with DKD, including decreased vessel density in the macular and peripapillary area, increased FAZ area and GCC thickness. More importantly, we found that retinal vessel density decreased with renal function impairment, suggesting that retinal vessel density may be a noninvasive and effective predictor in the severity of DKD.

7.
International Eye Science ; (12): 175-181, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913018

ABSTRACT

@#AIM: To evaluate the differences of macular vascular network measured by optical coherence tomography angiography(OCTA)between severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy(S-NPDR)eyes and health eyes, and explore the changes of these OCTA characteristics in patients with S-NPDR before and after panretinal photocoagulation(PRP).<p>METHODS: This was a prospective study including 31 eyes from 18 consecutive patients with S-NPDR and 31 eyes of healthy subjects. We measured macular vascular density and foveal avascular zone(FAZ)area and volume by an OCTA device.<p>RESULTS: Compared to the normal control group, in superficial retinal capillary plexus(SCP), macular vascular density decreased in S-NPDR group, except foveal vascular density unchanged. Consistently, in deep retinal capillary plexus(DCP), macular vascular density was also lower in S-NPDR group. In addition, FAZ area and volume expanded in S-NPDR eyes. At 6mo post-PRP in S-NPDR eyes, foveal SCP and DCP densities increased significantly, while FAZ area and volume decreased. At 3mo post-PRP, only foveal vascular density in DCP increased. The changes of foveal SCP and DCP densities as well as FAZ area and volume were not statically significant at 1mo post-PRP.<p>CONCLUSION: Macular vascular network was impaired in S-NPDR assessed by OCTA. Although OCTA parameters were not significantly affected by PRP in 1 and 3mo period, at 6mo follow-up parameters became significant after PRP.

9.
International Eye Science ; (12): 95-98, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906739

ABSTRACT

@#AIM: To investigate the difference of the optic vessel density in early primary open angle glaucoma(POAG), ocular high tension subjects and healthy subjects. <p>METHODS: A cross-sectional study. From January 2019 to April 2021, patients were selected in the Department of Glaucoma in Fuzhou Southeast Eye Hospital. There were 45 patients(70 eyes)of early POAG group, including 32 males(49 eyes)and 13 females(21 eyes)with age of 48.50(26.75, 64.50)years. There were 37 patients(65 eyes)of ocular high tension group, including 17 males(29 eyes)and 20 females(36 eyes)with age of 37.00(27.00, 47.00)years. There were 51 patients(94 eyes)of healthy group, including 23 males(39 eyes)and 28 females(55 eyes)with age of 46.00(34.50, 56.50)years. Ophthalmic examinations including best-corrected visual acuity(BCVA), intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness(CCT), mean deviations(MD), retinal nerve fiber layers thickness(RNFL)were measured in three groups. The center area, the inner circle area, the outer circle area, and the whole area of the optic vessel density in three groups were measured <i>via</i> optical coherence tomography angiography(OCTA)device.<p>RESULTS: The difference of the intraocular pressure in early POAG group-ocular high tension group was not significant(<i>H</i>=146.876,<i>P</i><0.001), while significantly in early POAG group-healthy group and ocular high tension group-healthy group(all <i>P</i><0.01). Significant differences in BCVA, MD, and RNFL were observed in early POAG group-ocular high tension group(<i>P</i>=0.005, <i>P</i>=0.01, <i>P</i><0.01)and early POAG group-healthy group(<i>P</i>=0.013, <i>P</i><0.01, <i>P</i><0.01), while the difference was not found in ocular high tension group-healthy group(<i>P</i>=1.000, <i>P</i>=0.660, <i>P</i>=1.000). There was no difference of CCT in early POAG group-healthy group(<i>P</i>=0.074), and significant differences were observed in early POAG group-ocular high tension group and ocular high tension group-healthy group(<i>P</i>=0.006, <i>P</i><0.01). The optic vessel density comparison in the center area, the inner circle area, and the whole area were significantly different in early POAG group-ocular high tension group(all <i>P</i><0.01)and in early POAG group-healthy group(all <i>P</i><0.01), which indicated that the optic vessel density was obviously less in the early POAG group than the other two groups. The optic vessel density had no significant difference in ocular high tension group-healthy group in these areas(all <i>P</i>=1.000). In the outer circle area, there were no significant differences of the optic vessel density in early POAG group-ocular high tension group and early POAG group-healthy group(<i>P</i>=0.067, <i>P</i>=0.877), while significant difference was observed in early POAG group-healthy group(<i>P</i>=0.001).<p>CONCLUSION: The optic vessel density was decreased in early POAG comparing with ocular high tension subjects and healthy subjects, which was agree with the changes of MD, RNFL. The optic vessel density decreased firstly from the center area and the inner circle area for early POAG.

