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1.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 13(n.esp1): 1-7, set. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1397236

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Identificar e analisar os anti-inflamatórios não esteroides tópicos para o alívio da dor artrítica, benefícios para idosos. Métodos: Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa realizada nas bases de dados no mês de maio de 2020, mediante consulta às bases de dados MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, Web of Science, SCOPUS e índice bibliométrico LILACS, acessados por meio do Portal Periódicos da Comissão de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Ensino Superior, utilizando os descritores: idoso (Aged/elderly), anti-inflamatório não esteroide (Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal) artrite (Arthritides/Polyarthritis). No qual foram selecionados 13 artigos sem limitador para tempo e idioma. Resultados: Detectou se que as variáveis mais evidenciadas foram: inglês (100%); artigos indexados na MEDLINE/PubMed (69,2%); pais com mais publicações Inglaterra (46%). Destaca-se que 69,3% dos artigos foram ensaios clínicos randomizados controlados; anti-inflamatório tópico mais usado diclofenaco sódico (61,5% seguido do cetoprofeno (38,7%). Conclusão: Concluiu se o diclofenaco e o cetoprofeno apresentam eficácia e segurança no alívio da dor artrítica, e baixa toxicidade cutânea local. (AU)


Objective To identify and analyze topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the relief of arthritic pain, benefits for the elderly. Methods: This is an integrative review carried out on the databases in May 2020, by consulting the MEDLINE / PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, Web of Science, SCOPUS and LILACS bibliometric index databases, accessed through the Portal Journals of the Higher Education Personnel Improvement Commission, using the descriptors: elderly (Aged / elderly), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non Steroidal) arthritis (Arthritides / Polyarthritis). In which 13 articles were selected without time and language limitations. Results: It was found that the most evident variables were: English (100%); articles indexed in MEDLINE / PubMed (69.2%); parents with the most publications in England (46%). It is noteworthy that 69.3% of the articles were randomized controlled clinical trials; most commonly used topical anti-inflammatory diclofenac sodium (61.5% followed by ketoprofen (38.7%). Conclusion: Diclofenac and ketoprofen were concluded to be effective and safe in relieving arthritic pain and low local skin toxicity. (AU)


Objetivo: Identificar y analizar medicamentos antiinflamatorios no esteroideos tópicos para el alivio del dolor artrítico, beneficios para los ancianos. Métodos: Esta es una revisión integradora realizada en las bases de datos en mayo de 2020, consultando las bases de datos del índice bibliométrico MEDLINE / PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, Web of Science, SCOPUS y LILACS, a las que se accede a través del Portal Revistas de la Comisión de Mejoramiento del Personal de Educación Superior, utilizando los descriptores: artritis de edad avanzada (Ancianos / ancianos), antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (agentes antiinflamatorios, no esteroideos) (artritis / poliartritis). En el que se seleccionaron 13 artículos sin limitaciones de tiempo e idioma. Resultados: se encontró que las variables más evidentes fueron: inglés (100%); artículos indexados en MEDLINE / PubMed (69,2%); padres con más publicaciones en Inglaterra (46%). Es de destacar que el 69,3% de los artículos fueron ensayos clínicos controlados aleatorios; diclofenaco sódico antiinflamatorio tópico más utilizado (61.5% seguido de ketoprofeno (38.7%). Conclusión: Se concluyó que el diclofenaco y el ketoprofeno son efectivos y seguros para aliviar el dolor artrítico y la baja toxicidad local de la piel. (AU)


Subject(s)
Aged , Arthritis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
2.
Braz. dent. j ; 33(3): 47-54, July-Sept. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1384034

