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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257071, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364496

ABSTRACT

Abstract In advanced biotechnology, the utilization of enzymes to achieve new or modified compounds with antibacterial, fungicidal, and anti-cancer specifications is crucial. Mushroom lactases are a hopeful biocatalyst for the synthesis and modification of different compounds. They are an accessible and inexpensive enzyme for the preparation of reaction objects and have recently received attention. Laccase purification was performed from basidiomycete Lentinus strigosus (LS) in several stages: Stage 1. On ion-exchange chromatography on TEAE Servacell 23 (400 ml), two distinctly separated laccase activity peaks were observed, eluted from the carrier at 0.21 and 0.27 M NaCl. In order to reduce the loss of enzymes, all fractions with laccase activity were collected, concentrated, and desalted using an ultrafiltration cell (Amicon, United States) with a UM-10 membrane. Stage 2. The resulting preparation with laccase activity was applied to a Q-Sepharose column (60 ml). Two well-separated peaks with laccase activity were obtained during the elution: laccase I (0.12 M NaCl) and laccase II (0.2 M NaCl). Stage 3. In the course of further purification of both enzymes, carried out on anion-exchange carrier Resource Q (6 ml), a broken gradient was used: 0 - 10%, 10 - 20%, and 20 - 100% with 1M NaCl. Stage 4. Both laccase I and laccase II, obtained after Resource Q, were desalted, concentrated to 1 ml each, and applied to a Superdex 75 gel filtration column. As a result, two laccases were obtained in a homogeneous form.


Resumo Na biotecnologia moderna, o uso de enzimas para obter compostos novos ou modificados com propriedades antibacterianas, antifúngicas e anticancerígenas é crucial. Lactases de cogumelos são biocatalisadores promissores para síntese e modificação de diferentes compostos, por serem enzimas baratas e disponíveis para a preparação de componentes de reação, e vem recebendo a devida atenção recentemente. A purificação da lacase foi realizada a partir do basidiomiceto Lentinus strigosus em vários estágios: Etapa 1 - na cromatografia de troca iônica em TEAE Servacell 23 (400 ml), foram observados dois picos de atividade da lacase distintamente separados, com eluição do transportador a 0,21 e 0,27 M de NaCl. Para reduzir a perda de enzimas, todas as frações com atividade de lacase foram coletadas, concentradas e dessalinizadas em uma célula de ultrafiltração (Amicon, Estados Unidos) com membrana UM-10; Etapa 2 - a preparação resultante com atividade de lacase foi aplicada a uma coluna Q-Sepharose (60 ml). Durante a eluição, foram obtidos dois picos bem separados com atividade de lacase: lacase I (NaCl 0,12 M) e lacase II (NaCl 0,2 M); Etapa 3 - no decurso da purificação adicional de ambas as enzimas, realizada no Recurso Q de transportador de troca aniônica (6 ml), um gradiente quebrado foi usado: 0-10%, 10-20% e 20-100% com NaCl 1M; Etapa 4 - tanto a lacase I como a lacase II, obtidas após o Recurso Q, foram dessalinizadas e concentradas para 1 ml cada e aplicadas a uma coluna de filtração em gel Superdex 75. Como resultado, duas lacases foram obtidas de forma homogênea.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254016, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364529

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize bacteria from water and soil sample taken from the Lahore Canal at different sites i.e. Mall Road, Mohlanwal and Khera site. Isolated bacterial strains were identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical tests. Identification was confirmed by culturing bacteria on selective media. Antibiotic resistance test was also performed to observe the resistance of bacteria against different antibiotics. Blood agar test was performed for identification of different pathogenic bacteria. The result revealed that water and soil samples of Lahore Canal Lahore from different sites were contaminated with Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp., Bacillus spp., Enterococcus sp. and Staphylococcus spp. Due to presence of these pathogens, this water is not suitable for any domestic and irrigation use. Study also revealed that water of the Lahore Canal is harmful for human health as it is contaminated with bacteria that can cause severe disease e.g., Escherichia coli can cause gastroenteritis, Bacillus spp. can cause nausea and vomiting, Enterococcus may infect urinary tract, Salmonella sp. is responsible for Bacteremia, Staphylococcus spp. can cause mild fever and Vibrio sp. can be the reason of cholera. Thus it is rendered unfit for any kind of human use even other than drinking like swimming, bathing, washing etc., until and unless some remedial measures are employed to eradicate pathogenic microorganisms by WASA and LWMS according to standards of WHO. Similarly, it is quite harmful, when and where ever it is used for irrigation without proper treatment.


Resumo O presente estudo foi realizado para isolar e caracterizar bactérias de amostras de água e solo retiradas do Canal Lahore, em Lahore, em diferentes locais, ou seja, Mall Road, Mohlanwal e Khera. As cepas bacterianas isoladas foram identificadas com base em testes morfológicos e bioquímicos. A identificação foi confirmada por cultura de bactérias em testes de meios seletivos. O teste de resistência aos antibióticos também foi realizado para observar a resistência das bactérias a diferentes antibióticos. Foi realizado o teste de ágar sangue para identificar diferentes bactérias patogênicas. O resultado revelou que amostras de água e solo do Canal Lahore, Lahore, de diferentes localidades estavam contaminadas com Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp., Bacillus spp., Enterococcus sp. e Staphylococcus spp. Por causa da presença desses patógenos, essa água não é adequada para qualquer uso doméstico e de irrigação. O estudo revelou que a água do Canal Lahore é prejudicial à saúde humana, pois está contaminada com bactérias que podem causar doenças graves, por exemplo: Escherichia coli pode ocasionar gastroenterite; Bacillus spp. pode causar náuseas e vômitos; Enterococcus sp. pode infectar o trato urinário; Salmonella sp. é responsável pela bacteremia; Staphylococcus spp. pode causar febre leve; e Vibrio sp. pode ser a razão da cólera. Assim, torna-se imprópria para uso humano, como natação, banho, lavagem etc., até que algumas medidas corretivas sejam empregadas para erradicar microrganismos patogênicos por WASA e LWMS de acordo com os padrões da OMS. Da mesma forma, é bastante prejudicial, quando usada para irrigação sem tratamento adequado.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242703, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285636

