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Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1560681


Las resistencias bacterianas a antimicrobianos representan uno de los principales problemas en la actualidad, encontrándose dentro de las principales causas de muerte en todo el mundo. Latinoamérica y Argentina, lejos de ser una excepción,presentan incidencias crecientes de infecciones por gérmenes resistentes. Cada día, se conocen mejor los mecanismos de resistencia que presentan los bacilos gram negativos y algunos cocos positivos. El problema no surge sólo por el sobreuso de antimicrobianos en la medicina clínica. Su sobreutilización para maximizar los beneficios productivos en la pesca, la ganadería y la agricultura contribuyen a esta situación. Desde la perspectiva de la atención primaria de la salud,consideramos fundamental conocer todos los aspectos que forman parte de esta problemática para intentar mitigar el daño que las resistencias bacterianas generan a nivel global. Argentina se transformó en el primer país de la región y del continente en contar con una ley para prevenir y controlar la resistencia a los Antimicrobianos. Consideramos de vital importancia que se fomenten más y mejores políticas sanitarias de orden público para enfrentar este creciente desafío. (AU)

Nowadays, bacterial resistance to antimicrobials is one of the main problems, being one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Latin America and Argentina, far from being an exception, have an increasing incidence of infections by resistant germs. Every day, the resistance mechanisms of gram-negative bacilli and some positive cocci are better known. The problem does not arise only because of the overuse of antimicrobials in clinical medicine. Its overuse to maximize productive benefits in fishing, livestock, and agriculture also contributes to this issue. From the perspective of primary health care,it is essential to know all the aspects of this problem to mitigate the damage that bacterial resistance generates at a global level. Argentina became the first country in the region and the continent to have a law to prevent and control antimicrobial resistance. We consider it vitally important that more and better public health policies are promoted to face this growing challenge. (AU)

Humans , Animals , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Hand Disinfection , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Drug Therapy/methods , Prescription Drug Misuse , Anti-Infective Agents/history
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 28(1): 103705, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550143


Abstract Background The COVID-19 pandemic has triggered crises in the public health sector that have complex and multifaceted interrelationships with antimicrobial resistance. It is important to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on microbiological profile, antibiotic and alcohol gel consumption in Intensive Care Units (ICU). Methods This is a retrospective study undertaken in an infectious disease hospital located in Bahia/Brazil during three periods: from March 2019 to February 2020; from March 2020 to February 2021; and from March 2021 to February 2022. It was evaluated the incidence density of Candida spp and of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species (ESKAPE group) in blood, urine and tracheal secretion isolated 48 h after the patient's admission to the ICU, as well as the use of alcohol gel (in milliliters) and consumption of antibiotics in Defined Daily Dose (DDD) per 1,000 ICU patient-days in the previous year and in the first two years of COVID-19 pandemic. Results There was an increase in Candida spp. (5.81, p < 0.001, IRR = 10.47, 95 % CI 2.57‒42.62) and in carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii in clinical cultures (4.71, p < 0.001, IRR = 8.46, 95 % CI 2.07‒34.60), the latter mainly in tracheal secretions (3.18, p =0.02, IRR = 11.47, 95 % CI 1.58‒83.39). A rise in the consumption of ceftriaxone and piperacillin-tazobactam, along with an increase in the utilization of alcohol gel were observed. Conclusion The shifting microbiological profile can be attributed to both the unique characteristics of patients with COVID-19 and the adjustments made to healthcare facilities' structural and work routines. Understanding these changes is essential in addressing the accelerated impact of antimicrobial resistance during the pandemic. Therefore, conducting thorough reviews of institutional practices and routines becomes critical in mitigating the consequences of antimicrobial resistance and its implications for patient care.

Ethiop. Med. j ; 62(1): 15-24, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1524541


Background Prior studies indicated increased antimicrobial resistance in Ethiopia, with related health, economic, and environmental costs. Knowing an institutions and population microbiologic profile allows for proper antibi-otic treatment, which substantially impact patients' outcomes such as healthcare related costs, morbidity, and mortality. The current study assessed the bacteriologic profile, resistance pattern, and treatment outcome in Lancet General Hospital. Method A retrospective cohort study on the bacteriologic profile, antibiotics resistance pattern, and outcome of patients was done on 128 eligible patients who were admitted to Lancet General Hospital from June 2022 to June 2023. Data from all hospitalized patients with culture-confirmed infection were analyzed. SPSS version 26.0 was used to analyze the data. Association between independent and dependent variables was analyzed using binary logistic regression model. Results Gram-negative bacteria were recovered in 77% of the cases. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae was found in 37.5% (54) isolates and carbapenem resistant bacteria were identified in 27.8% of patients. In-hospital mortality from multidrug resistant bacterial infection was 14.8%. Age ≥ 65 years, presence of septic shock, and presence of carbapenem-resistant bacteria were independently associated with in-creased in-hospital mortality. Conclusion High number of resistant microorganisms was isolated, and increased mortality was documented from infections caused by carbapenem-resistant bacteria. Multi-center studies should be done to determine the extent of resistant organisms in health facilities throughout the country. epidemiology, and the findings should be factored into clinical decision making and program design for disease prevention, screening, and treatment. It also calls for further prospective research to learn more about the conditions in the context of additional relevant personal and clinical characteristics

Humans , Male , Female
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 25(1): 86-94, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1532993


Background: The inappropriate use of antibiotics results in the emergence of antimicrobial resistance and adverse clinical and economic outcomes in hospital in-patients. A lack of institutional and national antibiotic guidelines promotes inappropriate antibiotic use. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing, and the quality of antibiotic use in medical wards of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of patients admitted and placed on antibiotics in the medical wards of Lagos University Teaching Hospital between July 2013 and August 2014. The appropriateness of antibiotic therapy was determined by compliance with the guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Results: A total of 350 hospitalized patients on antibiotic therapy during the period of the study were reviewed, including 197 (56.3%) males and 153 females (43.7%). The mean age of the patients was 48.7±17.6 years and a total of 539 initial antibiotics were empirically prescribed. Antibiotic therapy was considered inappropriate in 290 (82.9%) patients, of which 131 (37.4%) patients had no evidence of infection. Pneumonia (23.1%) was the most common indication for antibiotic use, out of which 59.3% had inappropriate antibiotic therapy. Overall, the most frequently prescribed initial empirical antibiotic classes were imidazole derivatives (32.4%) and cephalosporins (22.0%), while the most frequently prescribed inappropriate antibiotic classes were carbapenems (100.0%) and quinolones (89.3%). Conclusion: The study revealed a high rate of inappropriate antibiotic therapy. There is an imperative need to establish antimicrobial stewardship programmes to curb the inappropriate use of antibiotics in the hospital.

