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1.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 6(1): 18-24, ene. 30, 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1413603

ABSTRACT

La angiostrongiliasis abdominal es una enfermedad parasitaria causada por el género Angiostrongylus costaricensis, un nematodo que infecta a los humanos a través de las secreciones de caracoles o babosas, sus huéspedes definitivos. Costa Rica es el país que se considera más endémico, se ha evidenciado en distintas revisiones que la mayoría de los casos se presentan en niños y personas del sexo masculino. Presentación del caso. Se trata de una mujer de 74 años, que consultó por dolor abdominal agudo, de cuatro días de evolución, acompañado de náuseas, vómitos e hiporexia. Los exámenes de laboratorio reportaron leucocitosis leve y examen general de orina negativo. La ultrasonografía abdominal reportó una masa sólida, heterogénea, mal circunscrita en flanco derecho, esto llevó a la sospecha de una apendicitis aguda. Intervención terapéutica. Se realizó una laparotomía exploradora, con la extirpación de una tumoración de colon perforado que abarcaba desde el ciego hasta el tercio proximal de colon ascendente, además, se realizó una anastomosis de íleo transversa, sin mayor complicación. Evolución clínica. Se manejó con antibióticos y analgésicos, fue dada de alta a los nueve días posteriores al procedimiento, sin complicaciones menores. La biopsia reportó huevos de parásitos consistentes con Angiostrongylus sp


bdominal angiostrongyliasis is a parasitic disease caused by the genus Angiostrongylus costaricensis, a nematode that infects humans through the secretions of snails or slugs, its definitive hosts. Costa Rica is considered the most endemic country, and it has been shown in different reviews that most cases occur in children and males. Case presentation. The patient was a 74-year-old woman who consulted for acute abdominal pain, with four days of evolution, accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and hyporexia. Laboratory tests reported mild leukocytosis and a negative general urine test. Abdominal ultrasonography reported a solid heterogeneous mass, poorly circumscribed in the right lateral abdomen, which led to the suspicion of acute appendicitis. Treatment. An exploratory laparotomy was performed, with the removal of a perforated colon tumor that spanned from the cecum to the proximal third of the ascending colon, in addition, a transverse ileum anastomosis was performed, without further complication. Outcome. She was managed with antibiotics and analgesics and was discharged nine days after the procedure, without complications. The biopsy showed parasite eggs consistent with Angiostrongylus sp


Subject(s)
Aged , Angiostrongylus , Patients , Disease , Bodily Secretions
2.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 68(10): 1464-1469, Oct. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406570

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Acute appendicitis represents one of the most common causes of acute intra-abdominal emergencies worldwide. In this case-control study, we aimed to investigate associations of Rho-kinase gene expression and polymorphisms with acute appendicitis in a Turkish population. We also aimed to study the effects of gender on these parameters. METHODS: A total of 93 unrelated patients with acute appendicitis and 93 healthy controls in the Department of Emergency Medicine, Erciyes University, between June 2019 and June 2021 were included in this study. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral leukocytes, and the LightCycler 480 II real-time polymerase chain reaction was utilized to detect Rho-kinase1 gene rs35996865 and Rho-kinase2 gene rs2230774 (Thr431Asn) polymorphisms. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was applied to determine Rho-kinase1 and Rho-kinase2 gene expressions. RESULTS: There was a marked increase in Rho-kinase1, but not in Rho-kinase2, mRNA expression, and this increase was evident only in male patients (p=0.0008). No significant differences were found in allele and genotype frequencies for Rho-kinase1 gene rs35996865 and Rho-kinase2 gene rs2230774 polymorphisms between the patients with acute appendicitis and the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Our data imply that Rho-kinase1 (rs35996865) and Rho-kinase2 (rs2230774) gene variants are not risk factors for the development of acute appendicitis in the Turkish population. However, increased mRNA expression of the Rho-kinase1 gene in males indicated that Rho-kinase1 is involved in the pathogenesis of acute appendicitis in a gender-specific way.