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the physicochemical and biological properties of an experimental tricalcium silicate-based repair cement containing diclofenac sodium (CERD). For the physicochemical test, MTA, Biodentine and CERD were mixed and cement disc were prepared to evaluate the setting time and radiopacity. Root-end cavity were performed in acrylic teeth and filled with cements to analyze the solubility up to 7 days. Polyethylene tubes containing cements were prepared and calcium ions and pH were measured at 3h, 24h, 72h and 15 days. For the biological test, SAOS-2 were cultivated, exposed to cements extracts and cell proliferation were investigated by MTT assay at 6h, 24h and 48h. Polyethylene tubes containing cements were implanted into Wistar rats. After 7 and 30 days, the tubes were removed and processed for histological analyses. Parametric and nonparametric data were performed. No difference was identified in relation to setting time, radiopacity and solubility. Biodentine released more calcium ion than MTA and CERD; however, no difference between MTA and CERD were detected. Alkaline pH was observed for all cements and Biodentine exhibited highest pH. All cements promoted a raise on cell proliferation at 24h and 48h, except CERD at 48h. Biodentine stimulated cell metabolism in relation to MTA and CERD while CERD was more cytotoxic than MTA at 48h. Besides, no difference on both inflammatory response and mineralization ability for all cement were found. CERD demonstrated similar proprieties to others endodontic cements available.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as propriedades físico-químicas e biológicas de um cimento reparador experimental à base de silicato de tricálcio contendo diclofenaco de sódio (CERD). Para o teste físico-químico, MTA, Biodentine e CERD foram manipulados e discos de cimentos foram preparados para avaliar o tempo de presa e a radiopacidade. Retrocavidades foram feitas em dentes de acrílico e preenchidas com cimentos para análise de solubilidade por 7 dias. Tubos de polietileno contendo cimentos foram preparados e os íons cálcio e o pH foram mensurados às 3h, 24h, 72h e 15 dias. Para o teste biológico, SAOS-2 foram cultivadas, expostas aos extratos de cimentos e a proliferação celular foi investigada pelo ensaio de MTT às 6h, 24h e 48h. Tubos de polietileno contendo cimentos foram implantados em ratos Wistar. Após 7 e 30 dias, os tubos foram removidos e processados para análises histológicas. Dados paramétricos e não paramétricos foram realizados. Nenhuma diferença foi identificada em relação ao tempo de presa, radiopacidade e solubilidade. Biodentine liberou mais íons de cálcio do que MTA e CERD; no entanto, nenhuma diferença entre MTA e CERD foi detectada. O pH alcalino foi observado para todos os cimentos e o Biodentine exibiu o pH mais alto. Todos os cimentos promoveram aumento na proliferação celular às 24h e 48h, exceto o CERD às 48h. Biodentine estimulou o metabolismo celular em relação ao MTA e CERD, enquanto CERD foi mais citotóxico do que MTA em 48h. Além disso, nenhuma diferença foi encontrada na resposta inflamatória e na capacidade de mineralização para todos os cimentos. CERD demonstrou propriedades semelhantes a outros cimentos endodônticos disponíveis.

3.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 28(1): 85-104, ene.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389146

ABSTRACT

Resumen La estomatitis aftosa recurrente (EAR) es una patología ulcerativa crónica idiopática, que, aunque no llega a comprometer la vida de los pacientes, si puede desmejorar su calidad de vida. Presenta una alta incidencia en la población con un alto porcentaje de recurrencia. Atendiendo a su importancia, el objetivo de esta revisión es brindar una actualización respecto a las terapias farmacológicas y con láser para el manejo de la estomatitis aftosa recurrente. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en las bases de datos PubMed, Science Direct, EBSCO HOST y LILACS desde enero de 2010 a octubre de 2020, identificando publicaciones en inglés y español. Los artículos que fueron incluidos debían estar relacionadas con la estomatitis aftosa y su tratamiento, enfocándose en el manejo farmacológico o con láser. La estrategia de búsqueda arrojó 4536 citas bibliográficas, de las cuales fueron incluidas 19 en esta presente revisión. La mayoría de los estudios fueron ensayos clínicos aleatorizados donde la población objeto fueron adultos que demostraron el uso de antiinflamatorios, inmunomoduladores, anticuerpos monoclonales, antisépticos, anestésicos, entre otros, para el manejo de la estomatitis aftosa recurrente. De los artículos analizados se pudo concluir que la terapia farmacológica debe ser instaurada de manera particular, de acuerdo a la clínica y antecedentes del paciente. Los fármacos de primera elección son de uso tópico, reservando los de uso sistémico para casos moderados o severos y para pacientes con tratamiento refractarios, asimismo, las recomendaciones coadyuvantes como alimentación e higiene pueden ayudar a la resolución de la enfermedad. La terapia láser surge como alternativa de tratamiento con bajo riesgo y buenos resultados para la EAR.


