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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3)jun. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385688

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: An association between certain food additives and chronic diseases is reported. Current study determined whether administering toxic doses of the food additive monosodium glutamate (MSG) into rats can induce aortopathy in association with the oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers upregulation and whether the effects of MSG overdose can be inhibited by vitamin E. MSG at a dose of (4 mg/kg; orally) that exceeds the average human daily consumption by 1000x was administered daily for 7 days to the rats in the model group. Whereas, rats treated with vitamin E were divided into two groups and given daily doses of MSG plus 100 mg/ kg vitamin E or MSG plus 300 mg/kg vitamin E. On the eighth day, all rats were culled. Using light and electron microscopy examinations, a profound aortic injury in the model group was observed demonstrated by damaged endothelial layer, degenerated smooth muscle cells (SMC) with vacuoles and condensed nuclei, vacuolated cytoplasm, disrupted plasma membrane, interrupted internal elastic lamina, clumped chromatin, and damaged actin and myosin filaments. Vitamin E significantly protected aorta tissue and cells as well as inhibited MSG-induced tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). The highest used vitamin E dosage was more effective. Additionally, a significant correlation was observed between the aortic injury degree and tissue MDA, TNF-α, IL-6, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels (p=0.001). Vitamin E effectively protects against aortopathy induced by toxic doses of MSG in rats and inhibits oxidative stress and inflammation.


RESUMEN: Se reporta una asociación entre ciertos aditivos alimentarios y enfermedades crónicas. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si la administración de dosis tóxicas del aditivo alimentario glutamato monosódico (MSG) en ratas puede inducir aortopatía en asociación con el estrés oxidativo y la regulación positiva de los biomarcadores inflamatorios y si el efecto de una sobredosis de MSG se puede inhibir con vitamina E. Se administró MSG diariamente durante 7 días una dosis de (4 g/kg; por vía oral) que excede el consumo diario humano promedio, en 1000x a las ratas del grupo modelo. Mientras que las ratas tratadas con vitamina E se dividieron en dos grupos y se administraron dosis diarias de MSG más 100 mg/kg de vitamina E o MSG más 300 mg/kg de vitamina E. Todas las ratas fueron sacrificadas en el octavo día. Usando exámenes de microscopía óptica y electrónica, se observó una lesión aórtica profunda en el grupo modelo demostrada por una capa endotelial dañada, células musculares lisas degeneradas (SMC) con vacuolas y núcleos condensados, citoplasma vacuolado, membrana plasmática rota, lámina elástica interna interrumpida, cromatina agrupada y filamentos de actina y miosina dañados. La vitamina E protegió significativamente el tejido y las células de la aorta, además de inhibir el malondialdehído tisular (MDA) inducido por MSG, la interleucina-6 (IL-6) y el factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α). La dosis más alta de vitamina E utilizada fue más efectiva. Además, se observó una correlación significativa entre el grado de lesión aórtica y los niveles tisulares de MDA, TNF-α, IL-6 y superóxido dismutasa (SOD) (p=0,001). La vitamina E efectivamente protege contra la aortopatía inducida por dosis tóxicas de MSG en ratas e inhibe el estrés oxidativo y la inflamación.

2.
Poblac. salud mesoam ; 19(2)jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386963

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: el alarmante incremento de la obesidad en todo el mundo y en Costa Rica responde principalmente a modificaciones en la composición de la dieta habitual de las personas. La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo implementar un protocolo de alimentación formulado a partir de alimentos altamente procesados y de alta palatabilidad (APAP) consumidos por la población costarricense para, luego, evaluar sus efectos en la conducta alimentaria y en parámetros biométricos y bioquímicos. Metodología: ratas adultas macho Wistar se asignaron a dos grupos. Al primero se le administró alimento estándar para roedores (grupo DC) y al segundo, alimentos APAP (grupo APAP), durante ocho semanas. Resultados: a lo largo de ese periodo, los animales expuestos a los APAP exhibieron mayor ingesta y energía, caracterizadas por un alto consumo de grasas y uno menor de proteínas y fibra; además, mostraron un incremento significativo en los diversos parámetros de obesidad (e. g., peso corporal y ganancia de peso, índice de Lee y adiposidad central) y niveles descriptivamente superiores de glucosa y triglicéridos en sangre, pero notablemente menores de colesterol total. Conclusiones: los resultados indican que una dieta basada en los alimentos APAP más frecuentes en la población costarricense es capaz de inducir hiperfagia y obesidad. Así, este modelo constituye una herramienta prometedora para ahondar en el estudio de las factores neurobiológicos y metabólicos relacionados con la obesidad por el sobreconsumo de alimentos APAP.