Male , Female , Drug Prescriptions , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Drug Overdose , Anti-Bacterial Agents
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 25(2): 120-123, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1555552


COVID-19 pandemic changed the face of global health and brought about new issues in global health security and economy. The World Health Organization published guidelines for clinical management of COVID-19 four months after declaration of COVID-19 as a pandemic. Scholarly reviews and studies from member states within WHO AFRO reveals significant deviation from the WHO published protocols on COVID-19. Assessment of national treatment protocols of 30 of 47 WHO AFRO member states showed widespread inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents for patients, which may worsen the global and concerning threat of antimicrobial resistance. There is need for adopting interventions that optimize antimicrobial use in the context of pre- and post-pandemic preparedness to ensure long-term effectiveness and sustainability for antimicrobials. Treatment guidelines are to be adopted or adapted depending on best clinical evidence available. Non-compliance with guidelines might lead to mismanagement of infectious diseases with attendant negative consequences including antimicrobial resistance and misdirection of critical resources and supplies amongst others.

La pandémie de COVID-19 a changé le visage de la santé mondiale et a soulevé de nouveaux problèmes en matière de sécurité sanitaire et d'économie mondiale. L'Organisation mondiale de la santé a publié des lignes directrices pour la gestion clinique du COVID-19 quatre mois après la déclaration du COVID-19 comme pandémie. Les revues scientifiques et les études des États membres de l'OMS AFRO révèlent un écart significatif par rapport aux protocoles publiés par l'OMS sur le COVID-19. L'évaluation des protocoles nationaux de traitement de 30 des 47 États membres de l'OMS AFRO a révélé une utilisation inappropriée et généralisée d'agents antimicrobiens chez les patients, ce qui pourrait aggraver la menace mondiale et préoccupante de résistance aux antimicrobiens. Il est nécessaire d'adopter des interventions qui optimisent l'utilisation des antimicrobiens dans le contexte de la préparation pré et post-pandémique afin de garantir l'efficacité et la durabilité à long terme des antimicrobiens. Les directives thérapeutiques doivent être adoptées ou adaptées en fonction des meilleures preuves cliniques disponibles. Le non-respect des directives pourrait conduire à une mauvaise gestion des maladies infectieuses avec des conséquences négatives qui en découlent, notamment la résistance aux antimicrobiens et une mauvaise orientation des ressources et fournitures essentielles, entre autres.

Therapeutics , Clinical Protocols , COVID-19 , Bacterial Infections , Guideline Adherence , Pandemics
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 25(2): 169-180, 2024. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1555646


Background: Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a major complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) which is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is high rate of bacteria colonization especially in those with tendencies for poor wound dressing. This is accompanied by high rate of inappropriate antibiotic usage. The aim of this study is to characterize microbial pathogens colonizing foot ulcers of diabetic patients in Enugu, Nigeria, and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of these isolates. Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of consecutively enrolled diabetic patients with foot ulcers in two tertiary healthcare facilities in Enugu, Nigeria, between May 2021 and February 2022. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic and clinical data of the patients. Pus samples and/or tissues were collected from the ulcer lesion of each patient for aerobic and anaerobic microbial cultures and biochemical identification using standard conventional techniques. Results: A total of 310 diabetic patients with foot ulcers were recruited into the study, with 62.3% (193/310) males and 37.7% (117/310) females, and mean age of 56.0±13.9 years. Bacteria and yeast were isolated from samples of 280 (90.3%) patients while samples of 30 (9.7%) patients had no microbial growth. Males had higher frequency of microbial isolates (90.7%, 175/193) than females (89.7%, 105/117), while the age group ≤ 40 years had higher frequency of microbial isolates (100%, 43/43) compared to other age groups, although the differences are not statistically significant (p>0.05). The distribution of the isolates showed that 15.7% (44/280) were monomicrobial while 84.3% (236/280) were polymicrobial. The highest single isolate was Bacteroides fragilis with 5.0% (14/280), followed by Staphylococcus aureus with 3.2% (9/280). Bacteroides fragilis and S. aureus occurred as the highest combined bacteria isolates with 5.7% (16/280). Most of the patients were colonized by combination of bacterial isolates. The susceptibility indicates that most of the anaerobic bacteria were sensitive to metronidazole while S. aureus isolates were resistant to ofloxacin at a rate of 65.0%. Conclusion: The findings in this study showed that there is high bacteria and fungi colonization of foot ulcers of diabetic patients in Enugu, Nigeria. Routine care of wounds especially frequent changes of dressing materials and the use of potent antiseptics, are recommended.

Humans , Male , Female , Diabetic Foot , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 25(2): 145-152, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1555648


Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global health problem and continues to be a major disease burden in the world, associated with serious health challenges including liver cirrhosis, cancer, lymphomas and death. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of HCV infection among students of the University of Calabar. Methodology: In a cross-sectional study, 200 students were tested for the presence of anti-HCV antibodies using a rapid immunochromatographic (ICT) assay (CTK Biotech, Inc. USA). Seropositive samples were confirmed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for detection of HCV RNA. Structured questionnaires were used to collect subjects' socio-demographic data and risk factors of infection. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0, with the level of significance set at p<0.05. Results: Of the 200 students screened, the seroprevalence of HCV was 15.0% (n=30) and 9.5% (n=19) was positive for HCV RNA by RT-PCR assay. The prevalence of anti-HCV antibody was significantly higher in females (18.8%, 12/64) than males (13.2%, 18/136) (x2=3.84, p=0.036). Alcohol consumption (OR=4.67, 95% CI=2.04-10.67, p=0.002), skin piercing (OR=32.99, 95% CI=5.95-72.37, p<0.0001), multiple sexual partners (OR=4.03, 95% CI=1.7-9.6, p=0.0018), and history of blood transfusion (OR=8.00, 95% CI=2.97-21.58, p<0.001) were risk factors significantly associated with HCV infection in the study participants. Conclusion: The findings of 15.0% and 9.5% prevalence of HCV infection by anti-HCV antibody and HCV RNA, respectively in this study, showed that there is relatively high prevalence of HCV infection among the students' population in University of Calabar, Nigeria. Hence, routine medical screening of students for HCV infection using rapid ICT and RT-PCR techniques is hereby recommended.