Abstract Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS) is an idiopathic chronic ulcerative pathology. Although it does not compromise the life of the patients, it can impair their quality of life. It presents a high incidence in the population and a high percentage of recurrence. In view of its importance, the aim of this review is to provide an update on pharmacological and laser therapies that are being implemented for the management of RAS. A bibliographic search of literature that was published between January 2010 and October 2020 was performed in PubMed, Science Direct, EBSCOhost, and LILACS databases, identifying publications in English and Spanish languages. The articles that were included had to be related to aphthous stomatitis and its treatment, focusing on pharmacological or laser management. 4536 bibliographic citations were found and 19 of them were included in this review. Most of the studies were randomized clinical trials in which the target population were adults that reported the use of anti-inflammatory drugs, immunomodulators, monoclonal antibodies, antiseptics, anesthetics, among others for the treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis. From the articles analyzed, it was possible to conclude that pharmacological therapy should be established in a particular way according to the patient's symptoms and medical record. The first-choice drugs are of topical use, reserving those of systemic use for moderate or severe cases and for patients with refractory treatment. Likewise, adjuvant recommendations such as nutrition and hygiene can help in the resolution of the disease. Laser therapy emerges as an alternative treatment with low risk and positive results for recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

4.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(3): 323-342, mayo 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396881

ABSTRACT

Copaifera spp. essential oil (EOC) was extracted by hydrodistillation of Copaifera oleoresin (COR). The EOC was characterized by GC/MS and a novel EOC-loaded nanoemulsion was developed to enhance the EOC solubility and to evaluate its utility as antinflammatory. EOC contain 14 volatile compounds (including ß-caryophyllene: 51.52%) having a required HLB of 11. The Surfactant: EOC: Water ratio of 13:15:75 (%, w:w:w) produced the optimal formulation (particle size: 94.47 nm). The EOC-loaded nanoemulsion presented a pseudoplastic/thixotropic behavior with excellent shelf stability for 6 months. The anti-inflammatory effect of the nanoemulsion was more potent than that of the EOC, and statistically equal to diclofenac (50 mg/kg). The EOC-loaded nanoemulsion showed no oral acute toxicity (in mice) at 2000 mg/kg; hence, it is considered a nontoxic product. The development of the EOC-loaded nanoemulsion added value to both the COR and the EOC by providinga suitable formulation that could be used as an anti-inflammatory product.


El aceite esencial (EOC) fue extraído por hidrodestilación de oleoresina de Copaifera spp. El EOC fue caracterizado químicamente por GC/MS. Se formuló una nanoemulsión con EOC para mejorar la solubilidad del EOC y evaluar su utilidad como antiinflamatorio. El EOC contiene 14 compuestos volátiles (incluido el ß-cariofileno: 51,52%) con un HLB requerido de 11. La relación Tensioactivo: EOC: Agua de 13:15:75 (%, p:p:p) produjo la formulación óptima (tamaño de partícula: 94,47 nm).. La nanoemulsión cargada con EOC presentó un comportamiento pseudoplástico/tixotrópico con una excelente estabilidad en almacenamiento durante 6 meses. El efecto antiinflamatorio de la nanoemulsión fue más potente que el del EOC y estadísticamente igual al diclofenaco (50 mg/kg). La nanoemulsión cargada con COE no mostró toxicidad aguda oral (en ratones) a 2000 mg/kg; por lo tanto, se considera un producto no tóxico. El desarrollo de la nanoemulsión cargada con EOC agregó valor tanto al COR como al EOC al proporcionar una formulación adecuada que podría usarse como un producto antiinflamatorio.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Fabaceae/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Rheology , Surface-Active Agents , Temperature , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Emulsions/pharmacology , Nanoparticles , Polycyclic Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
5.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(2): 200-206, Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376527