3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(5): 317-324, oct. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1390881

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La apendicitis aguda (AA) en pacientes pediátricos requiere de un diagnóstico certero. El índice neutrófilos-linfocitos (INL) es un parámetro accesible que puede ser útil en su diagnóstico. Objetivo. Determinar la precisión del INL para diagnosticar AA en pacientes con dolor abdominal. Población y métodos. Estudio de prueba diagnóstica. Se incluyeron 520 pacientes atendidos en el servicio de urgencias pediátricas. Para cuantificar la precisión diagnóstica, se estimó la sensibilidad, la especificidad, los valores predictivos (VP) y los cocientes de probabilidad (CP). Se utilizó un modelo de regresión logística múltiple para evaluar el efecto de las potenciales variables confusoras en la relación entre el INL y la AA. Resultados. La prevalencia de AA fue del 49 %. Para un punto de corte de 5, la sensibilidad fue del 85,1 %, especificidad: 78,9 %, VP+: 79,5 % y VP-: 84,6 %. Sin embargo, basándose en los cocientes de probabilidad, el INL es una prueba poco potente para el diagnóstico de AA (CP+ = 4,03 y CP- = 0,18) y resultó una prueba sin utilidad diagnóstica en el caso de apendicitis complicada (CP+ = 1,57 y CP- = 0,55). Después del ajuste por edad, sexo, obesidad, tiempo de evolución y uso de analgésicos, el INL fue una variable explicativa de la presencia de AA (odds ratio = 23,53; IC95 % 13,14-42,15). Conclusiones. El INL no es lo suficientemente preciso aisladamente para confirmar o descartar la presencia de AA. No obstante, el INL puede emplearse junto con otras pruebas para seleccionar a los pacientes en los cuales es necesario un mayor estudio.


Introduction. Acute appendicitis (AA) in pediatric patients requires an accurate diagnosis. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is an accessible parameter useful for its diagnosis. Objective. To determine NLR accuracy to diagnose AA in patients with abdominal pain. Population and methods. Diagnostic test study. A total of 520 patients seen at the Pediatric Emergency Department were included. Diagnostic accuracy was estimated based on sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios. A multiple logistic regression model was used to assess the effect of potentially confounding variables in the relationship between NLR and AA. Results. The prevalence of AA was 49%. For a cutoff point of 5, sensitivity was 85.1%, specificity: 78.9%; positive predictive value: 79.5%; and negative predictive value: 84.6%. However, based on likelihood ratios, the NLR is not powerful enough to diagnose AA (positive likelihood ratio = 4.03 and negative likelihood ratio = 0.18) and did not exhibit diagnostic usefulness in complicated appendicitis (positive likelihood ratio = 1.57 and negative likelihood ratio = 0.55). Following adjustment for age, sex, obesity, time since symptom onset, and analgesic use, the NLR was an explanatory variable for the presence of AA (odds ratio = 23.53; 95% confidence interval: 13.14­42.15). Conclusions. The NLR alone is not sufficiently accurate to confirm or rule out the presence of AA. However, the NLR can be used together with other tests to select patients in whom further study is necessary.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Lymphocytes , Acute Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Neutrophils
4.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 68(9): 1308-1312, Sept. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406657

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: While abdominal pain is one of the most prevalent reasons for seeking medical attention, diagnosing elderly adults with acute appendicitis (AA) may be difficult. In this study, Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Appendicitis (RIPASA) and Alvarado ratings were evaluated for diagnostic accuracy in patients who reported to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain and received surgery for AA. METHODS: The data of patients over the age of 65 years who reported to the ER and had appendectomy after being diagnosed with AA were evaluated in this retrospective cohort study. For each patient, the diagnostic accuracy of the Alvarado and RIPASA scores was determined individually. RESULTS: A total of 86 patients were included in the research. The average patient was 71.2 years old, with a male preponderance of 46.5%. Alvarado's score was found to have an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.799, the Youden's index of 0.549, and a p-value of 0.001 after a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study of the Alvarado score in identifying the diagnosis of AA. The AUC was 0.886 (95%CI 0.799-0.944), the Youden's index was 0.642, and a p-value of 0.001 was found in the ROC analysis of the RIPASA score in identifying the diagnosis of AA. CONCLUSIONS: When comparing the two scores used to diagnose AA, we found no statistically significant difference between the RIPASA and Alvarado scores (p=0.09), although the Youden's index for the RIPASA score was higher.

5.
Rev. cuba. reumatol ; 24(2): e1032, mayo.-ago. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1409220

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Las enfermedades reumáticas son un grupo de afecciones que se caracterizan por la presencia de manifestaciones y complicaciones sistémicas derivadas del proceso inflamatorio mantenido. Los reactantes de fase aguda, como es el caso de la proteína C reactiva constituyen un marcador de actividad de la enfermedad. Sin embargo, su utilidad se magnifica en los pacientes reumáticos que tienen que ser sometidos a una intervención quirúrgica, circunstancia en la que se tornan un marcador eficiente que muestra la magnitud del proceso inflamatorio. Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de 53 años edad, con diagnóstico de artritis reumatoide y síndrome de Sjögren secundario, que tuvo que ser sometida a intervención quirúrgica por diagnóstico de apendicitis aguda. Se realizó seguimiento clínico y de laboratorio utilizando la proteína C reactiva como marcador de elección para monitorear la intensidad del proceso inflamatorio resultante de la intervención quirúrgica y de los efectos de esta en la actividad clínica de las enfermedades reumáticas de base. Después del tratamiento quirúrgico y medicamentoso, la paciente fue dada de alta hospitalaria sin manifestaciones articulares, digestivas ni alteraciones de los exámenes de laboratorio.