10.
International Eye Science ; (12): 673-676, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922875

ABSTRACT

@#AIM:To observe the imaging features of optical coherence tomography angiography(OCTA)in the macular hemorrhage of pathologic myopia.METHODS:Designing a retrospective analysis collected clinical data of 100 patients(108 eyes)diagnosed as macular hemorrhage of pathological myopic in Nanjing Medical University Affiliated Eye Hospital from June 2016 to December 2020. All patients underwent refraction, eye axis,fundus photography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography(SD-OCT), fundus fluorescein angiography(FFA), indocyanine green angiography(ICGA)and OCTA examination. All patients were divided into macular hemorrhage only with lacquer cracks and macular hemorrhage with choroidal neovascularization(CNV). All patients followed-up for more than 3mo by OCTA. RESULTS:There were 40 patients(42 eyes)diagnosed as macular hemorrhage only with lacquer cracks, OCTA showed bleed obscured by choroidal capillaries. After hemorrhage was being absorbed, lacquer cracks showed linear or stellate reflection completely in the choroidal capillary layer. B-scan image showed discontinuous retinal pigment epithelium(RPE), thinner choroid and an increased light. Penetrance into deeper tissues. After all macular hemorrhage only with lacquer cracks were absorbed, follow-up mode of OCTA found that 2 eyes(4.8%)without lacquer cracks, 28 eyes(66.7%)were linear and 12 eyes(28.6%)were stellate under the original hemorrhage. Follow-up mode also showed that 8 eyes of 8 patients(19.0%)relapsed macular hemorrhage only with lacquer cracks, and 4 eyes of 4 patients(9.5%)suffered secondary macular hemorrhage with CNV. There were 60 patients(66 eyes)diagnosed as macular hemorrhage with CNV,OCTA showed bleed obscured choroidal capillaries, the outer retinal and choroidal capillary layer also showed the shape of CNV around hemorrhage. B-scan showed CNV breaked through the RPE layer and blood flow signal in it. The area of CNV decreased after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF)intravitreal injection treatment. Around all macular hemorrhage with CNV, OCTA found that 48 eyes(72.7%)had lacquer cracks, 28 eyes(42.4%)were linear and 20 eyes(30.3%)were stellate.CONCLUSION:OCTA has a great significance in the diagnosis of macular hemorrhage of pathological myopia, fast and non-invasive is the biggest advantage. Choroidal capillary layer can clearly observe the shape and location of hemorrhage,lacquer cracks and CNV. The follow-up mode can intuitively comprehend the changes of disease. To some extent, it can replace fundus angiography to directly judge the classification, and time to treat in the clinic.

11.
International Eye Science ; (12): 579-582, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922855

ABSTRACT

@#Targeted retinal photocoagulation(TRP)refers to targeted photocoagulation of the non-perfusion areas(NPA)of the retina, which can greatly reduce the risk of complications of panretinal photocoagulation(PRP). Ultra-wide field fluorescein angiography(UWFFA)can clearly show NPA of the far peripheral retina, which is conducive to precise positioning and implementation of TRP therapy. At present, the safety of short-term TRP treatment programs for proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR)is reasonable, but the long-term efficacy is still uncertain. In the future, TRP may become an early treatment option for some PDR patients, by delaying PRP to maintain the visual acuity and central field of vision. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF)drugs are currently the first-line drugs for diabetic macular edema(DME), for which with retinal neovascularization(NV)or poor compliance, combined TRP therapy may be considered. The ischemic index(ISI)is used to quantitatively analyze NPA of the retina under the vision of UWFFA, which is expected to become an important index in the future to guide the selection of clinical TRP treatment options.