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Drug-eluting stents (DES) coated with rapamycin or paclitaxel as antiproliferative substances significantly reduced the incidence of clinical restenosis and had fewer side effects after percutaneous coronary intervention. However, DES coated with rapamycin or paclitaxel still cause restenosis due to abnormal tissue growth which remained a therapeutic problem, particularly in certain subgroups, possibly due to drug concentrations. This study examined the impact of different concentrations of rapamycin and paclitaxel on cytokine, cell viability and proliferation in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC)-derived foam cells. Methods: The foam cell model was established in vitro by incubating HASMC with 20 µg/mL oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) for 48 hours. Subsequently, foam cells were treated with different concentrations (0.01 µg/mL, 0.1 µg/mL, 0.5 µg/mL, 1 µg/mL, 5 µg/mL and 10 µg/mL) of rapamycin or paclitaxel for 48 hours, to measure cytokine, cell viability and proliferation by ELISA and MTT, respectively. Finally, viability and proliferation were measured by MTT after the foam cells were treated with 1 µg/mL rapamycin or paclitaxel combined with cytokine antibody for 48 hours. Results: After incubation of HASMC with ox-LDL, the ratios of cholesterol ester and total cholesterol increased significantly (55.29%) (P<0.01). Lipid staining with Oil Red O showed many lipid vacuoles and red dye particles in the cells. Meanwhile, cell viability and proliferation significantly increased compared with the control. This indicated that HASMC had been transformed into foam cells (P<0.01) while rapamycin or paclitaxel concentrations ≥0.1 µg/mL can significantly decrease the foam cell proliferation (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and 1 µg/mL of rapamycin or paclitaxel appeared the most effective concentration. As for cytokines, rapamycin or paclitaxel concentrations ≥1 ug/mL could significantly increase the level of inflammatory cytokines IL-6 (P<0.05 or P<0.01), which was enhanced with the increase of drug concentration. However, rapamycin or paclitaxel concentrations ≥1 µg/mL could significantly reduce the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-35 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) (P<0.05 or P<0.01), which decreased with the increase of drug concentration. In addition, rapamycin or paclitaxel combined with anti-IL-1β, anti-IL-6, anti- TNF-α or anti-IL-35 had no significant effect on foam cell proliferation compared to the drug alone. However, rapamycin or paclitaxel combined with anti-IL-10 or anti-TGF-β can significantly enhance foam cell proliferation (P<0.01). In addition, there was no difference in the effects of the same concentrations of rapamycin and paclitaxel on foam cells. Conclusion: Although rapamycin or paclitaxel can reduce foam cell proliferation, too high or too low concentrations could decrease effectiveness. In particular, a high dose can induce foam cells to increase inflammatory cytokines secretion, reduce anti-inflammatory cytokines secretion, and thus affect the inhibiting proliferation. For rapamycin- and paclitaxel-eluting stents, this conclusion may explain the clinical observation of in-stent restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. DES coated with an appropriate concentration of rapamycin or paclitaxel may, at least to some extent, contribute significantly to reducing incidence of late in-stent restenosis.

6.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 214-219, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364976

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Various studies are ongoing related to the radioprotective agents. Herbal preparations are currently becoming popular because of their beneficial effects with fewer side effects compared to the synthetic/semi-synthetic medicines, and Nigella sativa oil (NSO) is only one of them. Objective To investigate NSO for its antioxidant effects on the heart tissue of rats exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). Methods Thirty six male albino Wistar rats, divided into four groups, were designated to group I (IR plus NSO group) that received both 5 Gray of gamma IR to total cranium and NSO; group II (IR alone group) that received IR plus saline, group III (control group of NSO) that received saline and did not receive NSO or IR; group IV (control group) that received only sham IR. Alterations in Total antioxidant status (TAS) and Total oxidant status (TOS), Oxidative stres index (OSI), Sulhydryl group (SH), Lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), Paraoxonase (PON) levels, Arylesterase (ARE) and Ceruloplasmin (CER) activities in homogenized heart tissue of rats were measured by biochemical methods. Results In heart tissue of the rats in the IR alone group (group II) LOOH, TOS and OSI levels were found to be higher, ARE activity and TAS level were found to be lower than all of the other groups (p < 0.01). These results also support that IR increases oxidative stress and NSO's protective effect. Conclusion NSO would reduce the oxidative damage in the irradiated heart tissue in the experimental rat model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Radiation-Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Nigella sativa , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Heart/radiation effects , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal , Radiation-Protective Agents/analysis , Rats, Inbred Strains , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress/radiation effects , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Cardiotoxicity/drug therapy , Heart/drug effects , Phytotherapy
7.
Rev. ADM ; 79(1): 38-47, ene.-feb. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361906