Abstract Introduction. The alarming increase in obesity both worldwide and in Costa Rica is mainly due to changes in the composition of the usual diet of the population. The goal of our research was to implement a feeding protocol formulated from ultra-processed and highly palatable foods (UPHP) consumed by the Costa Rican population and to evaluate the effects of the UPHP diet on eating behavior and biometric and biochemical parameters. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were assigned to two groups. One group was given standard rodent chow (DC group) while the other group received UPHP foods (UPHP group) for eight weeks. Results: Throughout this period, animals exposed to the UPHP diet exhibited higher food and energy intake characterized by high consumption of fat and lower consumption of protein and fiber. Animals in the UPHP group also showed a significant increase in obesity parameters (e.g., body weight and bodyweight gain, Lees index, and central adiposity). Furthermore, the UPHP group had descriptively higher levels of blood glucose and triglycerides and significantly lower levels of total cholesterol. Conclusions: Our results indicate that a feeding protocol based on the most frequent food choices of the Costa Rican population is capable of inducing hyperphagia and obesity. This model constitutes a promising tool to delve into the study of the neurobiological and metabolic factors related to obesity induced by overconsumption of UPHP foods.

3.
Rev. mex. ing. bioméd ; 43(1): 1207, Jan.-Apr. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389188

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This project's purpose was to evaluate the healing effects of chitosan (CS) hydrogels loaded with extracts from Aloe vera (CS+AV) and Calendula officinalis (CS+CO) on wounds of diabetic and non-diabetic Wistar rats. A total of 24 rats were used; animals were randomly divided into three diabetic and three non-diabetic groups (one control and two treated groups) and monitored for 13 days. A biopsy on the wound site was recovered to assess the collagen and n-acetyl glucosamine content. The wound area ratio was reduced since day 1 on both non-diabetic treated groups. A similar effect was observed on the diabetic group treated with CS+AV, while the diabetic group treated with CS+CO showed a reduction in wound area compared to the diabetic control until day 11 after being wounded. Collagen and n-acetyl glucosamine content were higher in every treated group. Further studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms through which they promote wound healing. These results suggest that the hydrogels prepared are potential material to be used as wound dressings.


RESUMEN El propósito de este proyecto fue evaluar los efectos curativos de los hidrogeles de quitosano con extractos de Aloe vera (CS + AV) y Calendula officinalis (CS + CO) en heridas en ratas Wistar diabéticas y no diabéticas. Se utilizaron un total de 24 ratas; los animales fueron divididos aleatoriamente en tres grupos diabéticos y tres no diabéticos (un grupo control y dos tratados) y se monitorearon durante 13 días. Se recuperó una biopsia del sitio de la herida para evaluar el contenido de colágeno y n-acetilglucosamina. El área de la herida se redujo desde el día 1 en ambos grupos no diabéticos tratados. Se observó un efecto similar en el grupo diabético tratado con CS + AV, mientras que el grupo diabético tratado con CS + CO mostró una reducción del área de la herida en comparación al control diabético hasta el día 11 después de la creación de la herida. El contenido de colágeno y n-acetilglucosamina fue mayor en todos los grupos tratados. Se necesitan más estudios para aclarar los mecanismos subyacentes a través de los cuales estos tratamientos promueven la cicatrización de heridas. Estos resultados sugieren que los hidrogeles preparados son materiales con potencial para usarse como apósitos para heridas.

4.
Acta biol. colomb ; 27(1): 113-126, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360056

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Ambystoma mexicanum is a urodele amphibian endemic to Xochimilco Lake in Mexico, it belongs to the salamander family Ambystomatidae. This species has frequently been used as model organism in developmental biology and regeneration laboratories around the world due to its broad regenerative capacities and adaptability to laboratory conditions. In this review we describe the establishment of the first colony of axolotls in Colombia to study tissue regeneration and our perspectives on the use A. mexicanum as a model organism in Colombia are discussed emphasizing its possible uses in regeneration and developmental biology.


RESUMEN Ambystoma mexicanum es un anfibio urodelo endémico del lago Xochimilco en México, perteneciente a la familia de salamandras Ambystomatidae. Esta especie se ha empleado frecuentemente como organismo modelo en laboratorios de biología del desarrollo y regeneración alrededor del mundo, dadas sus amplias capacidades regenerativas y adaptabilidad en condiciones de laboratorio. En esta revisión, se describe el establecimiento de la primera colonia de ajolotes en Colombia, para adelantar estudios de regeneración de tejidos, y se discuten las perspectivas de A. mexicanum como organismo modelo en el país, enfatizando sus posibles usos en regeneración y biología del desarrollo.