12.
International Eye Science ; (12): 554-559, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922850

ABSTRACT

@#AIM:To provide a clinical reference for the design of personalized surgical parameters for cataract, swept source optic coherence tomography angiography(SS-OCTA)was applied to comparatively study the blood flow of the macular area before operation in patients with different intraocular pressure during cataract surgery.METHODS: Prospective randomized controlled study. A total of 61 patients(77 eyes)who underwent cataract surgery in Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital from January to April 2021 were collected and divided into group A(37 eyes)and group B(40 eyes)for the study using a random number table. Group A and group B received the height of 75 and 90cm perfusion bottles with intraoperative,corresponding to 55.5 and 66.6mmHg intraoperative mean intraocular pressure,respectively. All patients were examined with SS-OCTA in macula area before and 1,7 and 30d after surgery, except routine ophthalmologic examination, the macular retinal thickness, the perfusion area and vessel density of the radial perioptic capillary plexus(RPCP)layer, superficial vascular plexus(SVP)layer, intermediate vascular plexus(IVP)layer and deep vascular plexus(DVP)layer were observed.RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the best corrected visual acuity(BCVA), intraocular pressure, foveal avascular zone(FAZ), macular retinal thickness, perfusion area and vascular density between the two groups at each time point before and after surgery(all <i>P</i>>0.05),but there were differences in time(all <i>P</i><0.05). In both groups, BCVA improved significantly from preoperative values at all time points after surgery, intraocular pressure and FAZ decreased compared with preoperative values(all <i>P</i><0.05), and macular retinal thickness, perfusion area in all layers, and blood flow density were increased compared with preoperative values.CONCLUSION:The macular retinal thickness, blood flow density and perfusion area of all layers increased,and the FAZ area decreased after cataract surgery, which may help to promote the recovery of visual acuity after surgery. At different intraocular pressures of 55.5 and 66.6mmHg intraoperatively, there was no significant difference in the patients'postoperative fundus blood flow changes, therefore, intraocular pressure can be flexibly selected during the operation to provide patients with personalized surgical design.

13.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 206-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920850

ABSTRACT

Objective To summarize the incidence of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) after heart transplantation and the effect on the long-term survival of recipients. Methods Clinical data of 1 006 heart transplant recipients were retrospectively analyzed. Of 48 CAV patients, 4 cases were not included in this analysis due to lack of imaging evidence. A total of 1 002 recipients were divided into the CAV group (n=44) and non-CAV group (n=958) according to the incidence of CAV. The incidence of CAV was summarized. Clinical data of all patients were statistically compared between two groups. Imaging diagnosis, coronary artery disease, drug treatment and complications, postoperative survival and causes of death of CAV patients were analyzed. Results Among 1 006 heart transplant recipients, 48 cases (4.77%) developed CAV. Compared with the non-CAV group, the proportion of preoperative smoking history, preoperative hypertension history, coronary artery disease and perioperative infection was significantly higher in the CAV group (all P < 0.05). Among 44 patients diagnosed with CAV by imaging examination, 24 cases were diagnosed with CAV by coronary CT angiography (CTA), 4 cases by coronary angiography (CAG), and 16 cases by coronary CTA combined with CAG. Among 44 patients, the proportion of grade Ⅰ CAV was 45% (20/44), 30% (13/44) for grade Ⅱ CAV and 25% (11/44) for grade Ⅲ CAV, respectively. All patients received long-term use of statins after operation, and 20 patients were given with antiplatelet drugs. Among 44 CAV patients, 11 patients underwent percutaneous coronary intervention, 6 cases received repeated heart transplantation, and 8 patients died. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that there was no significant difference in the long-term survival rate between the CAV and non-CAV groups (P > 0.05), whereas the survival rate of patients tended to decline after the diagnosis of CAV (at postoperative 6-7 years). The long-term survival rates of patients with grade Ⅰ, grade Ⅱ and grade Ⅲ CAV showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). Even for patients with grade Ⅰ CAV, the long-term survival rate tended to decline. Conclusions CAV is a common and intractable complication following heart transplantation, and the long-term survival rate of patients after the diagnosis of CAV tended to decline. Deepening understanding of CAV, prompt prevention, diagnosis and treatment should be delivered to improve the long-term survival rate of patients after heart transplantation.