Contexte: L'infection par le virus de l'hépatite C (VHC) est un problème de santé mondial et continue de représenter un fardeau de morbidité majeur dans le monde, associé à de graves problèmes de santé, notamment la cirrhose du foie, le cancer, les lymphomes et la mort. Cette étude a été réalisée pour déterminer la prévalence de l'infection par le VHC parmi les étudiants de l'Université de Calabar. Méthodologie: Dans une étude transversale, 200 étudiants ont été testés pour la présence d'anticorps anti-VHC à l'aide d'un test immunochromatographique rapide (ICT) (CTK Biotech, Inc., USA). Les échantillons séropositifs ont été confirmés à l'aide d'un test de réaction en chaîne par transcriptase inverse-polymérase (RT-PCR) pour la détection de l'ARN du VHC. Des questionnaires structurés ont été utilisés pour collecter les données sociodémographiques des sujets et les facteurs de risque d'infection. Les données ont été analysées à l'aide de SPSS version 16.0, avec le niveau de signification fixé à p <0,05 Résultats: Parmi les 200 étudiants dépistés, la séroprévalence du VHC était de 15,0% (n=30) et 9,5% (n=19) étaient positifs à l'ARN du VHC par test RT-PCR. La prévalence des anticorps anti-VHC était significativement plus élevée chez les femmes (18,8%, 12/64) que chez les hommes (13,2%, 18/136) (x 2=3,84, p=0,036). Consommation d'alcool (OR=4,67, IC 95%=2,04-10,67, p=0,002), perçage cutané (OR=32,99, IC 95%=5,95- 72,37, p <0,001) Conclusion: Les résultats de 15,0 % et 9,5 % de prévalence de l'infection par le VHC par les anticorps anti-VHC et l'ARN du VHC, respectivement dans cette étude, ont montré qu'il existe une prévalence relativement élevée de l'infection par le VHC parmi la population étudiante de l'Université de Calabar, au Nigéria. Par conséquent, un dépistage médical de routine des étudiants pour l'infection par le VHC à l'aide de techniques rapides de TIC et de RT-PCR est recommandé.

Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535274


El alarmante incremento de la resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos a nivel global ha dilucidado otras fuentes diferentes al hospital y la comunidad, donde el agua ha cobrado gran importancia. El ambiente acuático constituye la fuente y el hábitat natural de un gran número de microorganismos, incluyendo bacterias resistentes a antibióticos; así mismo, se considera uno de los principales receptores de antimicrobianos, bacterias resistentes y genes de resistencia a antibióticos provenientes de las actividades humanas. La contaminación del agua con estos contaminantes emergentes tiene implicaciones serias para la salud humana, relacionadas con la diseminación de la resistencia bacteriana y la emergencia de nuevos mecanismos de resistencia. En esta revisión se brinda una descripción global del papel de los ambientes acuáticos en el problema de la resistencia bacteriana, las principales fuentes de contaminación, además del impacto para la salud pública. Ante este panorama, se establece la necesidad de abordar la problemática de la resistencia bacteriana desde la perspectiva de "una salud", donde a la vigilancia tradicional, enfocada a nivel humano y veterinario, se articule la vigilancia epidemiológica ambiental, principalmente basada en aguas residuales.

The alarming increase in bacterial resistance to antibiotics globally has diluted sources other than the hospital and community, where water has taken on great importance. The aquatic environment is the source and natural habitat of a large number of microorganisms, including antibiotic-resistant bacteria, as well as being considered one of the main receptors for antimicrobials, resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes from human activities. Contamination of water with these emerging contaminants has serious implications for human health related to the spread of bacterial resistance and the emergence of new resistance mechanisms. This review provides a global description of the role of aquatic environments in the problem of bacterial resistance, the main sources of contamination, as well as the impact on Public Health. In this context, the need arises to address the problem of bacterial resistance from the perspective of "one health", where traditional surveillance, focused at the human and veterinary level, is articulated with environmental epidemiological surveillance, mainly in wastewater.

O incremento alarmante da resistência bacteriana aos antibióticos no nível global tem revelado outras fontes diferentes do hospital e da comunidade, em que a água tem ganho grande importância. O ambiente aquático constitui a fonte e o hábitat natural de um grande número de microrganismos, incluindo bactérias resistentes a antibióticos; é considerado, também, um dos principais receptores de antimicrobianos, bactérias resistentes e genes de resistência a antibióticos provindos das atividades humanas. A poluição da água com esses poluentes emergentes tem sérias implicações para a saúde humana, relacionadas com a disseminação da resistência bacteriana e a emergência de novos mecanismos de resistência. Nesta revisão oferece-se uma descrição global do papel dos ambientes aquáticos na situação problemática da resistência bacteriana, as principais fontes de poluição, além do impacto para a saúde pública. Diante desse panorama, determina-se a necessidade de abordar a problemática da resistência bacteriana desde a perspectiva de "uma saúde" em que a vigilância tradicional, focada nos níveis humano e veterinário, esteja articulada com a vigilância epidemiológica ambiental, principalmente baseada em águas residuais.

Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(6): 599-608, dic. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1530005


INTRODUCCIÓN: El uso de tigeciclina ha ido en aumento en los últimos años, debido al incremento de la resistencia bacteriana y la escasez de alternativas terapéuticas. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar y evaluar las prescripciones de tigeciclina en pacientes internados en un hospital universitario, durante los años 2017 y 2018. METODOLOGÍA: Estudio observacional retrospectivo, donde se caracterizaron los pacientes, las terapias, la microbiología asociada, los desenlaces clínicos y las reacciones adversas asociadas a los tratamientos con tigeciclina. Se determinó la proporción de prescripciones apropiadas por un comité de expertos y el consumo de tigeciclina medido en DDD/100 camas-día. RESULTADOS: Se caracterizaron 89 pacientes, de los cuales 67 (75,3%) cumplieron los criterios de selección. El 53,7% de los pacientes eran hombres, con una edad promedio de 60 ± 15 años. El principal motivo de hospitalización fue quirúrgico (65,7%). El 67,1% de los tratamientos con tigeciclina se inició en una Unidad de Paciente Critico y el foco de infección predominante fue abdominal (64,3%). El 50% de las terapias con tigeciclina fueron dirigidas según la microbiología identificada. En 65,7% de los casos se usó tigeciclina como monoterapia en la dosis habitual (62,9%). Náuseas (8,6%), diarrea (7,1%) y vómitos (4,3%) fueron los efectos adversos más reportados. El 84,3% de los tratamientos se consideraron apropiados. El año 2017 se consumió 0,4 DDD/100 camas-día y 0,6 DDD/100 camas/día el 2018, siendo la UCI el servicio que presentó el mayor uso en ambos años. DISCUSIÓN: Tigeciclina fue utilizada principalmente en monoterapia para el tratamiento de infecciones intraabdominales en pacientes hospitalizados, por motivos quirúrgicos, en una unidad de paciente crítico, en las dosis habituales recomendadas de 100 mg como dosis de carga seguida de 50 mg cada 12 hs IV. En 50% de los casos, la terapia fue dirigida según microbiología. Los eventos adversos más habituales fueron los gastrointestinales. CONCLUSIÓN: La mayoría de las terapias prescritas fueron consideradas apropiadas por el comité de expertos.

BACKGROUND: The use of tigecycline has been increasing in recent years, due to increase in bacterial resistance and the scarcity of therapeutics alternatives. AIM: To characterize and evaluate the tigecycline prescriptions of patients hospitalized in a university hospital, during the years 2017 and 2018. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was carried out, where the patients, the therapies, the associated microbiology, the clinical outcomes and the adverse reactions associated with tigecycline were characterized. The proportion of appropriate prescriptions was determined by committee of experts and the consumption of tigecycline measure in DDD/100 bed-days. RESULTS: 89 patients who used tigecycline were characterized, of which 67 (75.3%) met the selection criteria. 53.7% of the patients were male, with a mean age of 60 +/- 15 years The main reason for hospitalization was surgical (65.7%). 67.1% of the treatments with tigecycline were started in a critical patient unit and the predominant focus of the infection was the abdomen (64.3%). 50% of the therapies with tigecycline were ordered according to the identified microbiology. In 65.7% of the cases, tigecyclin was used as monotherapy at the usual dose (62.9%). Nausea (8.6%), diarrhea (7.1%) and vomiting (4.3%) were the most reported adverse events. 84.3% of the treatments were considered appropriate. In 2017, 0.4 DDD/100 bed/days were consumed and 0.6 DDD/100 bed/days in 2018, with de ICU being the service that presented the highest use in both years. DISCUSSION: Tigecycline was mainly used as monotherapy for the treatment of intra-abdominal infections in patients hospitalized for surgical reasons in a critical patient unit at the usual doses of 100 mg loading followed by 50 mg every 12 hours IV. In 50% of the case the therapy was directed according to microbiology. The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal. CONCLUSION: Most of the prescribed therapies were considered appropriate by the expert committee.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Tigecycline/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Prescriptions , Chile , Retrospective Studies , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Intraabdominal Infections/drug therapy , Tigecycline/administration & dosage , Tigecycline/adverse effects , Hospitals, University , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
Rev. cuba. med ; 62(3)sept. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1530144


Introducción: Las úlceras de pie diabético tienen una importante morbimortalidad, más aun, si están asociadas a bacterias multirresistentes a los antimicrobianos. Objetivo: Analizar las características de las úlceras de pie diabético infectadas con bacterias multirresistentes a los antimicrobianos. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación descriptiva, no experimental y transversal, en 87 pacientes con úlceras de pie diabético infectadas, atendidos en una consulta especializada del estado Zulia, Venezuela. Se realizó la anamnesis y exploración física, especialmente centrada en las características de las úlceras de pie diabético. Se obtuvieron muestras de tejido ulceroso para identificar las bacterias presentes y el antimicrobiano correspondiente. Resultados: Todos los pacientes tenían úlcera previa, con agudización de la infección (75,86 por ciento), rehospitalización (59,77 por ciento), amputación previa (36,78 por ciento), úlceras de pie diabético infectadas de larga duración (86,21 por ciento). El 95,40 por ciento recibieron antibióticos previos y 57,62 por ciento habían sido hospitalizados, la antigüedad de la enfermedad fue 16,17 ± 8,41 años y la HbA1c 8,87 ± 1,23. Las úlceras de pie diabético infectadas más frecuente fue neuroisquémica (71,26 por ciento). Predominó la flora monomicrobiana con un (62,07 por ciento) y bacterias gramnegativas (87,36 por ciento). El 79,3 por ciento presentaron bacterias multirresistentes a los antimicrobianos y el 20,69 por ciento panresistencia. Las bacterias multirresistentes fueron predominantemente gramnegativas, y para las grampositivas solo estuvo el Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusiones: Se presenció una alta frecuencia de úlceras de pie diabético infectadas con multirresistencia, predominantemente monomicrobianas y todas con resistencia a betalactámicos y fluoroquinolonas(AU)