ABSTRACT

Las urgencias odontológicas son, quizá, las razones principales de atención en el consultorio, muchas veces el significado de dolor se encuentra acompañado por inflamación; el uso de antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (AINES) es común en el ejercicio de la odontología por la excelente respuesta analgésica y antiinflamatoria que tiene, por lo que es importante conocer la fisiopatología de la inflamación y el dolor y cómo actúan los AINES, ya que algunos de estos fármacos tienen respuestas adversas y sitios de acción importantes. Los factores de riesgo por inflamación y dolor nos obligan a conocer la variedad de fármacos que no entran en la clasificación de AINES y que tenemos a disposición, hay más opciones para la elección ante la presencia de inflamación por un factor en particular, cada uno de éstos tienen indicaciones y contraindicaciones que conoceremos, lo cual nos ampliará el conocimiento para dar una prescripción ante la presencia de eventos inflamatorios. Se realizó un estudio detallado de artículos bibliográficos de cada tema, los fármacos más usados en odontología son los AINES, hay poco uso y conocimiento de antiinflamatorios que podemos usar en urgencias, el porcentaje de uso de los AINES derivados del ácido propiónico es alto por la excelente respuesta en pacientes y otras veces por el desconocimiento de más opciones (AU)


Dental emergencies are perhaps the main reasons for care in the office, many times the meaning of pain is accompanied by inflammation, the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is common in the practice of dentistry due to the excellent analgesic and anti-inflammatory response it has, important is knowing the pathophysiology of inflammation and pain, how NSAIDs act, some of these drugs have adverse responses and important sites of action, risk factors for inflammation and pain require us to know the variety of drugs that do not enter the classification of NSAIDs and we have at our disposal, there are more options for choosing in the presence of inflammation due to a particular factor, each of these have indications and contraindications that we will know, it expands our knowledge to give a prescription in the presence of inflammatory events. A detailed study of bibliographic articles on each topic was carried out, the drugs most used in dentistry are NSAIDs, there is little use and knowledge of anti-inflammatories that we can use in the emergency room, the percentage of use of NSAIDs derived from propionic acid is high, due to the excellent response in patients and others due to lack of knowledge of more options (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Toothache , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Inflammation , Pain/pathology , Pain, Postoperative , Propionates , Prostaglandins/physiology , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Drug Interactions , Cyclooxygenase 1/pharmacology , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors , Narcotics
8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(1): 14-21, jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360123

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A fetuína-A é um fator anti-inflamatório e anticalcificação envolvido no curso da doença arterial coronariana (DAC). Em alinhamento com essas funções, investigou-se a fetuína-A como marcador de risco cardiovascular em vários estudos. Porém, a associação entre a fetuína-A e o prognóstico dos pacientes com DAC ainda é controversa. Objetivos O presente estudo foi conduzido para identificar a associação entre o nível de fetuína-A sérica e doença cardiovascular (DCV) de longo prazo e a mortalidade global por infarto do agudo do miocárdio por supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (STEMI). Métodos Foram cadastrados no estudo cento e oitenta pacientes consecutivos com STEMI. A população do estudo foi dividida em subgrupos (mais baixo, ≤288 µg/ml; e mais alto, >288 µg/ml) de acordo com a mediana do nível de fetuína-A. Dados de acompanhamento clínico foram obtidos por contato telefônico anual com pacientes ou familiares. As causas das mortes também foram confirmadas pelo banco de dados de saúde nacional. P-valores bilaterais <0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados Durante um acompanhamento médio de 10 anos, foram registradas 71 mortes, das quais 62 foram devidas a DCV. Identificou-se um índice de mortalidade global e por DCV significativamente mais alto no grupo com nível de fetuína-A mais baixo que no grupo com nível de fetuína-A mais alto (44% versus 24%, p= 0,005; 48% versus 31%, p= 0,022, respectivamente). Nas análises de risco proporcionais por regressão de Cox, detectou-se que a fetuína-A era um preditor independente de mortalidade global e por DCV. Conclusões A baixa concentração de fetuína-A está associada ao prognóstico de longo prazo ruim pós-STEMI, independentemente de fatores de risco cardiovascular tradicionais. Nossos achados fortaleceram estudos prévios demonstrando consistentemente o papel determinante dos mediadores anti-inflamatórios em síndromes coronárias agudas.