14.
International Eye Science ; (12): 438-442, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920425

ABSTRACT

@#Diabetic retinopathy(DR)is a common clinical condition caused by hyperglycemia, leading to retinal microvascular damage and neurodegeneration. With the development of advanced technologies, handheld electrophysiology(RETeval), optical coherence tomography(OCT)and optical coherence tomography angiography(OCTA)have been extensively studied and applied in early diagnosis of DR. These technologies are non-invasive and quantifiable, assisting in DR diagnosis in a fast and convenient manner. In this review, the principles and applications of RETeval, OCT and OCTA will be discussed in detail.

15.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(2): 478-485, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364331

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A relação direta entre a doença arterial coronariana (DAC) e o câncer de pulmão não é bem conhecida. Objetivo Investigar a associação entre a gravidade anatômica da DAC e do câncer de pulmão. Métodos Trezentos pacientes, incluindo 75 recém-diagnosticados com câncer de pulmão e 225 pacientes correspondentes sem câncer, foram submetidos à angiografia coronária durante a internação, sem intervenção coronária percutânea (ICP) prévia nem enxerto de bypass da artéria coronária (CABG). O escore SYNTAX foi utilizado para avaliar a gravidade da DAC. Uma pontuação alta no escore foi definida como > 15 (o maior quartil do escore SYNTAX). O teste de tendência de Cochran-Armitage foi utilizado para verificar a distribuição dos escores dos pacientes. Uma análise de regressão logística foi utilizada para avaliar a associação entre a gravidade da DAC e o câncer de pulmão. Os valores de p foram estabelecidos quando o nível de significância era 5%. Resultados A tendência de distribuição dos escores SYNTAX dos pacientes por quartis foi diferente entre aqueles com câncer de pulmão e controles (do quartil mais baixo ao mais alto: 20,0%; 20,0%; 24,0%; 36,0% vs. 26,7%; 26,2%; 25,8%; 21,3%; p=0,022). A pontuação no escore SYNTAX foi mais alta em pacientes com câncer do que nos pacientes controle (36,0% vs. 21,3%, p=0,011).O maior quartil do escore demonstrou mais riscos de desenvolver câncer de pulmão em comparação ao quartil mais baixo (OR: 2.250, IC95%: 1.077 a 4.699 ; P -trend= 0,016). Após ajustes, os pacientes no maior quartil do escore SYNTAX tinham mais risco de desenvolver câncer de pulmão (OR: 2.1o49, IC95%: 1.008 a 4.584; P -trend= 0,028). Pacientes com escores SYNTAX alto (> 15) tinham 1.985 mais chances de ter câncer de pulmão (IC95%: 1.105-3.563, P= 0,022). Conclusão A gravidade anatômica da DAC está associada ao risco de câncer de pulmão, o que indica que um rastreamento completo deste tipo de câncer possa ser mais significativo entre pacientes com DAC.