5.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(2): 218-222, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388004

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Several animal models have been used in fracture healing and bone graft studies, but hematological responses are seldom reported. Therefore, the present study reported the hematological changes observed in rabbits that underwent xenografting of caprine demineralized bone matrix (CDBM). Method Twenty-four (24) male rabbits (2.5 0.5kg) were acquired for the purpose of this study and were randomly assigned to three groups: autologous bone graft (ABG), unfilled (NC), and caprine demineralized bone matrix (CDBM). Blood samples were collected through cardiac puncture under xylazine-ketamine anesthesia on day 0 (baseline), and on days 28 and 56 postsurgery and were analyzed manually within 2hours of collection. Statistical analysis was performed using a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures, and a p-value< 0.05 was considered significant. Result There was an overall significant difference in the values of total white blood cell count (p» 0.0043), neutrophil count (p< 0.0001), monocyte count (p» 0.0184), red blood cell count (p» 0.003), hemoglobin concentration (p< 0.0001) and packed cell volume (p< 0.0001) across the days and the treatment groups. There was, however, no overall significant difference in lymphocyte count (p» 0.4923), basophil count (p» 0.4183), and eosinophil count (0.4806) within days. Conclusion Response to CDBM grafting in rabbits could, therefore, be said to be characterized by marked leukocytosis with neutrophilia, lymphocytosis, and monocytosis by day 28 of postgrafting. This could form the basis with which hematology can be used to monitor body response of bone graft animal models.


Resumo Objetivo Diversos modelos animais têm sido usados em estudos sobre enxertos ósseos e o tratamento de fraturas, mas as respostas hematológicas são raramente relatadas. Este estudo descreveu as alterações hematológicas observadas em coelhos submetidos a xenoenxertos de matriz óssea desmineralizada caprina (MODC). Métodos Vinte e quatro (24) coelhos machos (2,5 0,5 kg) foram adquiridos para este estudo e divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos: enxerto ósseo autólogo (EOA); controle negativo sem preenchimento (SP) e matriz óssea desmineralizada caprina (MODC). Amostras de sangue foram coletadas por punção cardíaca sob anestesia com xilazina-quetamina no dia 0 (para estabelecimento dos valores basais) e aos dias 28 e 56 após a cirurgia; essas amostras foram submetidas à análise manual em até 2 horas após a coleta. A análise estatística foi composta por análise de variância (ANOVA) de dois fatores com medidas repetidas, e o valor de p< 0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados Houve uma diferença geral significativa nos números de leucócitos totais (p» 0,0043), neutrófilos (p< 0,0001), monócitos (p» 0,0184) e hemácias (p» 0,003), na concentração de hemoglobina (p< 0,0001) e no hematócrito (p< 0,0001) ao longo dos dias e entre os grupos de tratamento. No entanto, não houve diferença global significativa no número de linfócitos (p» 0,4923), basófilos (p» 0,4183) e eosinófilos (p» 0,4806) entre os dias. Conclusão A resposta ao enxerto de MODC em coelhos é, portanto, caracterizada por leucocitose intensa com neutrofilia, linfocitose e monocitose no 28° dia após o procedimento. Esses dados podem basear a utilização da hematologia no monitoramento da resposta corporal em modelos animais de enxerto ósseo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Bone Transplantation , Fracture Healing , Models, Animal , Heterografts , Hematology
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(1)feb. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385598

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Laser photobiomodulation (laser PBM) is known to be able to accelerate burn wound healing in the animal model; however little evidence exists on the action of laser PBM on the expression of important proteins in wound healing in the animal model, such as VEGF and TGF-ß1. The aim of this study was to carry out a systematic review in order to analyse the effect of laser PBM on VEGF and TGF-ß expression during burn wound repair in the animal model. A systematic review was carried out of the EMBASE, PubMed/ MEDLINE and LILACS databases. The studies included were preclinical studies that analysed the action of laser PBM on the expression of VEGF and TGF-ß (1, 2, 3) during burn wound repair in the animal model. The SYRCLE risk of bias tool was used. Random effect models were used to estimate the combined effect. Increased VEGF expression was observed with the use of laser PBM at 4.93 J/cm2 per point in the first two weeks after induction of the burn wound, with greater size of effect in the second week (SDM = 5.72; 95% CI: 3.14 to 8.31, I2 = 0 %; very low certainty of evidence). We also observed that the effect of laser PBM on TGF-ß1 expression was greater than in the control in the first week (SDM = -0.45; 95% CI: -1.91 to 1.02, I2 = 51 %; very low certainty of evidence), but diminished in the third week after induction of the lesion (SDM = -2.50; 95% CI: 3.98 to -1.01, I2 = 0 %; very low certainty of evidence). Laser PBM has an effect on TGF-ß1 and VEGF expression, promoting burn wound repair in the animal model.