ABSTRACT

Abstract Oral diseases caused by various microorganisms are common around the world. Scientific research has now been focusing on novel medicines to overcome bacterial resistance and antibiotics side effects; therefore, the current study was designed to assess the efficacy of certain antibiotics, toothpaste, and medicinal plant extracts (Ajuga bracteosa and Curcuma longa) versus the bacterial pathogens isolated from the human oral cavity. A total of 130 samples were collected from Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar, Pakistan, among those 27 species isolated, and eight bacterial species were identified from the samples. Among all the bacterial species, Staphylococcus aureus (29.62%) and Proteus mirabilis (22.2%) were found to be more prevalent oral pathogens. In comparison, the least pervasive microbes were Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli and Aeromonas hydrophila. The study also suggested that dental problems were more prevalent in males (41-50 years of age) than females. Among the eight antibiotics used in the study, the most promising results were shown by Foxicillin against A. hydrophila. The survey of TP1 revealed that it showed more potent antagonist activity against Proteus vulgaris as compared TP2 and TP3 that might be due to the high content of fluoride. The Curcuma longa showed more significant activity than Ajuga bracteosa (Stem, leaves and root) extracts. The data obtained through this study revealed that antibiotics were more effective for oral bacterial pathogens than toothpaste and plant extracts which showed moderate and low activity, respectively. Therefore, it is suggested that the active compounds in individual medicinal plants like Curcuma longa and Ajuga bracteosa could replace the antibiotics when used in daily routine as tooth cleansers or mouth rinses.


Resumo As doenças bucais causadas por vários microrganismos são comuns em todo o mundo. A pesquisa científica agora tem se concentrado em novos medicamentos para superar a resistência bacteriana e os efeitos colaterais dos antibióticos; portanto, o presente estudo foi desenhado para avaliar a eficácia de certos antibióticos, pasta de dente e extratos de plantas medicinais (Ajuga bracteosa e Curcuma longa) contra os patógenos bacterianos isolados da cavidade oral humana. No total, 130 amostras foram coletadas do Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar, Paquistão, entre essas, 27 espécies foram isoladas e oito espécies bacterianas foram identificadas a partir das amostras. Entre todas as espécies bacterianas, Staphylococcus aureus (29.62%) e Proteus mirabilis (22.2%) foram os patógenos orais mais prevalentes. Em comparação, os micróbios menos difundidos foram Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli e Aeromonas hydrophila. O estudo também sugeriu que os problemas dentários eram mais prevalentes em homens (41-50 anos de idade) do que em mulheres. Entre os oito antibióticos usados ​​no estudo, os resultados mais promissores foram mostrados pelo Foxicillin contra A. hydrophila. A pesquisa de TP1 revelou que ele mostrou atividade antagonista mais potente contra Proteus vulgaris em comparação a TP2 e TP3, o que pode ser devido ao alto teor de flúor. A Curcuma longa apresentou atividade mais significativa em relação aos extratos de Ajuga bracteosa (caule, folhas e raiz). Os dados obtidos neste estudo revelaram que os antibióticos foram mais eficazes para os patógenos bacterianos orais do que os dentifrícios e os extratos vegetais que apresentaram atividade moderada e baixa, respectivamente. Portanto, sugere-se que os compostos ativos em plantas medicinais individuais como Curcuma longa e Ajuga bracteosa possam substituir os antibióticos quando usados ​​na rotina diária como limpadores de dentes ou enxaguatórios bucais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Toothpastes , Fluorides , Pakistan , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Anti-Bacterial Agents
4.
J. bras. nefrol ; 44(1): 9-18, Jan-Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365033

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Aminoglycoside-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is a pathology closely linked to oxidative and inflammatory reactions. Taking into account the previous reported antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of D-005, a lipid extract obtained from Cuban palm Acrocomia crispa (Arecaceae) fruits, this work aimed to evaluate the effects of D-005 on kanamycin-induced AKI. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups: negative control (vehicle, Tween 65/H2O) and six groups treated with kanamycin to induce AKI: positive control (vehicle), D-005 (25, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) and grape seed extract (GSE, 200 mg/kg). D-005, vehicle, and GSE oral treatments were administered once daily for seven days, 1 h before kanamycin (500 mg/kg, i.p.). Serum uric acid and urea concentrations, renal histopathology, and oxidative markers (malondialdehyde (MDA), sulfhydryl (SH) groups, and catalase (CAT) activity) were assessed. Results: D-005 significantly reduced uric acid and urea levels, starting from D-005 100 mg/kg. Histopathologically, D-005, at all the tested doses, protected renal parenchyma structures (glomeruli, proximal tubules, and interstitium). These findings were accompanied by a significant reduction of MDA and SH group concentrations as well as restoration of CAT activity. The highest percentages of inhibition were obtained with the dose of 400 mg/kg. GSE, the reference substance, also prevented kanamycin-induced biochemical and histopathological changes, as well as reduced MDA and SH groups and restored CAT activity. Conclusion: The administration of repeated oral doses of D-005 significantly protected against kanamycin-induced AKI, which could be associated with the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of this extract.


Resumo Introdução: Lesão renal aguda induzida por aminoglicosídeos é uma patologia intimamente ligada a reações oxidativas e inflamatórias. Considerando efeitos antioxidantes e anti-inflamatórios relatados anteriormente do D-005, um extrato lipídico de frutos da palmeira cubana Acrocomia crispa (Arecaceae), este trabalho avaliou efeitos do D-005 na LRA induzida por canamicina. Métodos: Dividiu-se ratos Wistar machos em 7 grupos: controle negativo (veículo, Tween 65/H2O) e seis grupos tratados com canamicina para induzir LRA: controle positivo (veículo), D-005 (25, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg) e extrato de semente de uva (ESU, 200 mg/kg). D-005, veículo, e tratamentos orais com ESU foram administrados uma vez por dia durante sete dias, 1 h antes da canamicina (500 mg/kg, i.p.). Avaliou-se concentrações séricas de ácido úrico e ureia, histopatologia renal e marcadores oxidativos (malondialdeído (MDA), grupos sulfidrila (SH), atividade de catalase (CAT)). Resultados: D-005 reduziu significativamente níveis de ácido úrico e ureia, partindo de D-005 100 mg/kg. Histopatologicamente, D-005, em todas as doses testadas, protegeu estruturas do parênquima renal (glomérulos, túbulos proximais e interstício). Estes achados foram acompanhados por uma redução significativa das concentrações de MDA e grupo SH, e pela restauração da atividade CAT. As maiores porcentagens de inibição foram obtidas com a dose de 400 mg/kg. ESU, a substância de referência, também evitou alterações bioquímicas e histopatológicas induzidas por canamicina, reduziu MDA e grupos SH e restaurou atividade CAT. Conclusão: A administração de doses orais repetidas de D-005 protegeu significativamente contra LRA induzida por canamicina, que pode estar associada aos efeitos antioxidantes e anti-inflamatórios deste extrato.