Abstract Background The direct relationship between coronary artery disease (CAD) and lung cancer is not well known. Objective To investigate the association between the anatomical severity of CAD and lung cancer. Methods Three-hundred study patients, including 75 recently diagnosed lung cancer patients and 225 matched non-cancer patients, underwent coronary angiography during hospitalization without previous percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The SYNTAX score (SXscore) was used to assess the severity of CAD. A high SXscore (SXhigh) grade was defined as SXscore > 15 (the highest quartile of the SXscore). The Cochran-Armitage test for trend was used to assess the distribution of patients' SXscores. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between the severity of CAD and lung cancer. P-values were set when significance level was 5%. Results The distribution trend of patients' SXscore by quartiles was different between lung cancer patients and control patients (from the lowest to the highest quartile: 20.0%, 20.0%, 24.0%, 36.0% vs. 26.7%, 26.2%, 25.8%, 21.3%, p=0.022). The SX high rate was higher in lung cancer patients than in control patients (36.0% vs. 21.3%, p=0.011).The highest quartile of the SXscore showed higher risk of lung cancer in comparison to the lowest quartile (OR: 2,250, 95%CI: 1,077 to 4,699 ; P-trend= 0.016). After adjustment, patients in the highest quartile of the SXscore had higher risk of lung cancer (OR: 2,149, 95%CI: 1,008 to 4,584; P-trend= 0.028). Patients with high SXscore (> 15) had 1,985 times more chances of having lung cancer (95%CI: 1,105-3,563, P= 0.022). Conclusions The anatomical severity of CAD is associated with the risk of lung cancer, which indicates that a thorough lung cancer screening may be significant among severe CAD patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Severity of Illness Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Coronary Angiography , Early Detection of Cancer , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
17.
Rev. Nac. (Itauguá) ; 13(2): 29-39, DICIEMBRE, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1348675

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la cardiopatía dilatada definida como la dilatación de cavidades cardiacas de múltiples etiologías tiene una prevalencia en adultos de alrededor de 1/2.500 individuos. La ecocardiografía transtorácica determina la dilatación de cavidades y evalúa la función ventricular mientras que la cinecoronariografía permite identificar la etiología principalmente isquémica por afección de arterias coronarias epicárdicas. La utilización de la cinecoronariografía como primera línea para el diagnóstico etiológico, implica riesgos propios de un método invasivo con un alto costo en recursos económicos, por lo cual es imperioso determinar el posible resultado de dicho procedimiento. Objetivo: determinar la frecuencia de lesiones coronarias epicárdicas en pacientes con Cardiopatía Dilatada en un Departamento de Cardiología en el periodo del 2015 ­ 2021. Metodología: estudio observacional, descriptivo, retrospectivo y de corte transversal con muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia, mediante la revisión en la base de datos en un Departamento de Cardiología. Resultados: este estudio incluyó a 88 pacientes, con disnea en clase funcional II-IV de la NYHA y cardiopatía dilatada por ecocardiografía, de etiología no filiada. De éste grupo, 66 % eran varones y 34 % mujeres, la media de edad fue de 56 ± 11,19 años. Al ser sometidos a cinecoronariografía diagnostica, se constató que el 23 % presentó lesiones coronarias epicárdicas, siendo la más frecuente la lesión de un vaso (55 %), predominando el sexo masculino en aquellos con o sin lesiones coronarias epicárdicas. Conclusiones: la frecuencia de lesiones coronarias epicárdicas en pacientes con cardiopatía dilatada, es baja.


ABSTRACT Introduction: dilated heart disease defined as the dilation of cardiac cavities of multiple etiologies has a prevalence in adults of around 1/2.500 individuals. Transthoracic echocardiography determines chamber dilation and evaluates ventricular function, while coronary angiography can identify the mainly ischemic etiology due to involvement of the epicardial coronary arteries. The use of coronary angiography as the first line for the etiological diagnosis implies risks of an invasive method with a high cost in economic resources, for which it is imperative to determine the possible result of said procedure. Objective: to determine the frequency of epicardial coronary lesions in patients with Dilated Heart Disease in a Departmento de Cardiología in the period 2015-2021. Methodology: observational, descriptive, retrospective and cross-sectional study with non-probabilistic convenience sampling, by reviewing the database in a Departmento de Cardiología. Results: this study included 88 patients, with dyspnea in NYHA functional class II-IV and dilated heart disease by echocardiography, of unknown etiology. Out of this group, 66% were men and 34 % women, the mean age was 56 ± 11.19 years. When undergoing diagnostic cinecoronariography, it was found that 23 % had epicardial coronary lesions, the most frequent being a lesion of a vessel (55 %), with the male sex predominating in those with or without epicardial coronary lesions. Conclusions: the frequency of epicardial coronary lesions in patients with dilated heart disease is low.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Coronary Vessels , Heart Diseases , Echocardiography , Dyspnea
18.
MedUNAB ; 24(3): 340-346, 202112.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353595