RESUMEN: Es sabido que la fotobiomodulación por láser (FBM láser) puede acelerar el proceso de curación de heridas por quemadura en modelo animal, sin embargo aún se carece de mayor evidencia sobre la acción de la FBM láser en la expresión de proteínas importantes en el proceso de curación de heridas en modelo animal, como VEGF y TGF-ß1. Así, el objetivo de este estudio fue realizar una revisión sistemática a fin de analizar el efecto de la FBM láser sobre la expresión de VEGF, TGF-ß durante el proceso de reparación de heridas por quemadura en modelo animal. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en las bases de datos EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE y LILACS. Se incluyeron estudios preclínicos que analizaron la acción de la FBM láser en la expresión de VEGF, TGF-ß (1, 2, 3) durante el proceso de reparación de heridas por quemadura en modelo animal. Se utilizó la herramienta de riesgo de sesgo SYRCLE. Se utilizaron modelos de efectos aleatorios para estimar el efecto combinado. Observamos aumento de la expresión de VEGF con el uso de FBM láser 4.93 J/cm2 por punto, en las dos primeras semanas tras inducción de la herida por quemadura, con mayor tamaño de efecto en la segunda semana (SDM = 5,72; IC del 95%: 3,14 a 8,31, I2 = 0 %; certeza de la evidencia muy baja). También se observó el efecto de la FBM láser en la expresión del TGF- ß1 que fue mayor que el control en la primera semana (SDM = - 0,45; IC del 95%: -1,91 a 1,02, I2 = 51 %; certeza de la evidencia muy baja), disminuyendo en la tercera semana tras inducción de la lesión (SDM = -2,50; IC del 95%: -3,98 a -1,01; I2 = 0 %; certeza de la evidencia baja). La TFB por láser ejerce influencia en la expresión de TGF-ß1 y VEGF favoreciendo el proceso de reparación de heridas por quemadura en modelo animal.

7.
International Eye Science ; (12): 230-234, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913028

ABSTRACT

@#Microbial mixed infectious keratitis is an ocular surface disease caused by corneal infection, which has an acute onset and rapid progression and can lead to blindness in severe cases. Establishing an animal model of microbial mixed infectious keratitis is conducive to exploring its pathogenesis, prevention, clinical diagnosis and treatment. This article reviews the methods of making animal models of mixed infectious keratitis with microorganisms and the diagnostic methods after successful modelling infections, aiming to provide references for the further development and research of animal models of the disease.

8.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 191-194, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928523

ABSTRACT

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in elderly men, and transurethral laser prostatectomy (TULP) has been widely used in the clinic to remove bladder outlet obstruction caused by BPH. Previous animal models for wound repair after prostatectomy have many limitations, and there have been no previous reports of a mouse model of TULP. Therefore, this study aimed to establish a novel mouse model of TULP. Twelve healthy adult Kunming (KM) mice received transurethral laser vaporization prostatectomy with a 200-μm thulium laser. The mice were sacrificed, and wound specimens from the prostatic urethra and bladder neck were harvested at 1 day, 3 days, 5 days, and 7 days after surgery. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and immunohistochemistry were applied to confirm the establishment of the mouse TULP model. One day after the surgery, urothelium expressing uroplakin (UPK) was absent in the urethral wound site, and a large number of necrotic tissues were found in the wound site. There was no UPK-positive urothelium in the wound 3 days after surgery. At 5 days after surgery, monolayer urothelium expressing UPK was found in the wound site, indicating that the re-epithelization of the wound had been completed. On the 7th day after surgery, there were multiple layers of urothelium with UPK expression, indicating that the repair was completed. It is feasible to establish a mouse TULP model by using a microcystoscope system and a 200-μm thulium laser.


Subject(s)
Aged , Animals , Humans , Laser Therapy , Male , Mice , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Hyperplasia/surgery , Thulium , Transurethral Resection of Prostate
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927907

ABSTRACT

Cardiotoxicity is smong the main safety problems of drugs in clinical application. In recent years, traditional Chinese medicine has been gradually emphasized and studies on the evaluation of cardiac safety and prevention of cardiotoxicity of Chinese medicine have been on the rise, particularly the cardiotoxic Chinese medicine or the Chinese medicine components targeting cardiotoxicity. As for the research methods for cardiac safety evaluation of Chinese medicine, this review introduces the related clinical indexes and cell and animal models. As to the improvement of heart safety, this study reviews the material basis and mechanism of cardiotoxic Chinese medicines as well as the alleviation of cardiotoxicity by controlling the content of toxic compounds and changing dosage form, processing method, and compatibility of Chinese medicine. In addition, the effective components and mechanisms of prescriptions and active compounds in Chinese medicine for preventing and treating cardiotoxicity induced by chemotherapeutic drugs in recent years were summarized. This review is expected to serve as a reference for cardiac safety evaluation and clinical rational application of Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cardiotoxicity/prevention & control , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923556