ABSTRACT Rheumatic diseases are a group of conditions characterized by the presence of systemic manifestations and complications derived from the sustained inflammatory process. Acute phase reactants, such as C-reactive protein, constitute a marker of disease activity. However, its usefulness is magnified in those rheumatic patients who have to undergo surgery, being an efficient marker that shows the magnitude of the inflammatory process. We present the case of a 53-year-old female patient diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis and secondary Sjögren's syndrome who had to undergo surgery due to a diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Clinical and laboratory follow-up was performed using C-reactive protein as the marker of choice to monitor the intensity of the inflammatory process resulting from the surgical intervention and its effects on the clinical activity of underlying rheumatic diseases.

6.
Rev. méd. Paraná ; 80(1): 1-2, jan. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1381052

ABSTRACT

Acute appendicitis is a common disease among children, with an incidence peak between 10-20 years of age and a higher prevalence in males. It often presents with periumbilical pain that migrates to the right iliac fossa, accompanied by symptoms. The diagnosis is clinical; however, some tests can be helpful, such as: blood count, PCR, partial urine, ultrasonography, X-ray, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of appendicitis according to sex and age and the most prevalent clinical symptoms in the infancy. Retrospective study analyzing the medical records of patients who underwent appendectomy. Epidemiological characteristics, clinical aspects, physical examination and complementary exams of the patients were identified. In conclusion, acute appendicitis is suspected in a male, aged between 6-12 years, with abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia or positive Blumberg, aided by complementary tests, being ultrasonography and laboratory tests preferred


A apendicite aguda é doença comum entre as crianças, tendo pico de incidência entre os 10-20 anos e maior prevalência no sexo masculino. Frequentemente ela cursa com dor periumbilical que migra para a fossa ilíaca direita, acompanhada de sintomas. O diagnóstico é clínico; entretanto, alguns exames complementares podem ser de grande valia: hemograma, PCR, parcial de urina, ultrassonografia, raio-X simples, tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética. O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar a prevalência de apendicite de acordo com o sexo e idade e os sintomas clínicos mais prevalentes na infância. Estudo retrospectivo analisando prontuários de pacientes que realizaram apendicectomia. Foram identificadas as características epidemiológicas, quadro clínico, exame físico e exames complementares tes. Em conclusão, é suspeitada apendicite aguda em paciente masculino, entre 6-12 anos, com dor abdominal, febre, náuseas, vômitos, diarreia, anorexia ou Blumberg positivo, auxiliados por exames complementares, sendo a ultrassonografia e os exames laboratoriais os preferenciais.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , Signs and Symptoms , Epidemiology , Prevalence , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies
7.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 61(2)jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1408248

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La pileflebitis, trombosis séptica del sistema portal por cuadros inflamatorios agudos abdominales, se presenta con manifestaciones clínicas variables en dependencia de la causa de origen y por rama portal afectado. El diagnóstico incluye función hepática normal o ligeramente alterada con leucocitosis, hemocultivos positivos, eco doppler o tomografía computarizada que corrobore la enfermedad. Objetivo: Describir la pileflebitis como una complicación inusual en una paciente embarazada con apendicitis aguda, desde su concepto, fisiopatología, presentación clínica, diagnóstico y medidas terapéuticas. Caso clínico: Paciente femenina de 18 años, gestante, que refirió dolor abdominal de gran intensidad, acompañado de vómito y deposiciones diarreicas y tinte ictérico. Por tales motivos fue trasladada al Hospital General Docente Ambato. Se diagnosticó sepsis de origen abdominal por apendicitis aguda perforada, peritonitis generalizada complicada con pileflebitis. Se realizó intervención quirúrgica y resolución del cuadro clínico. Conclusiones: La pileflebitis presenta una gran dificultad diagnóstica, por lo que herramientas como la ecografía doppler y la tomografía computarizada son de ayuda en estos casos. Los pilares del tratamiento incluyen control del foco séptico abdominal y tratar la pileflebitis.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Pylephlebitis, septic thrombosis of the portal system due to acute abdominal inflammatory conditions, it presents with variable clinical signs depending on the cause of origin and the affected portal branch. Diagnosis includes normal or mildly impaired liver function with leukocytosis, positive blood cultures, Doppler echocardiography, or computed tomography confirming the disease. Objective: To describe pylephlebitis as an unusual complication in a pregnant patient with acute appendicitis, referring to its concept, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and therapeutic measures. Clinical case report: This is the case of an 18-year-old female pregnant patient, who had severe abdominal pain, accompanied by vomiting, diarrhea and jaundiced stools. For such reasons, she was transferred to the Ambato General Teaching Hospital. Sepsis of abdominal origin was diagnosed due to acute perforated appendicitis, generalized peritonitis complicated with pylephlebitis. Surgical intervention was performed and the clinical condition was solved. Conclusions: Pylephlebitis represents a great diagnostic difficulty, hence tools such as Doppler ultrasound and computed tomography are helpful in these cases. The mainstays of treatment include control of the abdominal septic focus and treating pylephlebitis.