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El tromboembolismo pulmonar y la trombosis venosa profunda son urgencias cardiovasculares relativamente comunes, se han descrito diferentes predictores clínicos para la estratificación del riesgo, biomarcadores séricos y pruebas de imagenología. Dentro de los biomarcadores séricos se ha descrito el dímero D. Debido a que la enfermedad tromboembólica venosa es un reto diagnóstico para el clínico, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la pertinencia de la solicitud del dímero D, en el servicio de urgencias de un centro de tercer nivel en la ciudad de Bogotá durante los años 2018-2019. Metodología. Estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal retrospectivo de pacientes que consultaron al servicio de urgencias, de una clínica de tercer nivel, de la ciudad de Bogotá, durante el periodo 2018-2019. Resultados. Se revisaron 583 historias clínicas, se excluyeron 107 pacientes, con un total final de 474 (57.3% mujeres y 42.6% hombres). De estos, 21 pacientes presentaron estudios positivos (angiotomografía y Doppler venoso). El dímero D presentó un valor predictivo negativo inferior al 50%. Discusión. A pesar de los resultados y de ser un estudio de un solo centro se evidencian las dificultades que tienen los médicos de los servicios de urgencias al momento de solicitar pruebas diagnósticas. Conclusiones. Este estudio evidencia la dificultad que existe en los servicios de urgencias al momento de la evaluación diagnóstica y cómo la solicitud de los paraclínicos tiene que ser un proceso estandarizado, guiado por los motivos de consulta y hallazgos al examen físico, y así no perder las características operativas de las pruebas diagnósticas y su utilidad al momento de la evaluación clínica.


Introduction. Pulmonary thromboembolisms and deep vein thromboses are relatively common cardiovascular emergencies. Various clinical predictors, serial biomarkers and imaging tests have been described for the stratification of the risk. D-dimer has been described within the serial biomarkers. Since venous thromboembolic disease is a diagnostic challenge for doctors, the objective of this study was to assess the pertinence of the D-dimer request in emergency services in a level three center in Bogotá during 2018-2019. Methodology. An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional retrospective study of patients who resorted to emergency services in a level three clinic in Bogotá during 2018-2019. Results. 583 medical records were reviewed, and 107 patients were excluded, with a final total of 474 patients (57.3% women and 42.6% men). Of these, 21 patients had positive studies (angiotomography and venous doppler ultrasound). D-dimer had a negative predictive value of less than 50%. Discussion. Despite the results and it being a study in a single clinic, the difficulties emergency service doctors experience when requesting diagnostic tests can be observed. Conclusions. This study shows the difficulties in emergency services when performing a diagnosis. The request for complementary tests has to be a standardized process guided by the reasons for the consultation and findings from the physical exam, in order not to lose the operational characteristics of the diagnostic tests and their usefulness during the clinical evaluation.