5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e06937, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1356550

ABSTRACT

Monensin is an ionophore antibiotic (IA) widely used for growth promotion and weight gain in the production of ruminants. However, it has caused intoxication in several species, including buffaloes, mainly because of the ignorance or disrespect of the recommendations for use in each animal species. The objective of this study was to describe, for the first time, clinical-epidemiological and anatomopathological data of an outbreak of accidental poisoning by monensin in buffalos and rediscuss the recommendation of the use of IA in the production of this species. The outbreak affected 21 adult buffaloes after consumption of remains from a feed formulated on the farm and whose constituents were mixed by hand. Clinical and first death signs were observed 24 hours after ingestion of this food. In general, the clinical picture was characterized by muscle weakness, tremors, difficulty in locomotion, and decubitus. Fifteen buffaloes presented clinical signs of poisoning (71.5% morbidity), followed by death (100% lethality), after acute to subacute evolution (<24h to 96h). Laboratory tests indicated elevated serum activity of creatine phosphokinase and aspartate aminotransferase enzymes. Three buffaloes underwent necropsy, and samples from several organs were collected for histopathological examination. The main injuries found were hyaline degeneration and multifocal segmental necrosis in the skeletal and cardiac striated muscles (myopathy and degenerative-necrotic multifocal multifocal-necrotic cardiopathy). The diagnosis was confirmed by the toxicological evaluation of suspected ration remains, which detected 461.67mg/kg of monensin. The death of 71.5% buffaloes in this lot occurred due to a succession of errors, which included faults in the formulation of the ration and, above all, due to the use of monensin in a highly sensitive species. Despite the possible beneficial effects of IA use as a dietary supplement for buffaloes, we are of the opinion that IAs should never be used in bubalinoculture since any increment in production does not compensate for the imminent risk of death due to a small safety margin for this species and the absence of antidotes.(AU)


Monensina é um antibiótico ionóforo (AI) amplamente empregado na produção de ruminantes para promoção de crescimento e ganho de peso, mas que tem causado intoxicação em diversas espécies, incluindo os búfalos, principalmente, pelo desconhecimento ou desrespeito das recomendações de uso e às particularidades de cada espécie animal. Objetivou-se descrever, pela primeira vez na Bahia, dados clínico-epidemiológicos e anatomopatológicos de um surto de intoxicação acidental por monensina em búfalos e rediscutir a recomendação do uso de AI na produção de bubalinos. O surto acometeu um lote de 21 búfalos adultos após consumo de sobras de uma ração para bovinos formulada na fazenda e cujos constituintes eram misturados à mão. Os sinais clínicos e primeiros óbitos foram observados 24 horas após a ingestão dessa ração. O quadro clínico, em geral, se caracterizou por fraqueza muscular, tremores, dificuldade de locomoção e decúbito. Quinze búfalos apresentaram sinais clínicos de intoxicação (morbidade 71,5%), seguido de morte (letalidade 100%), após evolução aguda a subaguda (<24h até 96h). Exames laboratoriais indicaram acentuada elevação na atividade sérica das enzimas CPK e AST. Três búfalos foram necropsiados, sendo coletadas amostras de diversos órgãos para exame histopatológico. A principal lesão encontrada foi degeneração hialina e necrose segmentar multifocal nos músculos estriados esqueléticos e cardíacos (miopatia e cardiopatia degenerativo-necrótica tóxica multifocal polifásica). O diagnóstico foi confirmado pela avaliação toxicológica das sobras da ração suspeita, que detectou 461,67mg/kg de monensina. A morte de 71,5% dos búfalos deste lote ocorreu devido a uma sucessão de erros, que incluíram falhas na formulação da ração e, sobretudo, devido ao uso da monensina em uma espécie altamente sensível. Enfatizamos que, apesar dos possíveis efeitos benéficos do uso AIs como suplemento dietético para bubalinos, somos da opinião que os AIs nunca devem ser empregados na bubalinocultura, uma vez que os eventuais incrementos na produção não compensam o risco iminente de morte, devido a pequena margem de segurança para essa espécie e a inexistência de antídotos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Buffaloes , Monensin/poisoning , Myotoxicity/diagnosis , Myotoxicity/pathology , Fatal Outcome , Myotoxicity/veterinary , Iatrogenic Disease/veterinary , Animal Feed/poisoning
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e06839, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1356554

ABSTRACT

This study describes the spontaneous and experimental salinomycin poisoning associated with the use of florfenicol and warns about the effects of the administration of antibiotics to animals that receive ionophores in the feed as growth promoters. A batch with 1,200 finishing pigs fed a diet containing 30ppm of salinomycin received florfenicol (60ppm via feed) to control respiratory diseases. Twenty-seven pigs had difficulty walking, tip-toe walking, muscle tremors, and anorexia seven days after the start of treatment. Twenty-two animals died, 10 recovered, and two were sent to the Laboratory of Animal Pathology of CAV-UDESC to be necropsied. The experimental reproduction of the disease was carried out to clarify the possible influence of florfenicol on salinomycin poisoning using 12 pigs divided into four groups with three animals each, treated for 16 days with diets containing no additives (Group 1), 50ppm of salinomycin (Group 2), 40ppm of florfenicol (Group 3), and 50ppm of salinomycin and 40ppm of florfenicol (Group 4). Only animals in Group 4 became ill. The clinical disease was reproduced from the ingestion of 24.67mg/kg/LW of salinomycin and 19.74mg/kg/LW of florfenicol. Both natural and experimental salinomycin poisoning associated with the use of florfenicol caused a condition of myopathy characterized in histology by hyaline degeneration and floccular necrosis of skeletal fibers, with macrophage infiltrate, associated with the figures of regeneration in skeletal muscles and multifocal areas of the proliferation of fibroblasts, being more intense in the longissimus dorsi and semimembranosus muscles. Therefore, florfenicol can cause the accumulation of ionophore salinomycin in the animal organism, resulting in a condition of toxic myopathy.(AU)