8.
Rev. argent. cir ; 114(2): 181-184, jun. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387603

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La diverticulitis apendicular (DA) es una patología poco frecuente, considerada clínicamente indistinguible de la apendicitis aguda, aunque podría presentar una sintomatología más leve. Este es el caso de un paciente masculino de 59 años, que concurre al Servicio de Urgencias presentando signos y síntomas sugestivos de una apendicitis aguda; una ecografía informa un asa tubular parcialmente compresible de 7,8 mm de diámetro y una fina banda de líquido laminar, compatible con proceso apendicular agudo. La apendicectomía se realizó de manera convencional evidenciándose un apéndice inflamado principalmente en su región distal. La histología reveló diverticulitis apendicular complicada con rotura. El paciente evolucionó favorablemente y se externó a las 24 horas. Existe una asociación de DA y neoplasia apendicular, por lo que se recomienda una colonoscopia y el seguimiento de este tipo de pacientes.


ABSTRACT Appendiceal diverticulitis (AD) is a rare condition considered clinically identical to acute appendicitis although it may present milder symptoms. We report the case of a 59-year-old male patient who visited the emergency department due to signs and symptoms suggestive of acute appendicitis. An abdominal ultrasound showed partially compressible tubular loop with a diameter of 7.8 mm and a thin band of laminar fluid, consistent with acute appendiceal process. During conventional appendectomy the appendix had signs of inflammation, mainly in the distal region. The histology revealed appendiceal diverticulitis complicated with rupture. The patient had favorable outcome and was discharged 24 hours later. As, there is a clear association between AD and appendiceal neoplasms, colonoscopy and patient monitoring is recommended.

9.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(5): 685-690, May 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376170

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on appendicitis and the relevant outcomes in a tertiary hospital, designated as a "pandemic institution" by the Ministry of Health, between pre-COVID-19 and post-COVID-19, i.e., between 2019 and 2020, of the identical period in terms of the annual schedule. METHODS: The data of cases with acute appendicitis, who were followed up at the Department of General Surgery, a 400-bed, tertiary care, a university-affiliated education and research hospital, providing health care to a population of approximately 450,000 people, during the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, during the identical time intervals of pre-COVID-19 (March 12, 2020 to November 12, 2020) and post-COVID-19 (March 12, 2019 to November 12, 2019), were retrospectively analyzed in a detail. RESULTS: Of the 212 appendectomy operations in total, 99 (46.7%) were performed in the pre-COVID-19 and 113 (53.3%) were performed in post-COVID-19. Compared to the pre-pandemic period, patients who had undergone appendectomies in post-COVID-19 revealed significantly lower neutrophil counts and significantly greater appendix diameters (p<0.001 for both). A significantly lower (p=0.041) acute appendicitis with abundant gangrenous appendicitis and phlegmonous appendicitis (p=0.043 and p=0.032, respectively) was recognized in post-COVID-19 compared with pre-COVID-19 interval. CONCLUSION: The number of appendectomy operations decreased in the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients operated during the pandemic period had wider appendix diameter and lower neutrophil levels. The pathological diagnosis was less frequent acute appendicitis, more frequent gangrenous appendicitis, and phlegmonous appendicitis in the pandemic period.