Introdução. Tromboembolismo pulmonar e trombose venosa profunda são emergências cardiovasculares relativamente comuns. Têm sido descritos diferentes preditores clínicos para estratificação de risco, biomarcadores séricos e testes de imagem. Entre os biomarcadores séricos, foi descrito o D-dímero. Considerando que a doença tromboembólica venosa é um desafio diagnóstico para o clínico, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a relevância da solicitação de D-dímero no serviço de emergência de um centro de terceiro nível na cidade de Bogotá ao longo dos anos 2018-2019. Metodologia. Estudo observacional, descritivo e transversal retrospectivo de pacientes que consultaram o serviço de emergência de uma clínica de terceiro nível na cidade de Bogotá, no período de 2018-2019. Resultados. Foram revisados 583 prontuários, excluídos 107 pacientes, totalizando 474 (57.3% mulheres e 42.6% homens). Destes, 21 pacientes apresentaram estudos positivos (angiotomografia e Doppler venoso). D-dímero apresentou valor preditivo negativo inferior a 50%. Discussão. Apesar dos resultados e do fato de se tratar de um estudo só de um centro, são evidentes as dificuldades que os médicos de emergência apresentam ao solicitarem exames diagnósticos. Conclusões. Este estudo mostra a dificuldade que existe nos serviços de emergência no momento da avaliação diagnóstica e como a solicitação dos testes paraclínicos tem que ser um processo padronizado, orientado pelos motivos da consulta e pelos resultados do exame físico, e assim não perder as características operacionais dos exames diagnósticos e sua utilidade no momento da avaliação clínica.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Embolism , Probability , Venous Thrombosis , Diagnostic Errors , Computed Tomography Angiography
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(5): 856-864, nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248902

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: Os fenômenos de slow-flow (CSFP) e no-reflow coronariano (CNP) estão associados a um risco aumentado de eventos cardiovasculares adversos maiores (ECAM). Objetivos: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar e comparar os resultados do seguimento clínico de um ano entre pacientes com CNP e CSFP submetidos a intervenções coronárias percutâneas (ICP) em infarto agudo do miocárdio sem supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (IAMSSST). Métodos: Este estudo incluiu um total de 858 pacientes com diagnóstico de IAMSSST e submetidos a ICP nas 24 horas desde o início dos sintomas. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos, o grupo CSFP (n = 221) e o grupo CNP (n = 25), considerando as características angiográficas do fluxo da trombólise no infarto do miocárdio (TIMI) e na artéria relacionada ao infarto. Os pacientes tiveram um seguimento de um ano. Um valor de p <0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados: O CNP foi observado em 2,91% e o CSFP em 25,75% dos pacientes. Os desfechos clínicos analisaram que a incidência de acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) foi significativamente maior no grupo CNP do que no grupo CSFP (6 (24%) vs. 6 (2,70%), p <0,001) e a de ECAM foi significativamente maior no grupo CNP do que no grupo CSFP (11 (44%) vs. 51 (23,10%), p = 0,022). A análise de regressão logística condicional forward demonstrou que o índice de massa corporal (IMC) (OR = 1,11, IC95%: 1,00-1,24, p = 0,038) e frequência cardíaca (FC) basal (OR = 0,923, IC 95%: 0,88-0,96, p <0,001) foram os preditores independentes de CNP no IAMSSST. Conclusões: Pacientes com CNP têm piores resultados clínicos e um maior risco de AVC em comparação com pacientes com CSFP no IAMSSST.


Abstract Background: Coronary slow-flow phenomenon (CSFP) and coronary no-reflow phenomenon (CNP) are associated with increased risk of major cardiovascular adverse events (MACE). Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate and compare the one-year clinical follow-up outcomes among patients with CNP and CSFP who underwent percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Methods: This study included a total of 858 patients who were diagnosed with NSTEMI and underwent PCI within 24 h of symptom onset. The patients were divided into two groups, the CSFP group (n=221) and the CNP group (n=25), regarding the angiographic characteristics of thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow of the infarct-related artery. Patients were followed for one-year. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: CNP was observed in 2.91%, and CSFP was observed in 25.75% of the patients. Clinical endpoints analyzed that stroke was significantly higher in the CNP group than in the CSFP group (6 (24%) vs. 6 (2.70%), p<0.001) and MACE was significantly higher in the CNP group than in the CSFP group (11 (44%) vs. 51 (23.10%), p=0.022). Forward conditional logistic regression analysis demonstrated that body mass index (BMI) (OR=1.11, 95%CI: 1.00-1.24, p=0.038) and baseline heart rate (HR) (OR=0.923, 95%CI: 0.88-0.96, p<0.001) were the independent predictors of CNP in NSTEMI. Conclusion: CNP patients have worse clinical outcomes and a higher risk of stroke compared with CSFP patients in NSTEMI. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(5):856-864)