O presente trabalho descreve as intoxicações espontânea e experimental por salinomicina associada ao uso de florfenicol e alerta sobre os efeitos da administração de antibióticos aos animais que recebem ionóforos na ração como promotores de crescimento. Um lote com 1.200 suínos em fase de terminação, alimentados com ração contendo 30ppm de salinomicina, recebeu florfenicol (60ppm via ração) para o controle de doenças respiratórias. Sete dias após o início do tratamento, 27 suínos apresentaram dificuldade de locomoção, "caminhar em brasa", tremores musculares e anorexia. Vinte e dois animais morreram, 10 recuperaram-se e dois foram encaminhados ao Laboratório de Patologia Animal (CAV-UDESC) para serem necropsiados. Para esclarecer a possível influência do florfenicol na toxicidade da salinomicina foi realizada a reprodução experimental da doença utilizando 12 suínos, divididos em 4 grupos com 3 animais cada, tratados por 16 dias com rações contendo: Grupo 1 = sem aditivos, Grupo 2 = 50ppm de salinomicina, Grupo 3 = 40ppm de florfenicol e Grupo 4 = 50ppm de salinomicina e 40ppm de florfenicol. Somente os animais do Grupo 4 adoeceram. A doença clínica foi reproduzida a partir da ingestão de 24,67mg/kg/PV de salinomicina e 19,74 mg/kg/PV de florfenicol. Tanto a intoxicação natural quanto a experimental por salinomicina associada ao uso de florfenicol provocaram um quadro de miopatia caracterizado na histologia por degeneração hialina e necrose flocular das fibras esqueléticas, com infiltrado macrofágico, associada às figuras de regeneração na musculatura esquelética e áreas multifocais de proliferação de fibroblastos, sendo mais intensas nos músculos longissimus dorsi e semimembranoso. Conclui-se que, o florfenicol tem a capacidade de ocasionar o acúmulo do ionóforo salinomicina no organismo animal, resultando em um quadro de miopatia tóxica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Poisoning/veterinary , Sus scrofa , Myotoxicity/etiology , Ionophores/toxicity , Anti-Bacterial Agents/toxicity , Respiration Disorders/veterinary , Diet/veterinary , Animal Feed
7.
International Eye Science ; (12): 827-832, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923421

ABSTRACT

@#Meibomian gland dysfunction(MGD)is a chronic, diffuse blepharoplasty that is characterized by obstruction of the terminal ducts of the blepharoplasty gland and abnormal lid ester secretion, which is a common ocular surface disease as well as the major cause of hyper evaporation type dry eye. MGD can cause ocular surface lid ester abnormalities and bacterial proliferation, which in turn leads to associated ocular symptoms. Physical therapies and medicines are widely used to treat MGD in clinics. Through the topical or systemic use of antibiotics that are effective anti-bacteria medicine, ocular surface symptoms caused by MGD-induced bacterial proliferation and abnormal eyelid lipids can be alleviated. Currently, the effectiveness of various types of antibiotics in treating MGD has been demonstrated. In this review, the mechanism, modality, and efficacy of various antibiotics in the treatment of MGD were highlighted and summarized from the perspective of topical or systemic use of antibiotics, which can provide promising guidance for clinical treatments of MGD.

8.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 236-243, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913117

ABSTRACT

OBJE CTIVE To inv estigate the antibiotic use and rationality for children in community health service institutions from Beijing ,and to provide reference for promoting rational use of antibiotics in primary healthcare institutions. METHODS All the prescriptions for children from primary healthcare institutions in 2019 were extracted from prescription review system of community health service institutions in Beijing. The use of antibiotics was described according to the related indicators of the World Health Organization/International Network for Rational Use of Drug (WHO/INRUD). The structure of antibiotics use was analyzed according to the anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC)classification as well as the WHO AWaRe classification and diagnosis. RESULTS A total of 288 primary healthcare institutions and 10 422 prescriptions for children were included. The number of institutions in high-income areas ,middle-income areas and low-income areas were 119,80 and 89 respectively,and the number of prescriptions involved were 2 430,2 163 and 5 829 respectively,including 1 447 prescriptions involving antibiotics (13.9%). Among 1 447 prescriptions,the rate of prescriptions involving combined use of antibiotics was 1.4%(20 pieces);the rate of prescriptions involving antibiotics injection was 9.7%(141 pieces);4.8% antibiotics prescriptions were rated as unreasonable (69 pieces). The three most commonly used antibiotics were the macrolides (40.2%),the second-generation cephalosporins (26.5%) and the third-generati on cephalosporins (23.4%). The proportion of antibioti cs prescriptions from groups of access ,caution, reserve and not recommended were 9.1%,92.1%,0.3%,and 0, respectively. The rate of antibiotics prescriptions fortonsillitis was the highest (31.9% ). Among 69 irrationalantibiotics prescriptions ,main of them were irrational drug use (56 pieces,81.2%). CONCLUSIONS The rate of antibiotics prescriptions for children in primary healthcare institutions from Beijing is lower than the standard of WHO antibiotics prescription rate (20.0%-26.8%),but the use rate of antibiotics at caution grade is too high.

9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 532-557, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929313

ABSTRACT

Drug repurposing or repositioning has been well-known to refer to the therapeutic applications of a drug for another indication other than it was originally approved for. Repurposing non-oncology small-molecule drugs has been increasingly becoming an attractive approach to improve cancer therapy, with potentially lower overall costs and shorter timelines. Several non-oncology drugs approved by FDA have been recently reported to treat different types of human cancers, with the aid of some new emerging technologies, such as omics sequencing and artificial intelligence to overcome the bottleneck of drug repurposing. Therefore, in this review, we focus on summarizing the therapeutic potential of non-oncology drugs, including cardiovascular drugs, microbiological drugs, small-molecule antibiotics, anti-viral drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-neurodegenerative drugs, antipsychotic drugs, antidepressants, and other drugs in human cancers. We also discuss their novel potential targets and relevant signaling pathways of these old non-oncology drugs in cancer therapies. Taken together, these inspiring findings will shed new light on repurposing more non-oncology small-molecule drugs with their intricate molecular mechanisms for future cancer drug discovery.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929247

ABSTRACT

The spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and exhausted drug leads render some infections untreatable now and in the future. To deal with these "new challenges", scientists tend to re-pick up "old antibiotics". Fusidane-type antibiotics have been known for nearly 80 years as potent antibacterial agents against gram-positive bacteria, especially Staphylococci, and represent the only triterpene-derived antibiotic class in clinical setting. These attractive characteristics have drawn renewed attention on fusidane-type antibiotics in recent decades. Isolation, characterization, biological evaluation, as well as chemical modifications of fusidane-type antibiotics are increasingly being reported. Combinatorial biosynthesis of this type of antibiotics has been successfully utilized not only for elucidating the biosynthetic pathways, but also for expanding their structural diversity. Some isolated and synthetic compounds exhibit comparable or even more potent biological activity than fusidic acid. This review provides an overview of progress on the studies of structure and biology of fusidane-type antibiotics from 1943 to April 2021. The informative structure-activity relationship is also highlighted.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria , Biology , Structure-Activity Relationship
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928638