ABSTRACT

@#Objective To systematically summarize the animal models of acquired heterotopic ossification (AHO), and provide reliable modeling methods for the study of disease prevention and treatment programs.Methods Literatures about the animal models of AHO were researched from PubMed, Web of Science, CNKI and Wanfang Database till November, 2021. The important contents of the literatures were extracted, and the animal models of various types of AHO were evaluated and analyzed by literature induction.Results A total of 20 literatures related to animal experiments were included, which could be divided into two types: post-traumatic and neurogenic heterotopic ossification animal models, which were used to simulate the occurrence and development of AHO. Currently, seven different animal models were commonly used to study post-traumatic heterotopic ossification, such as muscle injury, achilles tenotomy, muscle injury combined with joint immobilization, hip injury, heterotopic implantation, blast injury and burn. The studies of neurogenic heterotopic ossification animal models mainly included spinal cord injury and traumatic brain injury. At present, the methods of achilles tenotomy and osteogenic factor implantation were commonly used in the laboratory, and with the advantages of reliability, feasibility and high success rate; however, they could not accurately explain the pathogenesis of heterotopic ossification under complicated clinical conditions. Therefore, the improvement of modeling methods based on explosion injury, burn, nerve injury and other conditions became the basis for clinical research of molecular biological mechanism, prevention and treatment of heterotopic ossification.Conclusion Current modeling methods have their own advantages and disadvantages, but none of them can completely replicate all the characteristics of human heterotopic ossification. Therefore, there is no unified standard in the selection of animal model in clinic. According to different etiology of the disease, the selection of appropriate animal models is crucial to study effective intervention for different types of AHO in the early stage.

11.
Clinics ; 77: 100033, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384613

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To explore the molecular mechanism of neuropathologic damage induced by radiofrequency ablation at different temperatures. Methods This is basic research, and 36 SD rats were used to construct the neuropathological injury model. The rats were subjected to radiofrequency stimulation at different temperatures and were divided into 6 groups according to the temperature injury: 42°, 47°, 52°, 57°, 62°, and 67°C groups. Conduction time, conduction distance, and nerve conduction velocity were recorded after temperature injury. HE-staining was used to observe the histopathological morphology of the sciatic nerve. The expression of SCN9A, SCN3B, and NFASC protein in sciatic nerve tissue were detected by western blot. Results With the increase in temperature, nerve conduction velocity gradually decreased, and neurons were damaged when the temperature was 67°C. HE-staining showed that the degrees of degeneration of neurons in rats at 47°, 52°, 57°, 62°, and 67°C were gradually increased. The expression of SCN9A, SCN3B protein in 57°, 62°, 67°C groups were much higher than that of NC, 42°, 47°, 52°C groups. However, the expression of NFASC protein in 57°, 62°, 67°C groups was much lower than that of the NC, 42°, 47°, 52°C groups. Conclusion There was a positive correlation between temperature caused by the radiofrequency stimulation to neuropathological damage. The mechanism is closely related to the expression of SCN9A, SCN3B, and NFASC protein in nerve tissue caused by heat transfer injury.

12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 117: e200501, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375909

ABSTRACT

Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. There is an urgent need for safe, effective, and accessible new treatments since the currently approved drugs have serious limitations. Drug development for Chagas disease has historically been hampered by the complexity of the disease, critical knowledge gaps, and lack of coordinated R&D efforts. This review covers some of the translational challenges associated with the progression of new chemical entities from preclinical to clinical phases of development, and discusses how recent technological advances might allow the research community to answer key questions relevant to the disease and to overcome hurdles in R&D for Chagas disease.

13.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(1)feb. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385324

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El objetivo del presente estudio fue realizar un análisis histopatológico de un modelo animal en ratas, que simule las características observables en huesos de pacientes con osteoporosis. Para ello, se utilizaron 10 ratas hembras (Rattus norvegicus) Sprague Dawley de 12 semanas de desarrollo y aproximadamente 200-250 g. De las cuales, a 5 se le realizó ovariectomía (OVX) bilateral, mientras que las 5 restantes fueron utilizadas como control. Posterior a 12 semanas de realizadas las ovariectomías en el grupo experimental, se realizó la eutanasia de los animales y la obtención de ambos fémur, los cuales fueron posteriormente seccionados para procesar su porción distal para su procesamiento histológico de rutina. Todos los animales sobrevivieron al final del estudio sin ninguna complicación postoperatoria, las imágenes histológicas evidenciaron en el grupo experimental (OVX), una disminución del grosor del hueso cortical, mayor cantidad de hueso esponjoso, pérdida de la continuidad de periostio y endostio alrededor de la matriz ósea además de mayor cantidad de tejido adiposo en la médula ósea, al ser comparados con el grupo control. Se puede concluir que a las 12 semanas post ovariectomía se observa un fenotipo histopatológico compatible con características oseteoporóticas en ratas adultas.