Subject(s)
Humans , No-Reflow Phenomenon/etiology , No-Reflow Phenomenon/diagnostic imaging , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction , Treatment Outcome , Coronary Angiography
20.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(3): 503-510, Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339182

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: Os efeitos benéficos do elabela no sistema cardiovascular foram demonstrados em estudos. Objetivo: Comparar os níveis séricos de elabela de pacientes com oclusão total crônica (OTC) com pacientes controle com artérias coronárias normais e investigar se há correlação com o desenvolvimento colateral. Métodos: Estudo transversal e prospectivo. O estudo incluiu cinquenta pacientes (28,0% mulheres, idade média 61,6±7,3 anos) com OTC em pelo menos um vaso coronário e 50 pacientes (38% mulheres, idade média 60,7±6,38 anos) com artérias coronárias normais. Os pacientes do grupo OTC foram divididos em dois grupos: Rentrop 0-1, composto por pacientes com fraco desenvolvimento colateral e Rentrop 2-3, composto por pacientes com bom desenvolvimento colateral. Além da idade, sexo, características demográficas e exames laboratoriais de rotina dos pacientes, foram medidos os níveis de elabela. Resultados: As características demográficas e os valores laboratoriais mostraram-se semelhantes em ambos os grupos. Ao passo que o nível médio de NT-proBNP e troponina estava maior no grupo OTC, o nível médio de elabela estava menor (p<0,05 para todos). Na análise de regressão multivariada, os níveis de NT-proBNP e elabela foram considerados preditores independentes para OTC. Além disso, o nível de elabela apresentou-se estatisticamente maior em pacientes do grupo Rentrop 2-3 em comparação com os pacientes do grupo Rentrop 0-1 (p<0,05). Conclusões: Em nosso estudo, mostramos que o nível médio de elabela estava baixo em pacientes com OTC em comparação com pacientes normais. Além disso, constatamos que o nível de elabela é inferior em pacientes com desenvolvimento colateral fraco em comparação com pacientes com bom desenvolvimento colateral. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Abstract Background: The beneficial effects of Elabela on the cardiovascular system have been shown in studies. Objective: To compare serum Elabela levels of chronic total occlusion (CTO) patients with control patients with normal coronary arteries, and to investigate whether there is a correlation with collateral development. Methods: The study was planned cross-sectionally and prospectively. Fifty patients (28.0% female, mean age 61.6±7.3years) with CTO in at least one coronary vessel and 50 patients (38% female, mean age 60,7±6.38 years) with normal coronary arteries were included in the study. Patients in the CTO group were divided into two groups as Rentrop 0-1, those with weak collateral development, and Rentrop 2-3 with good collateral development. In addition to the age, sex, demographic characteristics and routine laboratory tests of the patients, Elabela levels were measured. Results: Demographic characteristics and laboratory values were similar in both groups. While the mean NT-proBNP and troponin were higher in the CTO group, the Elabela mean was lower (p <0.05 for all). In the multivariate regression analysis, NT-proBNP and Elabela levels were found to be independent predictors for CTO. Also, Elabela level was found to be statistically higher in Rentrop class 2-3 patients compared to Rentrop class 0-1 patients (p<0.05). Conclusion: In our study, we showed that the average Elabela level was low in CTO patients compared to normal patients. In addition, we found the level of Elabela to be lower in patients with weak collateral development compared to patients with good collateral development. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Coronary Occlusion , Angina, Stable , Chronic Disease , Multivariate Analysis , Coronary Angiography , Collateral Circulation , Coronary Vessels , Middle Aged
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