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the effect of improvement in antibiotic use strategy on the short-term clinical outcome of preterm infants with a gestational age of <35 weeks.@*METHODS@#The medical data were retrospectively collected from 865 preterm infants with a gestational age of <35 weeks who were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2016. The improved antibiotic use strategy was implemented since January 1, 2015. According to the time of implementation, the infants were divided into three groups: pre-adjustment (January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014; n=303), post-adjustment Ⅰ (January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015; n=293), and post-adjustment Ⅱ (January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2016; n=269). The medical data of the three groups were compared.@*RESULTS@#There were no significant differences among the three groups in gestational age, proportion of small-for-gestational-age infants, sex, and method of birth (P>0.05). Compared with the pre-adjustment group, the post-adjustment I and post-adjustment Ⅱ groups had a significant reduction in the rate of use of antibiotics and the duration of antibiotic use in the early postnatal period and during hospitalization (P<0.05), with a significant increase in the proportion of infants with a duration of antibiotic use of ≤3 days or 4-7 days and a significant reduction in the proportion of infants with a duration of antibiotic use of >7 days in the early postnatal period (P<0.05). Compared with the post-adjustment Ⅰ group, the post-adjustment Ⅱ group had a significant reduction in the duration of antibiotic use in the early postnatal period and during hospitalization (P<0.05), with a significant increase in the proportion of infants with a duration of antibiotic use of ≤3 days and a significant reduction in the proportion of infants with a duration of antibiotic use of 4-7 days or >7 days (P<0.05). Compared with the pre-adjustment group, the post-adjustment I and post-adjustment Ⅱ groups had significantly shorter duration of parenteral nutrition and length of hospital stay (P<0.05). There were gradual reductions in the incidence rates of grade ≥Ⅲ intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and late-onset sepsis (LOS) after the adjustment of antibiotic use strategy. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the adjustment of antibiotic use strategy had no effect on short-term adverse clinical outcomes, and antibiotic use for >7 days significantly increased the risk of adverse clinical outcomes (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#It is feasible to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use by the improvement in antibiotic use strategy in preterm infants with a gestational age of <35 weeks, which can also shorten the duration of parenteral nutrition and the length of hospital stay and reduce the incidence rates of grade ≥Ⅲ IVH and LOS.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Infant, Premature , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/epidemiology
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 546-564, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927727

ABSTRACT

Ribosomal engineering is a technique that can improve the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in the antibiotics-resistant mutants by attacking the bacterial RNA polymerase or ribosome units using the corresponding antibiotics. Ribosomal engineering can be used to discover and increase the production of valuable bioactive secondary metabolites from almost all actinomycetes strains regardless of their genetic accessibility. As a consequence, ribosomal engineering has been widely applied to genome mining and production optimization of secondary metabolites in actinomycetes. To date, more than a dozen of new molecules were discovered and production of approximately 30 secondary metabolites were enhanced using actinomycetes mutant strains generated by ribosomal engineering. This review summarized the mechanism, development, and protocol of ribosomal engineering, highlighting the application of ribosomal engineering in actinomycetes, with the aim to facilitate future development of ribosomal engineering and discovery of actinomycetes secondary metabolites.


Subject(s)
Actinobacteria/metabolism , Actinomyces/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism , Multigene Family , Ribosomes/genetics
13.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 391-402, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920452

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To provide reference for the safety of drug use in children and the rational drug use management strategies by health administration departments. METHODS A self-designed questionnaire was used to investigate the cognition of antibiotics and the parents ’behavior of children ’s use of antibiotics ,using online and offline questionnaires. Univariate analysis was carried out on the scores of respondents ’cognition,and multivariate Logistic regression analysis was carried out on the factors affecting parents ’behavior of children ’s use of antibiotics. RESULTS A total of 1 068 questionnaires were distributed ,and 993 valid questionnaires were recovered ,with the effective recovery rate of 93.0%. Among the respondents ,43.2% of the parents ’ behavior of children ’s use of antibiotics in the past 6 months. The score of respondents ’cognition,high treatment cost and cumbersome treatment procedures ,easy access to antibiotics ,certain medication experience ,the recommendation of pharmacists in drug store ,the recommendation of relatives and friends and the publicity of mass media were positively correlated with parents ’ behavior of children ’s use of antibiotics (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS The rate of the parents ’in Sichuan-Chongqing area is high , which is the result of a combination of several factors. Reducing the risk of behavior of children ’s use of antibiotics requires the joint efforts of the government ,medical institutions and the public. The parents ’cognition towards antibiotics should be improved ,and the acquisition of antibiotics should be standardized so as to reduce unreasonable use of antibiotics.

14.
J. appl. oral sci ; 30: e20210583, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365007

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: This study assessed the efficacy of two adjunct therapies (antibiotic and probiotic) for periodontal treatment based on clinical and immunological parameters in patients with Stage II and III Grade B periodontitis. Methodology: 45 patients were randomly allocated into three groups: control group (CG); antibiotic group (GAtb), in which 500 mg amoxicillin + 400 mg metronidazole were used; and probiotic group (GProb), for which Lactobacillus reuteri was used. Patients received medications after undergoing periodontal debridement. Clinical and immunological parameters were assessed at baseline, 30 days, and 90 days. Results: All therapies reduced bleeding on probing (BoP) in the evaluated periods, and the GAtb had a greater reduction at 90 days (p=0.03). The GProb group showed better results for plaque index (PI) and gingival recession (GR) compared to the GAtb at 90 days (p=0.0014; p=0.006). The area of inflammation (PISA Index) significantly decreased in all therapies in the evaluated periods. Therapies had no significant differences regarding moderate pockets. The GAtb had a greater reduction in probing depth (PD) for deep pockets (p=0.03) at 90 days and in the number of deep pocket sites at 30 days (p=0.04). The occurrence of adverse effects was commonly reported in the GAtb as a percentage per patient. The GAtb had a significant reduction in the concentration of interleukins IL-1β and IL-8 and an increase in IL-10 and TNF-α. The CG had a reduction in IL-6 and IL-1 β, whereas in the GProb there was no difference. Conclusion: After three months, none of the adjuvant therapies provided any additional benefit for subgingival instrumentation.