SUMMARY: The aim of the present study was to conduct a histopathological analysis of an animal model in rats, which simulates the characteristics observable in bones of patients with osteoporosis. To this end, 10 female rats (Rattus norvegicus) Sprague Dawley of 12 weeks of development and approximately 200-250 g were used. Of these, 5 underwent bilateral ovariectomy (OVX), whereas the remaining 5 were used as control. After 12 weeks of ovariectomy in the experimental group, the animals were euthanized and the two femurs were collected, which were then sectioned to process their distal portion. All the animals survived at the end of the study without any signs of postoperative complications. In the experimental group (OVX), the histological images showed a decrease in the thickness of the cortical bone, a greater amount of cancellous bone, loss of the continuity of the periosteum and endostium around the bone matrix in addition to a greater amount of adipose tissue in the bone marrow, when compared with the control group. It can therefore be inferred that a histopathological phenotype can be found at 12 weeks post- ovariectomy that would be consistent with osteoporotic characteristics in adult rats.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873564

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the effect of metabolic syndrome on the fertility and reproduction in model animals. Methods The model of"high fat diet for spontaneously hypertensive rats(SHR)"was adopted to construct the model of metabolic syndrome in rats. The metabolic syndrome model rats were used to mate with male and female 1 : 1 cage, and the mating cycle was 2 weeks. Results After the SHR rats were fed a high-fat diet for 10 weeks, 16 males and 15 females met the screening criteria for metabolic syndrome, with the modeling rates of 40% and 37.5%, respectively. In addition to the abnormal metabolism-related indicators(such as blood glucose, blood lipid and blood pressure), the male rats with metabolic syndrome mainly had decreased sperm motility(P < 0.05), increased sperm malformation rate(P < 0.01), and decreased mating rate(P < 0.05). In addition to abnormal metabolism-related indicators, the conception rate and the live fetal rate of the female rats with metabolic syndrome were slightly lower than that of the control group; however, there was no statistical difference. The mean birth weight of the litter was significantly lower than that of the control group(P < 0.05). Conclusion According to the whole process from mating to natural production, metabolic syndrome is determined to have a significant effect on the fertility and reproductive ability of rats.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908062

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the relationship between the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway and steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head in young rabbits.Methods:Sixty 8-week-old rabbits weighing 1.5-2.0 kg were randomly divided into steroid injection group (48 cases) and control group (12 cases). Rabbits in the former group were injected with Prednisolone Acetate 7.5 mg/kg into bilateral gluteal muscles twice a week for 8 weeks, and those with successful modeling were included in the disease group; otherwise, they were included in the non-disease group.Rabbits in control group were similarly injected with the same volume of 9 g/L saline.Penicillin sodium 50 000 U/rabbit was injected once a week for preventing infection.After 8 weeks of injection, CT was performed in all the experimental animals.They were then sacrificed for collecting bilateral femoral heads.Expression levels of TGF-β1, TGF-β2, Smad2 and Smad3 in the femoral head were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the mRNA level of Runx2 in the femoral head was detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), the expression differences of related factors in each group were compared.Results:In steroid injection group (48 cases), 6 rabbits were sacrificed, and 32 survived, involving 6/32 cases (18.75%) experimental animals with positive avascular necrosis (disease group), and 26 negative ones (non-disease group). ELISA data showed that expression levels of TGF-β1 in control group, non-disease group and disease group were (77.12±14.62) ng/L, (90.17±11.90) ng/L and (126.14±25.66) ng/L, respectively ( t=3.35, 4.24, all P<0.05). The expression levels of TGF-β2 in control group, non-disease group and disease group were (74.54±7.63) ng/L, (89.24±9.51) ng/L and (109.74±16.45) ng/L, respectively ( t=4.12, 5.65, all P<0.01). The expression levels of Smad2 in control group, non-disease group and disease group were (17.74±2.72) μg/L, (23.82±3.58) μg/L and (31.28±3.88) μg/L, respectively ( t= 4.54, 7.99, all P<0.01). The expression levels of Smad3 in control group, non-disease group and disease group were (1.76±0.52) μg/L, (2.39±0.45) μg/L and (3.53±0.47) μg/L, respectively ( t=5.60, 6.71, all P<0.01). qPCR data showed that the mRNA levels of Runx2 in control group, non-disease group and disease group were 1.02±0.17, 1.27±0.14, and 1.72±0.11, respectively ( t=7.60, 8.91, all P<0.01). Conclusions:TGF-β is up-regulated in the model of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head in young rabbits, which stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and triggers the process of bone remodeling.The TGF-β signaling pathway involved in the repair of necrotic bone.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906411