10.
Pediatr. (Asunción) ; 49(1)abr. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386689

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La apendicitis aguda es una enfermedad inflamatoria infecciosa del apéndice cecal, constituye la causa más común de emergencia quirúrgica en pediatría. Las manifestaciones clínicas varían significativamente según la edad y sexo. La anamnesis y un examen físico minucioso pueden llegar a ser una herramienta primordial para el diagnóstico, así como también las pruebas complementarias, para evitar realizar una apendicetomía incidental. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas y laboratoriales en niños con apendicitis, para apoyar el diagnóstico y resolución oportuna. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo de corte transversal sobre los casos de apendicitis registrados en el Servicio de Pediatría del Hospital General IESS Ambato. No se realizó cálculo de tamaño de muestra, se realiza muestreo no probabilístico de casos consecutivos. Resultados: Se pudo determinar que la temperatura mayor 37.5 °C, la taquicardia, el dolor abdominal difuso, el signo de Mc Burney, la leucocitosis con neutrofilia y un examen de orina normal presentan una asociación directa diagnóstica en los cuadros de apendicitis. Conclusión: Se recomienda escalas de puntación clínica de apendicitis, para evitar mayor incidencia de apendicetomías incidentales.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Acute appendicitis is an infectious inflammatory disease of the cecal appendix, it is the most common cause of surgical emergency in pediatrics. The clinical manifestations vary significantly according to age and sex. A thorough history and physical examination is an essential tool for diagnosis, as are complementary tests, to avoid performing an incidental appendectomy. Objective: To describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics in children with appendicitis, to improve timely diagnosis and treatment. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective, descriptive and cross-sectional study on cases of appendicitis registered in the Pediatric Service of the General Hospital IESS Ambato. No sample size calculation was performed, non-probabilistic sampling of consecutive cases was performed. Results: It was possible to determine that temperature greater than 37.5 °C, tachycardia, diffuse abdominal pain, Mc Burney's sign, leukocytosis with neutrophilia and a normal urine test have a direct diagnostic association with appendicitis. Conclusion: Appendicitis clinical scoring scales are recommended to avoid a higher incidence of incidental appendectomies.

11.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 61(1)mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1408225

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La apendicitis aguda es una de las causas más comunes de abdomen agudo quirúrgico y dado que sigue siendo un reto diagnóstico, dispone de diversas escalas diagnósticas. Objetivo: Determinar la superioridad del nuevo score resultante frente al score de Alvarado en el diagnóstico de apendicitis aguda. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de pruebas diagnósticas con el uso de la base de datos del Servicio de Cirugía del Hospital Regional Docente de Trujillo, entre febrero y diciembre del año 2015. Con los datos extraídos se elaboró un nuevo score diagnóstico que fue evaluado con el informe histopatológico y luego comparado con el score de Alvarado para evaluar su aplicación. Se calculó la sensibilidad, especificidad y los valores predictivos de ambos scores. Resultados: Se incluyeron en el estudio 312 pacientes, 177 fueron hombres (56,73 %) y 135 mujeres (43,27 %), con edad media de 31 años (±11,3). Con un total de 267 (85,58 %) pacientes con apendicitis aguda confirmada por estudio histopatológico. El nuevo score clínico resultante de una regresión logística según la prueba de Wald, estuvo compuesto por 4 variables: sexo masculino, vómitos, automedicación previa y signo de Blumberg. Los resultados del área bajo la curva para el nuevo score clínico y el score de Alvarado fueron 0,711 y 0,707, respectivamente. Conclusiones: El nuevo score clínico es superior al score de Alvarado según el área bajo la curva, pero no en un valor significativo.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common causes of acute surgical abdomen. Since it remains a diagnostic challenge, it has several diagnostic scales available. Objective: To determine the superiority of a new resulting score versus the Alvarado score in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Methods: A study of diagnostic tests was carried out using the database of the surgery service of the Regional Teaching Hospital of Trujillo, between February and December 2015. With the data collected, a new diagnostic score was elaborated and assessed with the histopathological report; and then, to assess its application, it was compared with the Alvarado score. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of both scores were calculated. Results: 312 patients were included in the study, 177 were male (56.73%) and 135 were female (43.27%), with a mean age of 31 years (±11.3). A total of 267 (85.58%) patients had acute appendicitis confirmed by histopathological study. The new clinical score resulting from a logistic regression according to the Wald test was made up of four variables: male sex, vomiting, previous self-medication and Blumberg's sign. The results of the area under curve for the new clinical score and the Alvarado score were 0.711 and 0.707, respectively. Conclusions: The new clinical score is better than the Alvarado score, according to the area under curve, but not by a significant value.