15.
Braz. dent. sci ; 25(3): 1-7, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1380823

ABSTRACT

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the online search interest pertaining to queries regarding antibiotics for dental pain. Material and Methods : Google Trends™ was used to identify the online search interest. Previously, a literature search was performed on the most frequently used antibiotics in dentistry in Brazil. Accordingly, the search terms used were Amoxicillin (AM), Clindamycin (CD), Azithromycin (AZ) and Metronidazole (MD), with the phrase "for toothache" in Portuguese and English. A time-series covered the last 240 weeks (from 2015 to 2020), and the results of each term were compared to their respective annual value. Geographic regions were also evaluated. To obtain a relative search volume (RSV), the resulting Google Trends™ numbers were then scaled to a range from 0 to 100 based on the ratio of searches on a topic to searches across all topics. Results : We observed an upward trend in all antibiotics search terms over the 5 years analyzed, with a peak of greater interest in 2019. The antibiotic of most interest related to toothache was 'AM', followed by 'AZ', 'MD', and 'CD'. The annual RSV of toothache searches rose steadily from 2015 to 2020. Variations were observed between Brazilian geographic regions, and the Northeast region presented with the greatest interest in the topic. Conclusion : Although there were variations in annual and regional trends, an expressive and persistent increase in collective interest regarding the use of antibiotics related to toothache, mainly amoxicillin, was observed. Our findings provide insights for public health promotion programs. (AU)


Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o interesse da pesquisa online em consultas sobre antibióticos para dor de dente. Material e métodos : o Google Trends™ foi usado para identificar o interesse de pesquisa online. Anteriormente, foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica sobre os antibióticos mais utilizados em odontologia no Brasil. A partir daí, os termos de busca utilizados foram Amoxicilina (AM), Clindamicina (CD), Azitromicina (AZ) e Metronidazol (MD) com os termos "para dor de dente" em português e inglês. Uma série histórica abrangeu as últimas 240 semanas (abril de 2015 a abril de 2020), e os resultados de cada período foram comparados com seus respectivos valores anuais. Regiões geográficas também foram avaliadas. Os números resultantes do Google Trends ™ são dimensionados para um intervalo de 0 a 100 com base na proporção de um tópico para todas as pesquisas em todos os tópicos de busca. Isso é chamado de volume relativo de pesquisa (RSV). Resultados : Foi observada uma tendência crescente para todos os termos de antibióticos ao longo dos 5 anos analisados, com um pico de maior interesse em 2019. O antibiótico de maior interesse na dor de dente foi 'AM', seguido por 'AZ', 'MD' e 'CD'. O RSV anual das buscas de dor de dente cresceu continuamente de 2015 a 2020. Variações foram observadas entre as regiões geográficas brasileiras, sendo que a Região Nordeste apresentou o maior interesse pelo tema. Conclusão : Embora tenha havido variação nas tendências anuais e regionais, observou-se um aumento expressivo e persistente do interesse coletivo pelo uso de antibióticos relacionados à dor de dente, principalmente a amoxicilina. Nossas descobertas fornecem insights para programas de promoção pública.(AU)


Subject(s)
Oral Health , Public Health , Drugs for Primary Health Care , Internet Access , Anti-Bacterial Agents
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e228009, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249287

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common opportunistic pathogenic bacterium with the ability to develop a strong communication pathway by quorum sensing system and different virulent factors. Among the various important secretions of P. aeruginosa rhamnolipid is important biological detergent, believed to be involved in the development of the biofilm and intercellular communication. It readily dissolves the lung surfactants that are then easily catalyzed by the phospholipases and in this way is involved in the acute pulmonary infection. Objective research work was designed to investigate virulence and gene associated with virulence in P. aeruginosa responsible for pulmonary infections. Methods In current study polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the detection of the rhlR (rhamnolipid encoding) gene of isolated strains. A number of assays were performed that ensured its virulent behavior. Disc diffusion method was used to check its antibiotic resistance. Isolated strains were resistant to a number of antibiotics applied. Result It was found that males are more prone to respiratory infections as compared to females. Male members with age of 44-58 and 59-73 are at a higher risk, while females with age of 44-58 are also at a risk of pulmonary infections. Antibiotic resistance was observed by measuring zone of inhibition in strains GCU-SG-M4, GCU-SG-M3, GCU-SG-M5, GCU-SG-M2, GCU-SG-M1 and GCU-SG-M6. GCU-SG-M2 was resistant to fluconazole (FLU), clarithromycin (CLR), cefixime (CFM) and Penicillin (P10). No zone of inhibition was observed. But it showed unusual diffused zone around the Ak and MEM antibiotic discs. rhl R gene and 16s rRNA gene were characterized and analyzed. Conclusion Findings from current study would help in raising awareness about antibiotic resistance of P. aeruginosa, and also the sequence of rhl R gene can be used as the diagnostic marker sequence to identify the virulent rhl R gene sequence from the samples when isolated from sputum of Pneumonia patients.


Resumo Antecedentes Pseudomonas aeruginosa é uma bactéria patogênica oportunista comum, com a capacidade de desenvolver uma forte via de comunicação pelo sistema de detecção de quorum e diferentes fatores virulentos. Entre as várias secreções importantes de P. aeruginosa rhamnolipid, há um importante detergente biológico, que se acredita estar envolvido no desenvolvimento do biofilme e na comunicação intercelular. Dissolve rapidamente os surfactantes pulmonares que são facilmente catalisados pelas fosfolipases e, dessa maneira, estão envolvidos na infecção pulmonar aguda. Objetivo O trabalho de pesquisa foi desenhado para investigar a virulência e o gene associado à virulência em P. aeruginosa responsável por infecções pulmonares. Métodos No presente estudo, a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) foi utilizada para a detecção do gene rhlR (codificação ramnolipídeo) de cepas isoladas. Foram realizados vários ensaios que garantiram seu comportamento virulento. O método de difusão em disco foi utilizado para verificar sua resistência a antibióticos. As estirpes isoladas foram resistentes a vários antibióticos aplicados. Resultado Verificou-se que os homens são mais propensos a infecções respiratórias em comparação às mulheres. Membros do sexo masculino com idade entre 44 e 58 e 59 e 73 anos correm maior risco, enquanto mulheres com idade entre 44 e 58 anos também correm risco de infecções pulmonares. A resistência aos antibióticos foi observada medindo a zona de inibição nas cepas GCU-SG-M4, GCU-SG-M3, GCU-SG-M5, GCU-SG-M2, GCU-SG-M1 e GCU-SG-M6. O GCU-SG-M2 foi resistente ao fluconazol (FLU), claritromicina (CLR), cefixima (CFM) e penicilina (P10). Nenhuma zona de inibição foi observada. Mas se notou uma zona difusa incomum ao redor dos discos antibióticos Ak e MEM. Os genes rhl R e 16s rRNA foram caracterizados e analisados. Conclusão As conclusões do presente estudo ajudariam a aumentar a conscientização sobre a resistência a antibióticos de P. aeruginosa e, também, a sequência do gene rhl R pode ser usada como sequência de diagnóstico para identificar a sequência virulenta do gene rhl R das amostras quando isoladas do escarro de pacientes com pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pneumonia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Glycolipids , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
17.
Bol. venez. infectol ; 32(2): 105-110, julio - diciembre 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363871