Abstract Background Fetuin-A is an anti-inflammatory and anti-calcification factor involved in the course of coronary artery disease (CAD). In line with these functions, fetuin-A has been investigated as a cardiovascular risk marker in many studies. However, the association between fetuin-A and the prognosis of CAD patients is still controversial. Objectives The present study was conducted to identify the association between serum fetuin-A level and long-term cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality of ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods One hundred eigthy consecutive patients with STEMI were enrolled in the study. The study population was divided into subgroups (lower, ≤288 µg/ml; and higher, >288 µg/ml) according to the median fetuin-A level. Clinical follow-up data was obtained by annual contact with the patients or family members by telephone. The causes of death were also confirmed by the national health database. Two-sided p-values<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results During a median follow-up of 10 years, 71 deaths were recorded , 62 of whom died from CVD. Both CVD and all-cause mortality were found to be significantly higher in the lower fetuin-A group than the higher fetuin-A group (44% vs 24%, p= 0.005; 48% vs 31%, p= 0.022, respectively). In Cox regression proportional hazard analyses, fetuin-A was found to be an independent predictor of CVD and all-cause mortality. Conclusions Low fetuin-A concentration is associated with a poor long-term prognosis after STEMI, regardless of the traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Our findings have strengthened previous studies that consistently demonstrate the determining role of anti-inflammatory mediators in acute coronary syndromes.


Subject(s)
Humans , alpha-2-HS-Glycoprotein/analysis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/blood , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Acute Coronary Syndrome/blood
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904740

ABSTRACT

@#Periodontitis is a common oral disease that represents one of the main causes of tooth loss in adults. In recent years, the application of nanotechnology has provided a new drug delivery system and innovative therapy for the treatment of periodontitis and opens up new prospects for the regeneration of periodontal tissue. The nanoparticle drug delivery system is composed of degradable carrier materials and drugs. Compared with the traditional film, namely, the fragment and strip-shaped periodontal local drug delivery system, the nanoparticle drug delivery system has the characteristics of biopharmaceuticals and pharmacokinetics. Moreover, it has special advantages, including controlled release of drugs, long-term maintenance of drug concentration, biodegradability and biocompatibility, etc. Antibiotics, protein drugs, such as growth factors, and nucleic acids used for gene delivery or mRNA knockout can be absorbed or dissolved in nanoparticles. Liposomes and polymer nanoparticle delivery systems can target bacteria and specific host cells. Inorganic nanoparticles and nanocrystals have good antibacterial activity that can promote periodontal tissue regeneration and play an important role in bone regeneration and bone repair. Dendrimers have internal hydrophobic and external hydrophilic structures and are good drug carriers for periodontitis.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913016

ABSTRACT

@#Metformin is currently the first-line drug for the treatment of diabetes. In addition to its hypoglycemic effect, it has also been found to have other potential effects, such as anti-inflammatory, odontogenic differentiation-promoting, osteogenic differentiation-promoting, and antitumor effects. Previous studies have shown that metformin can promote the healing of periapical lesions, and its mechanism may be related to the promotion of osteogenic differentiation and the induction of dental pulp cell differentiation by activation of adenylate-activated protein kinase by dimethyldiphosphate. Clinical indexes, such as the probing depth, attachment loss level and probing bleeding index, were significantly improved in patients with periodontitis treated with metformin, which may play a role in the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease by promoting the proliferation, migration and osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells. Metformin has been proven to inhibit the growth and proliferation of tumor cells and plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of oral tumors such as oral squamous cell carcinoma. At present, research remains in the in vitro and animal experimental stage, and the related mechanism needs to be further explored. Clinical trials remain in the evaluation of clinical indicators, so large-scale, long-term, multicenter, randomized controlled clinical trials need to be further developed

12.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1787-1792, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934966

ABSTRACT

Micheliolide is a kind of guaiacane sesquiterpene lactone from natural plants. It distributs in the root bark of Cephalantheropsis gracilis and Michelia compressa . Modern pharmacological studies show that ,micheliolide can play an anti-tumor role by inhibiting the proliferation of tumor cells ,regulating the apoptosis of tumor cells ,inducing autophagy of tumor cells ,and inhibiting invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. It can reduce the expression of inflammatory cytokines by regulating several related signaling pathways ,such as nuclear factor κB and phosphatidylinositol-3-hydroxykinase/protein kinase B ;it can play an immunomodulatory role by restoring the expression of immune-related factors in the body ;it can play a neuroprotective effect by reducing the accumulation of amyloid β-protein and inhibiting microglial activation ;it can play a liver protective role by reducing the inflammatory response and steatosis of hepatocytes ;its nephroprotective mechanism is related to the relief of the inflammatory response by regulating multiple pathways ;the mechanisms of its cardioprotective action include alleviating the inflammatory response and reducing the level of oxidative stress ,etc. In conclusion ,micheliolide is a compound of great development value.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932015