Introduction: Diabetic foot ulcers have significant morbidity and mortality, even more so if they are associated with multi-resistant bacteria to antimicrobials. Objective: To analyze the characteristics of diabetic foot ulcers infected with bacteria multi-resistant to antimicrobials. Methods: A descriptive, non-experimental and cross-sectional investigation was carried out in 87 patients with infected diabetic foot ulcers. They were treated in a specialized clinic in Zulia state, Venezuela. Anamnesis and physical examination were performed, especially focused on the characteristics of diabetic foot ulcers. Ulcer tissue samples were obtained to identify the bacteria existing and the corresponding antimicrobial. Results: All the patients had previous ulcer, with exacerbation of the infection (75.86percent), rehospitalization (59.77percent), previous amputation (36.78percent), long-lasting infected diabetic foot ulcers (86.21percent). 95.40percent received previous antibiotics and 57.62percent had been hospitalized, the disease age was 16.17 ± 8.41 years and Hb A1c was 8.87 ± 1.23. The most frequent infected diabetic foot ulcers were neuroischemic (71.26percent). The monomicrobial flora (62.07percent) and gram-negative bacteria (87.36percent) predominated. 79.3percent had multi-resistant bacteria to antimicrobials and 20.69percent pan-resistance. Multi-resistant bacteria were predominantly gram-negative and for gram-positive only staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions: High frequency of multidrug-resistant infected diabetic foot ulcers was found, predominantly monomicrobial and all with resistance to beta-lactams and fluoroquinolones(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Drug Resistance , Diabetic Foot/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2023 Jun; 71(6): 2455-2459
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225121


Purpose: To report on the microbiological profile and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of infectious keratitis at a tertiary center in central India. Methods: The suspected case of severe keratitis underwent microbiological culture and identification using the VITEK 2 technique. Antibiotic susceptibility for different sensitivity and resistance patterns was analyzed. Demographics, clinical profile, and socioeconomic history was also documented. Results: Culture was positive in 233/455 (51.2%) patients. Pure bacterial growth was present in 83 (35.62%) patients and pure fungus was present in 146 (62.66%) patients. The most common bacterial cause of infectious keratitis was Pseudomonas followed by Staphylococcus and Bacillus. Pseudomonas showed 65%–75% resistance against levofloxacin, ceftazidime, imipenem, gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, and amikacin. Staphylococcus showed 65%–70% resistance against levofloxacin, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin, with Streptococcus being 100% resistant to erythromycin. Conclusion: This study highlights the current trend of microbiological profiles of infectious keratitis and their antibiotic susceptibility at a rural setup in central India. Fungal predominance and increased resistance against the commonly used antibiotics were noted.

Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(3): 203-212., jun. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515120


RESUMEN: El aumento de la resistencia y la escasez de nuevos antibacterianos ha requerido la reintroducción de antiguos antimicrobianos entre ellos colistín. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar la utilización de colistín durante el año 2017 en un hospital universitario, mediante la descripción de los pacientes, los tratamientos, la microbiología asociada y efectos adversos. PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Trabajo observacional retrospectivo. Se revisaron los datos de todos los pacientes que recibieron colistín intravenoso (IV) por al menos 48 horas, durante el año 2017. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 53 pacientes, equivalentes a 91 tratamientos. El foco respiratorio fue el principal (46,2%). El 68,1% de los tratamientos fue iniciado en la UCI. La mayoría de los pacientes tenía una hospitalización reciente (83,5%), y presentaban uso previo de antibacterianos (89%). Los dos patógenos mayoritariamente identificados fueron Pseudomonas aeruginosa y Klebsiella spp. El consumo promedio de colistín fue de 2,4 DDD/100 camas/día. El servicio que más consumió colistín fue la UCI, con 45,5 DDD/100 camas/día, usando generalmente la dosis de 3 MUI cada 8 horas IV y con una baja utilización de dosis de carga. CONCLUSIÓN: Colistín corresponde a un antimicrobiano de uso restringido a infecciones sospechadas o confirmadas por agentes bacterianos multi resistentes. En esta serie, su uso inicial fue principalmente empírico, en pacientes con factores de riesgo para resistencia antibacteriana; se usó en forma asociada a otros antimicrobianos, siendo el foco principal el respiratorio.

BACKGROUND: The increase in resistance and the shortage of new antibiotics has led to the reintroduction of old antimicrobials such as colistin. AIM: To evaluate the use of colistin during 2017 in a university hospital, through the characterization of patients and treatment, associated microbiology, response to treatment and adverse effects. METHODS: Retrospective observational design. The data of all patients who received colistin for at least 48 hours during the year 2017 were reviewed. RESULTS: 55 patients were included, equivalent to 144 treatments. The respiratory focus was the main one (57.9%). 64% of the treatments began in the ICU, while 7% in the ward. Most of the patients has a recent hospitalization (86.8%) and has previous use of antibiotics (90.4%). The two main pathogens identified were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella spp. In 87.1% of the cases with microbiological justifications for the use of colistin, a favorable response was obtained. The average consumption of colistin was 2.4 DDD/100 beds/day. The department that consumed the most colistin was the ICU, with 45,5 DDD/100 beds/day, generally using a dose of 3 MIU every 8 hours IV and with low use of loading doses. CONCLUSION: Colistin corresponds to an antibiotic whose use is restricted to infections suspected or confirmed by multi-resistant bacterial agents. Its initial use in this serie was mainly empirical, in patients with risk factors for antibiotics resistance, it was used in association with other antimicrobials, being the respiratory the main infectious focus.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Colistin/administration & dosage , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Colistin/adverse effects , Administration, Intravenous , Klebsiella/isolation & purification , Klebsiella/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-223545


Background & objectives: Sepsis, including neonatal sepsis, remains a prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries such as India, representing 85 per cent of all sepsis-related deaths globally. Early diagnosis and timely initiation of treatment is challenging due to non-specific clinical manifestations and non-availability of rapid diagnostic tests. There is an urgent need for affordable diagnostics with fast turnaround time catering to the needs of end-users. Target product profiles (TPPs) have been found instrumental in developing ‘fit-for-use’ diagnostics, thus reducing the time taken to facilitate development and improving diagnosis. Hitherto, no such guidance or criteria has been defined for rapid diagnostics for sepsis/neonatal sepsis. We propose an innovative approach for developing the diagnostics for sepsis screening and diagnosis which can be utilized by diagnostic developers in the country. Methods: Three-round Delphi method, including two online surveys and one virtual consultation, was adopted to define criteria for minimum and optimum attributes of TPPs and build consensus on characteristics. Expert panel (n=23) included infectious disease physicians, public health specialists, clinical microbiologists, virologists, researchers/scientists and technology experts/innovators. Results: We present a three-component product profile for sepsis diagnosis, (i) screening with high sensitivity, (ii) detection of aetiological agent, and (iii) profiling of antimicrobial susceptibility/resistance, in adults and neonates with an option of testing different considerations. An agreement of >75 per cent was achieved for all TPP characteristics by Delphi. These TPPs are tailored to the Indian healthcare settings and can also be extrapolated to other resource-constraint and high-disease burden settings.

Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-217200


Aims: Our proposal aimed to evaluate Acyl Homoserine Lactones (AHL) as a functional marker for Multi drug resistant (MDR) potential in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii. We investigated the AHL production potential of clinical isolates using a biosensor assay directly on a commonly used agar media. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Molecular Diagnostics and Biomarkers, Gleneagles Global Hospitals, Lakdikapul, Hyderabad-500004. Methodology: Antimicrobial drug sensitivity testing (AST) was performed on 72 clinical isolates of A. baumannii against two front-line antibiotics, Imipenem (10µg) and Meropenem (10µg), by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Production of long chain Acyl Homoserine lactone (AHLs) in the clinical isolates of A. baumannii was tested by cross streaking with the biosensor Chromobacterium violaceum mutant strain CV026 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (NTL4pZLR4) by agar plate diffusion assay. Screening and identification of the quorum sensing mediator gene abaI was done by PCR to confirm its presence in all the 72 clinical isolates. Results: Out of the 72 clinical isolates, 58 were Carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) and 14 were Carbapenem sensitive Acinetobacter baumannii (CSAB) for AST by agar disc diffusion method. None of our isolates produced short chain AHLs whereas all the isolates could produce varying amounts of long chain AHLs. Genotypic confirmation of AHL gene was obtained by abaI gene PCR. Conclusion: Carbapenems are the front-line antibiotics used to treat gram negative bacterial infections in emergencies and in the critical care units of hospitals. Clinical isolates A. baumannii has innate resistance to several antibiotics due to various mechanisms, biofilms forming the first line of defense against antibiotics for the bacterium. Our study used AST to carbapenem as the leading marker for MDR, assuming the innate resistance of A. baumannii to other beta lactam antibiotics. Our study brought out certain important observations namely: a) All clinical isolates of A. baumannii produced Quorum Sensing signal molecules, the AHLs b) the clinical isolates of A. baumannii did not produce any short chain AHLs b) All the clinical isolates of A. baumannii produced long chain AHLs c) AHL production is not specific to carbapenem drug resistance because even CSAB isolates produced AHL d) AHL production is inherent to all clinical isolates of A. baumannii and it apparently indicates an underlying biofilm potential and MDR trait in these A. baumannii isolates. e) AHLs could be a universal marker for revealing MDR trait and biofilm potential in clinical microbiology AST profiling protocols.

J Indian Med Assoc ; 2023 Apr; 121(4): 41-44
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-216720


Background : Measuring antimicrobial consumption is necessary to understand the volume and patterns of use, to design appropriate interventions to reduce and rationalize its use. Materials and Methods : The antimicrobial consumption in Neurology ICU and IPD were measured over a 5-year period using WHO Defined Daily Dose (DDD) methodology. Results : There was an increasing trend in Antimicrobial Consumption (AMC) from 125.7 to 155.5 DDDs/100 days over 5 years with highest consumption in 2017-2018 (190.7 DDDs). The consumption of Watch group of antibiotics was higher than access group antibiotics both in ICU and IPD and constituted more than 75% of total antibiotic consumption. Conclusions : The initiation of empiric therapy though may be necessary depending on the patients condition, however, duration of antibiotic therapy and reducing usage of prophylactic antibiotics for aspiration pneumonia and reducing consumption of Watch group of antibiotics were identified as stewardship opportunities. Feedback on AMC data and persuasive educational interventions to rationalize and reduce antimicrobial use are required.

Rev. ADM ; 80(2): 76-81, mar.-abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1513112


La cirugía de terceros molares es uno de los procedimientos más realizados dentro de la práctica odontológica, generalmente conlleva la prescripción de fármacos, incluidos antibióticos indicados para prevenir la aparición de procesos infecciosos. La resistencia antimicrobiana es considerada como un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial, por lo que el uso de antibióticos debe ser cauteloso. La solución electrolizada de súperoxidación ha demostrado tener efectos bactericidas, virucidas y ha sido utilizada para la prevención y el tratamiento de procesos infecciosos. El objetivo del presente estudio fue demostrar la efectividad de dicha solución en la prevención de infecciones posteriores a la cirugía de terceros molares. Se realizó un estudio aleatorizado, ciego, prospectivo en 20 pacientes utilizando un diseño split mouth, en donde cada paciente fue sujeto control y experimental, en el grupo control se irrigó durante el procedimiento con solución de súperoxidación y no se prescribió antibiótico posterior, mientras que en el grupo control se irrigó con solución fisiológica y se prescribió antibiótico posterior. Se realizaron 40 cirugías en 20 pacientes utilizando en cada paciente ambas terapéuticas. Se analizó el dolor postoperatorio, inflamación y presencia de infección. El dolor y la inflamación fueron ligeramente superiores en el grupo experimental al tercer día; sin embargo, al séptimo día los resultados fueron similares. No se presentó ningún caso de infección postoperatoria. El uso de solución de súperoxidación transoperatoria puede ser una herramienta muy útil en la prevención de infecciones postoperatorias posterior a cirugía de terceros molares en pacientes sanos en cirugías con dificultad leve a moderada (AU)