12.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 94(1)mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1409108

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La escala de Alvarado y la escala de apendicitis pediátrica se utilizan para la estratificación de pacientes pediátricos con sospecha de apendicitis. Objetivo: Comparar el desempeño diagnóstico de estas escalas en escolares y adolescentes, en general y según edad y sexo. Métodos: Estudio observacional prospectivo de 452 pacientes entre 5 y 18 años de edad, ingresados en el Hospital Pediátrico Docente Centro Habana, por dolor abdominal o apendicitis aguda, entre 2016 y 2017. Resultados: La escala de Alvarado tuvo a los 7 puntos: especificidad 96,15 %, razón de verosimilitud positiva 10,3. La escala de apendicitis pediátrica presentó a los 8 puntos: especificidad 96,15 %, razón de verosimilitud positiva 5,60. Las áreas bajo la curva fueron similares en general (0,851-0,858), siendo más altas y similares entre sí en escolares masculinos (0,918-0,923). En adolescentes femeninas, el área bajo la curva para la escala de apendicitis pediátrica (0,841) fue mayor que para la de Alvarado (0,802). Conclusiones: La escala de Alvarado resulta más específica, mientras que la escala de apendicitis pediátrica es más sensible. Se deben considerar diferentes puntos de corte para cada escala al estratificar según probable apendicitis. El desempeño discriminativo se comporta similar en general para ambas escalas, y muy bien en escolares masculinos. La mayor diferencia en desempeño ocurre en adolescentes femeninas, a favor de la escala de apendicitis pediátrica.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Alvarado scale and the pediatric appendicitis scale are used for the stratification of pediatric patients with suspected appendicitis. Objective: Compare the diagnostic performance of these scales in schoolchildren and adolescents, in general and according to age and sex. Methods: Prospective observational study of 452 patients between 5 and 18 years of age, admitted to Centro Habana Pediatric Teaching Hospital due to abdominal pain or acute appendicitis in the period 2016-2017. Results: Alvarado scale had at 7 points: specificity 96.15 %, positive likelihood ratio 10.3. The paediatric appendicitis scale presented at 8 points: specificity 96.15 %, positive likelihood ratio 5.60. The areas under the curve had a similar overall (0.851 - 0.858), being higher and similar to each other in male schoolchildren (0.918 - 0.923). In female adolescents, the area under the curve for the pediatric appendicitis scale (0.841) was greater than for Alvarado's (0.802). Conclusions: Alvarado scale is more specific, while the pediatric appendicitis scale is more sensitive. Different cut-off points should be considered for each scale when stratifying according to probable appendicitis. Discriminative performance behaves similar in general for both scales, and very well in male schoolchildren. The biggest difference in performance occurs in female adolescents, in favor of the pediatric appendicitis scale.

13.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 37(1): 3-9, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376900

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Acute appendicitis (AA) is one of the most frequent abdominal surgical pathologies globally, with appendectomy being the most performed emergency surgery. Aim: To determine potential markers of AA severity for diagnostic purposes and timely management, thus avoiding possible complications. Materials and methods: This research relies on a randomized sample of 239 patients diagnosed with AA at the Orinoquía Regional Hospital, Colombia. We analyzed blood count, C-reactive protein (CRP), and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) records and established their relationship with the AA surgical findings described by Guzmán-Valdivia. Results: In the emergency department, these reactants can provide an approximate diagnosis as markers of the AA severity, with CRP > 15 mg/dL (diagnostic accuracy of 76.15 %) and NLR > 85 % (diagnostic accuracy of 61.09 %) having the best initial operating performance. Regarding complications such as intestinal perforation, we found a statistical relationship; CRP > 15 mg/dL and NLR > 85 % were the markers with the highest predictive performance, with OR 14.46 and OR 2. 17, respectively, regarding Guzmán-Valdivia's findings. Conclusions: CRP and NLR > 85 % are the acute phase reactants with the best diagnostic characteristics to predict potential AA complications.