ABSTRACT

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a retinal microvascular disease associated with diabetes which is the primary cause of impaired vision in working age population. Inflammatory reaction and inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-1β play an important role in the occurrence and development of DR, and to target at which anti-inflammatory treatments such as glucocorticoids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were used, but with disputes on therapeutic effect and drug selection. This review aims to clarify the research on mechanism of inflammatory reaction in DR, summarize the application status of existing anti-inflammatory therapy, and provide some new ideas for the research and clinical application of the treatment of DR.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931264

ABSTRACT

Blighia sapida(B.sapida)K.D.Koenig(Family Sapindaceae)is a branchless straight bole approximately 15 m in length.The study evaluated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extract and fractions of B.sapida stem-bark using in vitro methods.Ethanol extract and its fractions were investigated for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH)radical scavenging activity,ferric reducing anti-oxidant power(FRAP),total antioxidant capacity(TAC),and quantitative phenolic and flavonoid contents.Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using albumin denaturation and membrane stabilization as-says.The extract and its fractions exhibited radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory properties.The ethyl acetate fraction possessed maximum phenolic and flavonoid contents(136.67±1.55 gallic acid equivalent mg/g and 75.76±4.03 quercetin equivalent mg/g,respectively).Antioxidant studies revealed that the ethyl acetate fraction displayed superior activity with an IC50=0.09±0.03 mg/mL DPPH,and values of 146.96±3.81 ascorbic acid equivalent(AAE)mg/g and 359.20±4.98 AAE mg/g for FRAP and TAC,respectively.Furthermore,the anti-inflammatory activity was revealed by inhibition of heat-induced albumin denaturation and red blood cell membrane stabilization at concentrations of 200-1000 μg/mL and 50-250 μg/mL,respectively.The ethanol extract and fractions exhibited antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities,with ethyl acetate fraction showing superior activity,which could be attributed to secondary metabolites,mainly phenolic compounds.Overall,the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of B.sapida can be exploited by ethnomedicinal users.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931230

ABSTRACT

Moroccan medicinal plants exhibit several pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial,anticancer,antidiabetic,analgesic,and anti-inflammatory effects,which are related to the presence of numerous bioactive compounds,including phenolic acids,flavonoids,and terpenoids.In the present review,we systematically evaluate previously published reports on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Moroccan medicinal plants.The in vitro investigations revealed that Moroccan medicinal plants inhibit several enzymes related to inflammatory processes,whereas in vivo studies noted significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects as demonstrated using different experimental models.Various bioactive compounds exhibiting in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects,with diverse mechanisms of action,have been identified.Some plants and their bioactive compounds reveal specific secondary metabolites that possess important anti-inflammatory effects in clinical investigations.Our review proposes the potential applications of Moroccan medicinal plants as sources of anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents.

16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 801-820, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929328

ABSTRACT

Pharmacological activation of the xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is well-known to increase drug metabolism and reduce inflammation. Little is known regarding their physiological functions on the gut microbiome. In this study, we discovered bivalent hormetic functions of PXR/CAR modulating the richness of the gut microbiome using genetically engineered mice. The absence of PXR or CAR increased microbial richness, and absence of both receptors synergistically increased microbial richness. PXR and CAR deficiency increased the pro-inflammatory bacteria Helicobacteraceae and Helicobacter. Deficiency in both PXR and CAR increased the relative abundance of Lactobacillus, which has bile salt hydrolase activity, corresponding to decreased primary taurine-conjugated bile acids (BAs) in feces, which may lead to higher internal burden of taurine and unconjugated BAs, both of which are linked to inflammation, oxidative stress, and cytotoxicity. The basal effect of PXR/CAR on the gut microbiome was distinct from pharmacological and toxicological activation of these receptors. Common PXR/CAR-targeted bacteria were identified, the majority of which were suppressed by these receptors. hPXR-TG mice had a distinct microbial profile as compared to wild-type mice. This study is the first to unveil the basal functions of PXR and CAR on the gut microbiome.