ABSTRACT

This study summarized and analyzed the modeling methods, modeling mechanisms, and advantages and disadvantages of existing animal models of acute pancreatitis (AP) with the purposes of replicating animal models more in line with the clinical syndrome characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine, improving the basic research of AP, and promoting its in-depth research. Further, the clinical diagnostic criteria of TCM and Western medicine were drawn up, and the agreement was evaluated between animal models of AP and clinical syndrome characteristics of TCM and Western medicine. The results demonstrated that the AP model induced by choline-deficient ethionine-supplemented diet (CDE)-supplemented diet was highly consistent with the clinical syndromes of TCM and Western medicine, which was simple in operation and small in mortality. However, the modeling did not involve the pathogenic factors of TCM. Although many approaches have been proposed to establish animal models of AP so far, most of the models meet the diagnostic criteria of Western medicine but, lacking the manifestation of TCM symptoms, less agree with the clinical syndromes of TCM. At present, animal models of AP alone are mostly used to study the pharmacodynamics and mechanisms of Chinese and Western medicines, which fail to meet the requirements of syndrome differentiation and treatment in TCM theories. Only the animal models of AP which conform to the TCM syndrome characteristics and are basically consistent with clinical syndromes greatly contribute to the essence study of TCM syndromes and the development of innovative Chinese medicines. Therefore, establishing animal models that can simultaneously reflect the clinical syndrome characteristics of AP in both TCM and Western medicine and replicating more realistic, accurate and comprehensive animal models of AP are worthy of further research.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906196

ABSTRACT

Based on the clinical characteristics of thromboembolic vasculitis, the diagnostic criteria in western medicine and the dialectical standard in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) were analyzed and established by consulting relevant literature, and the modeling method, modeling objects as well as modeling advantages and disadvantages for the animal models of thromboembolic vasculitis were summarized in this paper. By analyzing its coincidence with the characteristics of clinical symptoms in traditional Chinese and western medicine, it was found that the animal model of thromboembolic vasculitis had a higher degree of coincidence with the clinical symptoms in western medicine, as well as cold and dampness blocking collaterals syndrome and heat toxin injury yin syndrome in TCM, but lower degree of coincidence with damp-heat toxin syndrome and Qi-blood deficiency syndrome. There is no animal model consistent with blood stasis syndrome. The pathological and hemorheological indexes (blood viscosity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate) were the most common indexes. Compared with a large number of cases reported in clinical treatment of thromboangiitis obliterans, the experimental research was relatively weak. It is the focus of future research to establish a reasonable model to judge the quantitative standard, and to establish the animal model with higher coincidence degree with TCM syndrome.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906096

ABSTRACT

Objective:As the problem of global aging intensifies,postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) has become a global health problem among females. At present,the commonly used biological agents have been proved not suitable for long-term use due to multiple adverse reactions. Several Meta-analyses have confirmed the good safety and effectiveness of kidney-tonifying method against PMOP,but its therapeutic mechanism remains unclear. The purpose of this Meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of kidney-tonifying method on osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor(OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear transcription factor (NF)-<italic>κ</italic>B (RANK)/receptor activator of NF-<italic>κ</italic>B ligand (RANKL) signaling pathway in PMOP animal model,so as to provide an experimental basis for the treatment of PMOP with kidney-tonifying method. Method:The related articles were retrieved from PubMed,Ovid Medline,Embase,China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI),Chongqing Weipu Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals (VIP),and Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform with the retrieval time set from their inception to January 2020. The quality of each included article was evaluated using the SYRCLE's risk of bias tool. Then RevMan 5.3 was utilized for Meta-analysis according to the Cochrane systematic review methodology. Result:Thirty-two studies involving 619 rats were included. The quality score of these studies ranged from 3 to 5 points. The results of the Meta-analysis indicated obvious advantages of kidney-tonifying method in increasing bone mineral density (BMD)[standardized mean difference (SMD)=2.01,95% confidence interval(CI)=1.50-2.52,<italic>P</italic><0.000 01]),serum OPG level (SMD=3.33,95% CI=2.59-4.07,<italic>P</italic><0.000 01),and OPG mRNA expression (SMD=11.81,95% CI=7.49-16.13,<italic>P</italic><0.000 01),promoting OPG protein production (SMD=4.95,95% CI=3.09-6.81,<italic>P</italic><0.000 01),reducing serum RANKL(SMD=-4.88,95% CI=-6.01--3.75,<italic>P</italic><0.000 01) and RANK levels (SMD=-7.30,95% CI=-9.53--5.07,<italic>P</italic><0.000 01),and down-regulating RANKL (SMD=-6.22,95%CI=-8.95--3.49,<italic>P</italic><0.000 01) and RANK mRNA (SMD=-3.18,95% CI=-6.19--0.18,<italic>P</italic><0.05) expression and RANKL protein expression in bone tissue (SMD=-3.99,95% CI=-5.47--2.50,<italic>P</italic><0.000 01). Conclusion:The kidney-tonifying method has been proved to possess potential advantages in regulating the balance of OPG/RANK/RANKL signaling pathway in PMOP animal model. Nevertheless,more large-sample sized,properly designed,and high-quality animal experiments are still needed for further verification.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906043