Resumen Introducción: la apendicitis aguda (AA) es una de las patologías quirúrgicas abdominales más frecuentes en el mundo, siendo la apendicectomía, la cirugía de emergencia más realizada a nivel mundial. Objetivo: determinar los posibles marcadores de severidad en la apendicitis aguda con fines diagnósticos y para el manejo oportuno de la apendicitis y, de esta manera, evitar posibles complicaciones. Metodología: esta investigación se basó de una muestra aleatorizada de un total de 239 pacientes con diagnóstico de apendicitis aguda en el Hospital Regional de Orinoquía, Colombia. Se analizaron registros de cuadro hemático, proteína C reactiva (PCR) e índice de neutrófilo/linfocito (INL), y se estableció la relación de los mismos con los hallazgos quirúrgicos de apendicitis aguda descritos por Guzmán-Valdivia. Resultados: en el servicio de urgencias, estos reactantes son capaces de realizar una aproximación en el diagnóstico y como marcadores de la severidad de la AA, siendo la PCR > 15 mg/dL (precisión diagnóstica 76,15 %) y el porcentaje de neutrófilos > 85 % (precisión diagnóstica 61,09 %) los de mejor rendimiento operativo inicial. En cuanto a las complicaciones, como la perforación intestinal, se encontró en relación estadística, que la PCR > 15 mg/dL y el porcentaje de neutrófilos > 85 % fueron los marcadores con mayor rendimiento predictivo, con OR 14,46 y OR 2,17, respectivamente. Lo anterior en relación con los hallazgos descritos por Guzmán-Valdivia. Conclusiones: la elevación de la PCR y del porcentaje de neutrófilos > 85 % son los reactantes de fase aguda que presentan mejores características diagnósticas y para predecir posibles complicaciones de la apendicitis aguda.


Subject(s)
Humans , Appendicitis , Emergencies , Patients , Diagnosis , Methods , Neutrophils
14.
Ibom Medical Journal ; 15(2): 178-182, 2022. figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1380102

ABSTRACT

Background: Abdominal pain is a common presentation in women of child bearing age. It has a broad diagnosis that includes disorders of the gastrointestinal, gynaecological, vascular, urogenital, and pulmonary systems. It may be caused by infections, inflammatory, anatomic or neoplastic processes. Its management varies by aetiology, and accurate diagnosis is key to avoiding inappropriate treatment. In some rare instances, acute appendicitis has been shown to occur simultaneously with a variety of gynaecologic diseases, which can add to the diagnostic dilemma. Method: We report a case of concurrent acute appendicitis and infected ovarian cyst in a 49 year old P6+4A6 who presented with recurrent abdominal pain for 4 years duration. Result: She had oophorectomy and appendicectomy. She did well post operatively and was discharged to outpatient department after stitches removal. Conclusion: Abdominal pain, being from various aetiology in women of child bearing age, detail history, thorough physical examination, and necessary imaging investigations need to be done to avoid misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment.


Subject(s)
Therapeutics , Abdominal Pain , Ovarian Cysts , Appendicitis , Ovariectomy , Abdomen, Acute
15.
Ibom Medical Journal15 ; 15(3): 285-288, 2022. figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1398873

ABSTRACT

Acute abdomen is a common presentation in women in the reproductive age. It may be caused by diverse conditions. The case below presented with classical signs and symptoms of appendicitis. Haemoperitoneum seen at laparotomy suggested a diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy .The diagnosis of ruptured corpus luteum cyst (RCLC) was made only after histology. The symptoms, signs and diagnosis of RCLC are discussed. The case highlights the need for circumspection in the diagnosis of the cause of acute abdomen. The current trend favours conservative management of RCLC thus the need for a high index of suspicion is emphasized to avoid unnecessary surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ovarian Cysts , Corpus Luteum , Appendicitis , Pregnancy, Ectopic , Hemoperitoneum
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928614

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the clinical efficacy of ultrasound-guided endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy in children with appendix-related chronic abdominal pain.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 30 children with the chief complaint of chronic abdominal pain who were admitted from August 2019 to May 2021. All the children were found to have inflammation of the appendix or intracavitary stool and fecalith by ultrasound and underwent ultrasound-guided endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy. The medical data for analysis included clinical manifestations, endoscopic findings, white blood cell count, neutrophil percentage, length of hospital stay, and cure rate.@*RESULTS@#Among the 30 children with chronic abdominal pain, there were 13 boys (43%) and 17 girls (57%), with a mean age of (9±3) years (range 3-15 years) at diagnosis. The median duration of the disease was 12 months, and the median length of hospital stay was 3 days. The children had a median white blood cell count of 6.7×109/L and a neutrophil percentage of 50%±13%. Fecalith and a large amount of feces were flushed out of the appendix cavity for 21 children (70%) during surgery. The follow-up rate was 97% (29/30), and the median follow-up time was 11 months (range 5-26 months). Of the 29 children, abdominal pain completely disappeared in 27 children (93%).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Ultrasound-guided endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy is effective in children with chronic abdominal pain caused by feces or fecalith in the appendix cavity.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain/etiology , Adolescent , Appendicitis/surgery , Appendix/surgery , Child , Child, Preschool , Fecal Impaction , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography, Interventional
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934099