ABSTRACT

Las guías de profilaxis antibiótica alrededor del mundo señalan que la selección del antibiótico debe basarse en los microorganismos según el tipo y sitio de operación. Objetivo: Determinar la aplicación de las recomendaciones de las guías nacionales de profilaxis antibiótica perioperatoria y comparar con el protocolo de uso en cirugías electivas tipo hernias en el Departamento de Cirugía General en el "Hospital Militar Universitario Dr. Carlos Arvelo" en el período marzo 2019 - marzo 2020. Metodología: Tipo de investigación no experimental longitudinal bajo el modelo de estudio documental con enfoque descriptivo y cuantitativo. Resultados: Muestra de 73 pacientes, de los cuales un 64,98 % no tuvo una selección del antibiótico recomendado, el tiempo de colocación del antibiótico no estuvo adherido en 69,89 %, el intervalo de dosis no fue adherido con un 84,93 % y la vía de administración fue la correcta con 100 %. Se evidenciaron infección de sitio quirúrgico en 11 pacientes en su mayoría no adheridos a la guía de la SVI. Conclusión: La evaluación del consenso de la SVI fue baja. La profilaxis antibiótica se ha convertido en una herramienta esencial para la disminución de infecciones del sitio quirúrgico, el conocimiento de consenso y uso correcto de la norma es de suma importancia.


Antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines around the world indicate that antibiotic selection should be based on microorganisms according to the type and site of operation. Objective: To determine the application of the recommendations of the national guidelines for perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis and to compare with the protocol for use in elective hernia-type surgeries in the Department of General Surgery at the "Hospital Military Universitario Dr. Carlos Arvelo" in the period March 2019 - March 2020. Methodology: Type of longitudinal non-experimental research under the documentary study model with a descriptive and quantitative approach. Results: Sample of 73 patients, of which 64.98 % did not have a recommended antibiotic selection, the antibiotic placement time was not adhered in 69.89 %, the dose interval was not adhered with 84.93 % and the route of administration was correct with 100 %. Surgical site infection was evidenced in 11 patients, most of who did not adhere to the IVS guideline. Conclusion: The consensus assessment of the SVI was low. Antibiotic prophylaxis has become an essential tool for reducing surgical site infections, knowledge of consensus and correct use of the standard is of utmost importance

18.
NOVA publ. cient ; 19(36): 109-132, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356544

ABSTRACT

Resumen A pesar de algunas limitaciones éticas, los animales juegan un papel importante como anfitriones sustitutos para investigar los mecanismos fisiopatológicos de enfermedades con el fin de indagar en ellos medicamentos contra diferentes patologías. Uno de los grandes problemas en salud pública a nivel mundial en el contexto farmacológico es la producción de antibióticos y la ocurrencia de resistencia microbiana, además, cada vez resulta más complejo el uso de modelos animales por las restricciones bioéticas actuales, no obstante, es necesario usar modelos simples en los estudios preliminares que permitan evaluar las interacciones huésped-patógeno-antimicrobiano. Al validar que Caenorhabditis elegans es susceptible a varias bacterias y además tiene la capacidad de responder a estímulos ambientales con cambios observables en el comportamiento tras ser alimentado con diversas bacterias, resulta muy útil usarlo en este tipo de investigaciones ya que tiene una vida promedio corta y no cuenta con restricciones éticas para su uso. Por lo anterior, en este artículo se revisa la susceptibilidad que tiene C.elegans de infectarse con diferentes bacterias, además, ya que aún no se ha validado completamente como modelo para poner a prueba antimicrobianos se propone que este nematodo es útil como modelo In vivo para evaluar infecciones y tratamientos antibacterianos.


Abstract Despite some ethical limitations, animals play an important role as surrogate hosts in investigating the pathophysiological mechanisms of disease in order to test drugs against different pathologies. One of the great problems in public health worldwide in the pharmacological context is the production of antibiotics and the occurrence of microbial resistance, the use of animal models is becoming increasingly complex due to current bioethical restrictions, however, it is necessary to use models simple in preliminary studies that allow evaluating host-pathogen-antimicrobial interactions. Validating that Caenorhabditis elegans is susceptible to various bacteria and also has the ability to respond to environmental stimuli with observable changes in behavior after being fed with various bacteria, it is very useful to use it in this type of research since it has a short average life and does not have ethical restrictions for its use. Therefore, this article reviews the susceptibility of C. elegance to become infected with different bacteria, in addition, since it has not yet been fully validated as a model to test antimicrobials, it is proposed that this nematode is useful as an in vivo model. to evaluate infections and antibacterial treatments.

19.
Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 28(2): 193-200, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339924

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a capacidade de exercício e nível de atividade física diária de crianças e adolescentes com fibrose cística e associar com estado nutricional, função pulmonar, tempo de hospitalização e uso de antibióticos. Trata-se de estudo transversal em indivíduos com fibrose cística entre 6 e 18 anos, registrando-se informações sobre perfil clínico, histórico de hospitalizações e uso de antibióticos. Os participantes foram submetidos à espirometria, bioimpedância, avaliação da capacidade de exercício com teste de Shuttle modificado (MST), o nível da atividade física foi medido por meio do questionário internacional de atividade física (IPAQ) e usando acelerômetro por 5 dias. Participaram 30 indivíduos com idade de 11,2 ± 3,6 anos e volume expirado forçado (VEF1) de 68,0 ± 24,8%. A mediana da distância percorrida no MST foi de 820 metros (66,3%) e demonstrou associação com a função pulmonar (r = 0,78), estado nutricional (r = 0,38), tempo de hospitalização (r = -0,42) e uso de antibióticos (r = -0,46). De acordo com o questionário, 20 pacientes (64,6%) foram classificados como sedentários, o acelerômetro revelou que os indivíduos passam 354,2 minutos em atividades sedentárias e apenas 14,9 minutos em atividades moderadas a vigorosas por dia. Quanto maior a porcentagem de tempo em atividade física moderada a vigorosa, maior o índice de massa corpórea (IMC) e menor o tempo de hospitalização. Assim, a capacidade de exercício e nível de atividade física em crianças e adolescentes com fibrose cística apresentou-se reduzida e associada com menores valores de IMC e aumento do tempo de hospitalização.