17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 651-664, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929317

ABSTRACT

Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit beta (IKKβ) is one of important kinases in inflammation to phosphorylate inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B (IκBα) and then activate nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB). Inhibition of IKKβ has been a therapeutic strategy for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Here we report that IKKβ is constitutively activated in healthy donors and healthy Ikkβ C46A (cysteine 46 mutated to alanine) knock-in mice although they possess intensive IKKβ-IκBα-NF-κB signaling activation. These indicate that IKKβ activation probably plays homeostatic role instead of causing inflammation. Compared to Ikkβ WT littermates, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) could induce high mortality rate in Ikkβ C46A mice which is correlated to breaking the homeostasis by intensively activating p-IκBα-NF-κB signaling and inhibiting phosphorylation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) expression. We then demonstrated that IKKβ kinase domain (KD) phosphorylates AMPKα1 via interacting with residues Thr183, Ser184, and Thr388, while IKKβ helix-loop-helix motifs is essential to phosphorylate IκBα according to the previous reports. Kinase assay further demonstrated that IKKβ simultaneously catalyzes phosphorylation of AMPK and IκBα to mediate homeostasis. Accordingly, activation of AMPK rather than inhibition of IKKβ could substantially rescue LPS-induced mortality in Ikkβ C46A mice by rebuilding the homeostasis. We conclude that IKKβ activates AMPK to restrict inflammation and IKKβ mediates homeostatic function in inflammation via competitively phosphorylating AMPK and IκBα.

18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 532-557, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929313

ABSTRACT

Drug repurposing or repositioning has been well-known to refer to the therapeutic applications of a drug for another indication other than it was originally approved for. Repurposing non-oncology small-molecule drugs has been increasingly becoming an attractive approach to improve cancer therapy, with potentially lower overall costs and shorter timelines. Several non-oncology drugs approved by FDA have been recently reported to treat different types of human cancers, with the aid of some new emerging technologies, such as omics sequencing and artificial intelligence to overcome the bottleneck of drug repurposing. Therefore, in this review, we focus on summarizing the therapeutic potential of non-oncology drugs, including cardiovascular drugs, microbiological drugs, small-molecule antibiotics, anti-viral drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-neurodegenerative drugs, antipsychotic drugs, antidepressants, and other drugs in human cancers. We also discuss their novel potential targets and relevant signaling pathways of these old non-oncology drugs in cancer therapies. Taken together, these inspiring findings will shed new light on repurposing more non-oncology small-molecule drugs with their intricate molecular mechanisms for future cancer drug discovery.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929263

ABSTRACT

A series of 26 novel derivatives have been synthesized through structural modification of gentiopicroside, a lead COX-2 inhibitor. And their in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activities have been investigated. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated against NO, PGE2, and IL-6 production in the mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 stimulated by LPS. Results showed that most compounds had good inhibitory activity. The in vivo inhibitory activities were further tested against xylene-induced mouse ear swelling. Results demonstrated that several compounds were more active than the parent compound gentiopicroside. The inhibition rate of the most active compound P23 (57.26%) was higher than positive control drug celecoxib (46.05%) at dose 0.28 mmol·kg-1. Molecular docking suggested that these compounds might bind to COX-2 and iNOS. Some of them, e.g P7, P14, P16, P21, P23, and P24, had high docking scores in accordance with their potency of the anti-inflammatory activitiy, that downregulation of the inflammatory factors, NO, PGE2, and IL-6, was possibly associated with the suppression of iNOS and COX-2. Therefore, these gentiopicroside derivatives may represent a novel class of COX-2 and iNOS inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Cyclooxygenase 2/chemistry , Dinoprostone , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Iridoid Glucosides , Mice , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pyridinolcarbamate
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929254

ABSTRACT

Sarglanoids A-F, six new sesquiterpenoids belonging to eudesmane (1-5) and eremophilane (6) types, were isolated from the leaves of Sarcandra glabra, a famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Their structures including absolute configurations were elucidated through extensive spectroscopic analysis and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compounds 1-2 were rare N-containing eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids. Compound 3 exhibited inhibitory activity against nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells with IC50 values at 20.00 ± 1.30 μmol·L-1. These findings provide scientific evidence for sesquiterpenoids as the material foundation of S. glabra.


Subject(s)
Molecular Structure , Plant Leaves , Polycyclic Sesquiterpenes , Seeds , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology
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