ABSTRACT

To investigate the efficacy and safety of modified endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy (ERAT) in children with acute uncomplicated appendicitis complicated with intussusception. Data of 6 patients with acute uncomplicated appendicitis complicated with intussusception who received modified ERAT were collected from October 2018 to February 2020 in Pediatrics Department of Tangdu Hospital. The reduction rate of intussusception, the success rate of ERAT appendiceal intubation and endoscopic treatment, the remission time of clinical symptoms, the time of white blood cells return to normal, the length of hospital stay, complications and recurrence were summarized. All the 6 patients were confirmed to be acute uncomplicated appendicitis combined with ileocecal intussusceptions under colonoscopy. Endoscopic intussusception reduction and ERAT were performed successfully. The mean time of disappearance of abdominal tenderness was 1.3 days after the therapy, and the time of white blood cells return to normal was 1 day after surgery. The endoscopic treatment were all successful and the length of hospital stay was 3-6 days. No complications or recurrence of intussusception and appendicitis occurred during the follow-up period of 6-12 months. Modified ERAT can effectively, safely and minimally invitingly treat acute uncomplicated appendicitis with intussusception in children on the basis of definite diagnosis.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933625

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy in treatment of children with acute uncomplicated appendicitis.Methods:Sixty children patients were admitted at the Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from Oct 2019 to Jun 2021 and were divided into ERAT group ( n=30) and LA group ( n=30). Results:All operations were successfully performed . ERAT children started oral feeding earlier [(6.8±2.0) h vs. (12.3±2.0) h, t=-10.636, P<0.001], postoperative hospital stay was shorter [(3.2±1.3) d vs. (5.0±1.3) d, t=-5.360, P<0.001]. After 14 months follow up, the recurrence rate in the ERAT group was 6%. The complication rate of LA was 10%. Conclusion:ERAT is a safe and effective therapy in treating children with acute uncomplicated appendicitis with low,acceptable recurrence rate.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933608

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the effectiveness and safety of Morinidazole combined laparoscopic appendectomy for acute purulent appendicitis and acute gangrene appendicitis.Methods:We retrospectively retrieved 387 acute appendicitis patients who have received surgery or conservative treatment from Jan 2017 to Jun 2019. Firty four patients with Morinidazole + Etimicin bigeminy combined laparoscopic surgery were set to experimental group. The other 54 cases using ornidazole + levofloxacin bigeminy combined laparoscopic appendectomy were enrolled into control group after Propensity Score Matching.Results:After 1∶1 propensity score matching, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups and control group in clinical features. The white blood cell count, C-reactive protein and calcitonin original inflammation index change were higher in experimental group than in the control group,both preoperatived and on post-op day1 and day 3 (all P<0.05). In the experimental group the length of hospital stay and analgesic drug usetime were shorter than in the control group (all P<0.05). Conclusion:Morinidazole combined laparoscopic appendectomy can effectively control the intra-abdominal infection caused by acute purulent appendicitis and acute gangrene appendicitis with less adverse reactions.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931650

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the application value of multi-slice spiral CT and abdominal ultrasound methods in the clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children.Methods:We included 50 children patients who were pathologically diagnosed with acute appendicitis by the Department of Surgery, Dongyang Maternal and Child Health Hospital from August 2016 to August 2019. Before surgery, all patients underwent multi-slice spiral CT and abdominal ultrasound examinations. We recorded the time taken to complete multi-slice spiral CT and abdominal ultrasound examinations. Taking pathological results as the diagnosis criteria, we also calculated the coincidence rate of each imaging method.Results:The time we took to complete multi-slice spiral CT examination was shorter than that for abdominal ultrasound examination [(13.34 ± 3.86) minutes vs. (23.45 ± 4.77) minutes, t = 11.65, P < 0.05]. The coincidence rate of multi-slice spiral CT in identifying acute simple appendicitis, acute phlegmonous appendicitis, and acute gangrenous appendicitis was 95.24%, 95.00%, and 100.0%, respectively, and it was 71.73%, 70.00%, 88.89%, respectively for abdominal ultrasound examination. The coincidence rates in identifying acute simple appendicitis, acute phlegmonous appendicitis, and acute gangrenous appendicitis were significantly different between multi-slice spiral CT and abdominal ultrasound examinations ( χ2 = 4.29, 4.33, 1.06, all P < 0.05). Conclusion:Compared with abdominal ultrasound, multi-slice spiral CT is easier to operate, takes a shorter time in manipulation, provides more distinct images, and has a higher coincidence rate. Therefore, multi-slice spiral CT is of great diagnostic value for acute appendicitis in children.

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