RESUMEN El propósito de este trabajo fue evaluar la capacidad de ejercicio y el nivel de actividad física diaria de los niños y adolescentes con fibrosis quística, así como asociarlos con el estado nutricional, la función pulmonar, la duración de la permanencia hospitalaria y el uso de antibióticos. Este es un estudio transversal realizado con individuos con fibrosis quística con edades comprendidas entre los 6 y los 18 años, y que registra información sobre el perfil clínico, los antecedentes de hospitalizaciones y el uso de antibióticos. Los participantes se sometieron a la espirometría, la bioimpedancia, la evaluación de la capacidad de ejercicio con la prueba de Shuttle modificada (MST); para medir el nivel de actividad física se aplicó el Cuestionario Internacional de Actividad Física (IPAQ) y el uso del acelerómetro durante 5 días. Participaron 30 personas de entre 11,2 ± 3,6 años de edad y volumen espirado forzado (VEF1) de 68,0 ± 24,8%. La mediana de la distancia recorrida en el MST fue de 820 metros (66,3%) y se mostró asociación con la función pulmonar (r=0,78), el estado nutricional (r=0,38), la duración de la permanencia hospitalaria (r=-0,42) y el uso de antibióticos (r=-0,46). El cuestionario reveló que 20 pacientes (64,6%) estaban sedentarios, y el acelerómetro evidenció que ellos pasan 354,2 minutos en actividades sedentarias y solo 14,9 minutos en actividades moderadas a intensas al día. Cuanto mayor sea el porcentaje de tiempo dedicado a la actividad física moderada a intensa, mayor será el índice de masa corporal (IMC) y menor la duración de la permanencia hospitalaria. Por lo tanto, la capacidad de ejercicio y el nivel de actividad física de niños y adolescentes con fibrosis quística fueron menores y están asociadas con bajos valores de IMC y con una permanencia hospitalaria más prolongada.


ABSTRACT To evaluate the exercise capacity and daily physical activity level among children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis, and its association with nutritional status, lung function, hospitalization time, and days taking antibiotics. This is a cross-sectional study in individuals with cystic fibrosis aged 6 to 18 years. Information on clinical profile, history of hospitalizations and antibiotic use were collected. Participants were submitted to spirometry, bioimpedance, and an assessment of exercise capacity with modified shuttle test (MST), and the level of physical activity was measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) using an accelerometer for 5 days. In total, 30 individuals participated, aged 11.2±3.6 years, and 68.0±24.8% in forced expired volume in the first second (FEV1). The median distance covered in the MST was 820 meters (66.3%), showing association with lung function (r=0.78), nutritional status (r=0.38), hospitalization time (r=-0.42) and antibiotic use (r=-0.46). According to the questionnaire, 20 patients (64.6%) were classified as sedentary, the accelerometer revealed that the individuals spend 354.2 minutes in sedentary activities and only 14.9 minutes in moderate to vigorous activities per day. The higher the percentage of time in moderate to vigorous physical activity, the higher the body mass index (BMI) and the shorter the hospitalization time. Exercise capacity and level of physical activity in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis is reduced and associated with lower BMI values and with an increase in hospitalization time.

20.
rev. udca actual. divulg. cient ; 24(1): e1677, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290427

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT During the first weeks of lactation, the energy balance of dairy cows is generally negative, allowing for decompensation in a variety of tissues and systems, especially the immune system. The energy levels of a cow's diet during the first third of lactation, in specialized dairying, will modulate the immune system functionality of the mammary glands. The aim of this study was to assess the sanitary quality of milk through the somatic cell score (SCS), the colony-forming units (CFU), and the isolated bacteria of Holstein cows with different energy levels in the diet. Thus, 24 Holstein cows were studied during their first third of lactation, after the lactation peak (50 to 100 lactation days). They were assigned into 4 treatments, taking into account the energy requirements of each animal: Isoenergetic (ISO), Hypoenergetic (HYPO), Hyper energetic (HYPER), and Isoenergetic plus sunflower oil supplementation (OIL). Milk samples were taken for the somatic cell count (SCC) and CFUs, and isolated pathogens in milk were identified by microbiological culture. The diet had a significant effect on SCS with a value p of 0.0331, but not on the CFUs (p< 0.5141). 11 pathogens were identified and in 33.9% of samples, microorganisms were not isolated. The Isoenergetic diet favors the presence of some microorganisms and the increase of SCS.


RESUMEN En las primeras semanas de lactancia, generalmente, el balance energético de la vaca lechera es negativo, determinando una descompensación en diferentes tejidos y sistemas, en especial, el inmunológico. Los niveles de energía en la dieta de vacas, en primer tercio de lactancia en lechería especializada, modularán la funcionalidad del sistema inmune en glándula mamaria. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la calidad sanitaria de la leche, a través de la medición de células somáticas (SCS), las unidades formadoras de colonias (UFC) y las bacterias aisladas de vacas Holstein, con diferentes niveles de energía en la dieta. Se usaron 24 vacas Holstein en el primer tercio de gestación, posterior al pico de lactancia (entre 50 y 100 días de lactancia), dispuestas en 4 tratamientos, de acuerdo con el cubrimiento de los requerimientos energéticos del animal: isoenergético (ISO), hipoenergético (HIPO), hiperenergetico (HIPER) e isoenergético más suplementación con aceite de girasol (ACEITE). Se tomaron muestras de leche para el recuento de células somáticas (RCS) y UFC y se identificaron patógenos en leche, por cultivos microbiológicos. La dieta tuvo un efecto significativo sobre el SCS, con un valor p de 0.0331 y no sobre las UFC (p<0.5141). Se identificaron 11 patógenos y en 33,96% de las muestras no se aislaron microorganismos. La dieta isoenergética favorece la presencia de algunos microorganismos y el aumento del SCS.

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