ABSTRACT

In order to explore the pathological mechanism of perimenopausal syndrome and seek prevention and treatment measures, it is necessary to establish animal models that similar to human perimenopausal syndrome, so as to provide reference for drug research, new drug development and clinical application. In this paper, the keywords of "perimenopausal period" "perimenopausal syndrome" "menopause" "menopausal syndrome""menopausal period" "menopausal syndrome" and "animal" were searched in China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chongqing Weipu, China Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) and Pubmed. In addition, the selection of domestic peripheral menopausal syndrome model animals in recent years and the advantages and disadvantages of corresponding models were summarized. A total of 673 studies were identified, of which 61 were included in the analysis. The most common animal model of perimenopausal syndrome is castration model, while the immunodeficiency model is less used. With the aging of the population and the rapid increase of psychosocial stress, the incidence of perimenopausal syndrome is high. Therefore, it is particularly important to explore the mechanism of perimenopausal syndrome. According to the experimental purpose, experimental period, experimental technology and other factors, the selection of appropriate model animals and modeling methods is the key of the success of the experiment of perimenopausal syndrome.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905987

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare the characteristics of four commonly adopted animal models of hyperuricemia (HUA) for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) screening, so as to choose the adequate model for screening Chinese herbs and herbal compounds capable of lowering the uric acid. Method:Fifty-four male SD rats were randomly divided into nine groups, namely the normal group, hypoxanthine (HX) + oxonic acid potassium salt (OAPS) model group, yeast extract (YE) + OAPS model group, low-dose adenine (AD) + ethambutol (EMB) model group, high-dose AD + EMB model group, and four positive drug allopurinol (Allo) groups. The modeling lasted for 14 d. The levels of serum uric acid (SUA), urinary uric acid (UUA), serum creatinine (SCr), urea nitrogen (BUN), kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were detected on the 3rd, 7th, and 14th days. Urine was collected on the 7th and 14th days to investigate changes in urine volume, and the crystals in the residual urine were observed under a polarizing microscope. After the modeling, the kidney was harvested and weighed, followed by pathological examination. Result:The urine volumes in the HX + OAPS model group and high-dose AD + EMB model group were significantly reduced (<italic>P</italic><0.05). The renal indexes of each model group, except for the YE + OAPS model group, were significantly elevated (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). The increase in SUA of the HX + OAPS model group and YE + OAPS model group started later (<italic>P</italic><0.05). The KIM-1 and NGAL levels of the HX + OAPS model group rose significantly from the 7th day (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), and the BUN increased significantly on the 14th day (<italic>P</italic><0.05). There was no significant difference in the above-mentioned indicators in the YE + OAPS model group. The SUA levels of the low- and high-dose AD + EMB model groups increased significantly on the 3rd day (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), with a persistent increase found in the low-dose AD + EMB model group. Besides, the increase in BUN, KIM-1, and NGAL occurred later (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). By contrast, the high-dose AD + EMB model group exhibited a transient increase in SUA. Moreover, the SCr, BUN, KIM-1, and NGAL elevation occurred earlier and were more obvious than those in the low-dose AD + EMB model group (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Remarkable histomorphological abnormalities were detected in the kidney of all model groups, except for the YE+OAPS model group, with the most severe injury present in the high-dose AD+EMB model group. Conclusion:The four models commonly used to screen TCM have their own characteristics. In the four models, the SUA elevation in the HX + OAPS model group and YE + OAPS model group started later, with the mild renal injury observed in the HX + OAPS model group instead of the YE + OAPS model group. The SUA of the low-dose AD + EMB model group increased rapidly and lasted for a long time, accompanied by mild renal injury. The SUA of the high-dose AD + EMB model group only showed a transient increase, accompanied by severe renal injury. The investigation on the characteristics and application of different models and the evaluation of these models based on sensitive and objective indicators are helpful for determining the suitable model for the screening of TCM targeting HUA in the future.

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