Third molar surgery is one of the most performed procedures in dental practice, generally involving the prescription of drugs including antibiotics indicated to prevent the onset of infectious processes. Antimicrobial resistance is considered a public health problem worldwide, so the use of antibiotics should be cautious. The electrolyzed super oxidation solution has been shown to have bactericidal and virucidal effects and has been used for the prevention and treatment of infectious processes. The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of said solution in the prevention of infections after third molar surgery. A randomized, blind, prospective study was conducted in 20 patients using a split mouth design where each patient was a control and experimental subject, in the control group they were irrigated during the procedure with super oxidation solution and no subsequent antibiotic was prescribed. while the control group was irrigated with physiological solution and a subsequent antibiotic was prescribed. Forty surgeries were performed on 20 patients using both therapies in each patient. Postoperative pain, inflammation and presence of infection were analyzed. Pain and inflammation were slightly higher in the experimental group on third day, however on seventh day the results were similar. There were no cases of postoperative infection. The use of trans operative super oxidation solution can be a very useful tool in the prevention of postoperative infections after third molar surgery in healthy patients undergoing surgeries with mild to moderate difficulty.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Oxidation , Molar, Third/surgery , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Tooth Extraction/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Randomized Controlled Trial
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2023 Mar; 66(1): 129-134
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-223399


Background: The first objective of the Global Action Plan proposed by the WHO in preventing and controlling Antimicrobial resistance is to improve awareness and understanding of antimicrobial resistance through effective communication, education and training. Self-directed learning is a student oriented teaching learning method ideal for imparting lasting knowledge on topics of national and global importance such as antimicrobial resistance among medical students, which will help them develop an in-depth understanding of the topic and hence the aim of this study was to develop and implement a Self Directed Learning Module on Antimicrobial Resistance. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Microbiology with the Phase 2 medical students. Four self-directed learning sessions were developed and disseminated which included case scenarios, class assignments, obtaining antibiotic history from admitted patients, brain storming sessions, final assessment and feedback from students and faculty. Results: 62 out of 80 students gave their consent for the study. 72.6% students attended all the SDL sessions. 55 students gave their final assessments and feedback and all students scored above 50% marks. More than 70% of students said that the SDL aroused curiosity about the topic, while making it interesting, interactive and enjoyable. Conclusions: The self-directed learning module on antimicrobial resistance evoked interest and enthusiastic participation among the medical students. The discussions, assignments and the brainstorming sessions helped to deepen their knowledge on this emerging threat at the local, national and global levels.

Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-217990


Background: Increasing bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents is resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs aim at rationale use of antimicrobial agents in clinical settings by development and implementation of antibiotic policy. As the patterns of antimicrobial resistance vary with organism and time, there is a need for periodic surveillance. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to study the impact of AMS program on appropriate use of antimicrobial agents and clinical outcomes in patients with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial (MDR GNB) infections. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective observational study that included patients diagnosed with multidrug-resistance Gram-negative bacterial infections during June to July 2019. Identification of multidrug-resistant organisms was performed as per clinical and laboratory standards institute guidelines 2016. Information on the use of empirical antibiotic and other antimicrobial agents after culture and sensitivity report were collected and assessed for appropriateness. All the patients were followed up till discharge. Results: From 170 patients, there were 211 specimens sent for culture and sensitivity and 249 pathogens were isolated. The most frequent pathogen isolated was Escherichia coli (42.6%) followed by Klebsiella spp. (22.9%). Isolates were most resistant to cefazolin (86.7%) and ceftriaxone (83.9%), and most sensitive to polymyxin B (100%) and tigecycline (97.2%). All patients were administered antimicrobial agents as per antibiotic policy of the institute and 154 (90.6%) patients have recovered from illness with a mean length of hospital stay of 19.4 ± 6.6 days. Conclusion: Adherence to antimicrobial policy helps in improved outcomes in patients with MDR GNB infections. Hence, the need to implement AMS program in all hospitals.

Rev. colomb. obstet. ginecol ; 74(1): 37-52, ene.-mar. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1536052


Objetivos: Generar recomendaciones informadas en la evidencia, a través de un consenso formal, orientadas al tratamiento de la infección de vías urinarias altas durante la gestación. Materiales y métodos: En el grupo desarrollador participaron expertos temáticos en microbiología, salud pública, medicina interna, infectología, obstetricia, medicina materno-fetal e infectología ginecobstétrica. También hicieron parte profesionales con entrenamiento en epidemiología clínica, búsqueda sistemática de la información, representantes de la Secretaría de Salud y la Asociación Bogotana de Obstetricia y Ginecología. Los participantes presentaron sus conflictos de interés. A partir de una pregunta clínica se realizó la graduación de los desenlaces y una búsqueda sistemática que abarcó las bases de datos Medline vía PubMed, Embase, Lilacs, Bireme. La pesquisa se amplió a repositorios institucionales y reportes de vigilancia de resistencia antimicrobiana, sin restricción de idioma o fecha, la búsqueda se actualizó el 1 de octubre de 2022. Se utilizó la metodología GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) para valorar la calidad de la evidencia y establecer la fuerza de las recomendaciones. Finalmente, se utilizó la metodología RAND/ UCLA (Research and Development/University of California Los Angeles) para el consenso formal. Este documento fue revisado por pares académicos previo a su publicación. Resultados: El consenso formuló las siguientes recomendaciones. Recomendación 1. Se sugiere que el manejo inicial de la gestante con infección de vías urinarias (IVU) altas se realice de forma intrahospitalaria. Recomendación 2. Como primera opción, se sugiere que el tratamiento antimicrobiano empírico de la gestante con IVU altas se realice con el uso de cefalosporinas de segunda generación con el fin de mejorar la tasa de cura clínica y microbiológica. Recomendación 3. Como segunda opción, se sugiere que el tratamiento antimicrobiano empírico de la gestante con IVU altas en el segundo y tercer trimestre se realice con aminoglucósidos dado su balance riesgo-beneficio. Recomendación 4. Como tercera opción, se sugiere que el tratamiento antimicrobiano empírico de la gestante con IVU altas se realice con el uso de cefalosporinas de tercera generación, debido a que el riesgo de inducción de resistencia microbiana es alto con este grupo de antibióticos. Recomendación 5. Como primera opción, en mujeres gestantes con IVU altas y antecedente de infección por microorganismos con resistencia a cefalosporinas de tercera o cuarta generación se sugiere el uso de carbapenémicos. Recomendación 6. Como segunda opción, en gestantes con IVU altas y antecedente de infección por microorganismos con resistencia a cefalosporinas de tercera generación se sugiere el uso de aminoglucósidos o cefalosporinas de cuarta generación teniendo en cuenta el riesgo-beneficio. Recomendación 7. Como tercera opción, en gestantes con IVU altas y antecedente de infección por microorganismos con resistencia a cefalosporinas de tercera o cuarta generación se sugiere el uso de piperacilina/tazobactam. Recomendación 8. En gestantes con IVU altas se recomienda realizar urocultivo previo al inicio de tratamiento antimicrobiano empírico. Recomendación 9. En gestantes con IVU altas, cuando el urocultivo reporte resistencia al antimicrobiano iniciado de forma empírica, se sugiere modificar la terapia guiada por los resultados del antibiograma. Recomendación 10. En la gestante hospitalizada por IVU altas se sugiere realizar el cambio de terapia antimicrobiana a vía oral cuando la paciente tenga, al menos, 48 horas de modulación de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica y de los signos clínicos de infección, así como adecuada tolerancia a vía oral. Recomendación 11. En gestantes con IVU altas, sin complicaciones secundarias a la infección primaria, se recomienda que la terapia antibiótica se administre de 7 a 10 días. Conclusiones: se espera que este consenso colombiano de IVU altas reduzca la variabilidad en la práctica clínica. Se recomienda a los grupos de investigación en medicina materno fetal e infectología evaluar la implementación y efectividad de las recomendaciones emitidas.

Objectives: To generate evidence-based recommendations through formal consensus regarding the treatment of upper urinary tract infections during gestation. Materials and methods: Experts in microbiology, public health, internal medicine, infectious diseases, obstetrics, maternal fetal medicine and obstetric and gynecological infections participated in the consensus development group. The group also included professionals with training in clinical epidemiology, systematic data search, and representatives from the Health Secretariat and the Bogota Obstetrics and Gynecology Association. The participants disclosed their conf licts of interest. Starting with a clinical question, outcomes were graded and a systematic search was conducted in the Medline via PubMed, Embase, Lilacs, and Bireme databases. The search was expanded to include institutional repositories and antimicrobial resistance surveillance systems, with no language or date restrictions. The search was updated on October 1, 2022. The GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology was used to assess the quality of the evidence and determine the strength of the recommendations. Finally, the RAND/UCLA (Research and Development/University of California Los Angeles) methodology was applied for the formal consensus. This document was reviewed by academic peers before publication. Results: The following are the consensus recommendations. Recommendation 1. The initial management of pregnant women with upper urinary tract infections (UTIs) should be approached in a hospital setting. Recommendation 2. The use of second generation cephalosporins is the suggested first option for empirical antimicrobial management in pregnant women with upper UTI in order to improve the rates of clinical and microbiological cure. Recommendation 3. Because of the risk-benefit balance, the use of aminoglycosides is suggested as a second option for empirical antimicrobial treatment in pregnant women presenting with upper UTIs in the second and third trimester. Recommendation 4. The use of third-generation cephalosporins is suggested as the third option for empirical antimicrobial treatment in pregnant women with upper UTIs given that the risk of inducing microbial resistance is high with this group of antibiotics. Recommendation 5. The use of carbapenems is suggested as a first option in pregnant women with upper UTIs and a history of infections caused by microorganisms with resistance to third or fourth-generation cephalosporins. Recommendation 6. The use of aminoglycosides or fourth-generation cephalosporins is suggested as a second option in pregnant women with upper UTIs and a history of infection caused by microorganisms with resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, taking risk-benefit into account. Recommendation 7. The use of piperacillin/tazobactam is suggested as a third option in pregnant women with upper UTIs and a history of infection caused by microorganisms with resistance to third or fourth-generation cephalosporins. Recommendation 8. Getting a urine culture is recommended in pregnant women with upper UTIs before initiating empirical antimicrobial treatment. Recommendation 9. In pregnant women with upper UTIs, it is suggested to modify therapy in accordance with the results of the sensitivity test when the culture report shows resistance to the antimicrobial agent initiated empirically. Recommendation 10. In pregnant women hospitalized due to upper UTIs, it is suggested to switch to oral antimicrobial therapy after at least 48 hours of modulation of the systemic inflammatory response and the clinical signs of infection, and when tolerance to oral intake is adequate. Recommendation 11. In pregnant women with upper UTIs with no complications secondary to the primary infection, it is recommended to administer antibiotic therapy for a period of 7 to 10 days. Conclusions: It is expected that with this Colombian upper UTI consensus variability in clinical practice will be reduced. It is recommended that groups doing research in maternal fetal medicine assess the implementation and effectiveness of these recommendations.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Treatment Outcome , Pyelonephritis
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-216082


Objective To evaluate the link between phenotypic traits, antimicrobial resistance, and biofilm-producing capacity of urinary isolates of Citrobacter freundii (C. Freundii). Methods Both pan-antibiotic-susceptible and -resistant C. freundii isolates (n = 120) obtained from laboratory-confirmed urinary tract infections were analyzed for their link between antimicrobial resistance, phenotypic characteristics, and biofilm production. Results Of the total C. freundii isolates (n = 120), 30% (37/120) of them formed large colonies. Among the total large colonies produced (n = 37), they were present in 21.62%, 10.81%, 13.5%, 16.2%, 21.62%, and 16.21% in the control group, CIP-group, FOS-group, COT-group, Gent-group, and ESBL groups, respectively. Compared to the pan-susceptible isolates, the occurrence of large-sized-colony-forming strains was relatively reduced in most of the drug-resistant groups. The overall distribution of mucoid colonies produced (n = 54) includes 9.25%, 18.51%, 16.66%, 18.51%, 20.3%, and 16.66% in the control group, CIP-group, FOS-group, COT-group, Gent-group, and ESBL groups, respectively. Of the total isolates that produced biofilm (n = 51), 11.76% of isolates showed biofilm formation in the control group. Alternatively, the rate was found to be 15.68%, 11.76%, 25.49%, 19.6%, and 15.68% in the CIP-group, FOS-group, SXT-group, Gen-group, and ESBL-groups, respectively. Conclusion This study correlates the association between phenotypic characteristics, antimicrobial resistance, and biofilm production, the three main characteristics of C. Freundii.