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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 137-149, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008085

ABSTRACT

As one of the key enzymes in cell metabolism, the activity of citrate synthase 3 (CS3) regulates the substance and energy metabolism of organisms. The protein members of CS3 family were identified from the whole genome of apple, and bioinformatics analysis was performed and expression patterns were analyzed to provide a theoretical basis for studying the potential function of CS3 gene in apple. BLASTp was used to identify members of the apple CS3 family based on the GDR database, and the basic information of CS3 protein sequence, subcellular localization, domain composition, phylogenetic relationship and chromosome localization were analyzed by Pfam, SMART, MEGA5.0, clustalx.exe, ExPASy Proteomics Server, MEGAX, SOPMA, MEME, WoLF PSORT and other software. The tissue expression and inducible expression characteristics of 6 CS3 genes in apple were determined by acid content and real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Apple CS3 gene family contains 6 members, and these CS3 proteins contain 473-608 amino acid residues, with isoelectric point distribution between 7.21 and 8.82. Subcellular localization results showed that CS3 protein was located in mitochondria and chloroplasts, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis divided them into 3 categories, and the number of genes in each subfamily was 2. Chromosome localization analysis showed that CS3 gene was distributed on different chromosomes of apple. The secondary structure of protein is mainly α-helix, followed by random curling, and the proportion of β-angle is the smallest. The 6 members were all expressed in different apple tissues. The overall expression trend from high to low was the highest relative expression content of MdCS3.4, followed by MdCS3.6, and the relative expression level of other members was in the order of MdCS3.3 > MdCS3.2 > MdCS3.1 > MdCS3.5. qRT-PCR results showed that MdCS3.1 and MdCS3.3 genes had the highest relative expression in the pulp of 'Chengji No. 1' with low acid content, and MdCS3.2 and MdCS3.3 genes in the pulp of 'Asda' with higher acid content had the highest relative expression. Therefore, in this study, the relative expression of CS3 gene in apple cultivars with different acid content in different apple varieties was detected, and its role in apple fruit acid synthesis was analyzed. The experimental results showed that the relative expression of CS3 gene in different apple varieties was different, which provided a reference for the subsequent study of the quality formation mechanism of apple.


Subject(s)
Citric Acid , Malus/genetics , Citrate (si)-Synthase , Phylogeny , Citrates
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469275

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bacteria were isolated from samples of Fresh Apple juices from shops of three different localities of Lahore. Analysis of samples from Liberty, Anarkali and Yateem khana Markets show different levels of contamination. There were pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria in all samples and were identified by the morphological and biochemical tests. Most of the plasmids of pathogenic bacteria were 4kb in their molecular size. Ribotyping of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was done to confirm Helicobacter pylori strain and Gluconobacter oxydans. The highest sensitivity of 210mm was shown by Enterobacter sp. against Aztheromysine disk (15µg) while Micrococcus sp. was highly resistant against all of the Antibiotics applied. The antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria was also checked against Ricinus communis plant's extracts, all isolated bacterial pathogens were resistant but only, E.coli was inhibited at 300µl of the extracts. Presence of pathogenic bacteria in Apple juice samples was due to contamination of sewage water in drinking water while some of these pathogenic bacteria came from Apple's tree and other from store houses of fruits.


Resumo As bactérias foram isoladas de amostras de suco de maçã fresco de lojas de três diferentes localidades de Lahore. A análise de amostras dos mercados Liberty, Anarkali e Yateem khana mostram diferentes níveis de contaminação. Havia bactérias patogênicas e não patogênicas em todas as amostras e foram identificadas pelos testes morfológicos e bioquímicos. A maioria dos plasmídeos de bactérias patogênicas tinha 4 kb em seu tamanho molecular. A ribotipagem do sequenciamento do gene do RNA ribossômico 16S foi realizada para confirmar a cepa de Helicobacter pylori e Gluconobacter oxydans. A maior sensibilidade de 210 mm foi mostrada por Enterobacter sp. contra disco de azteromisina (15µg) enquanto Micrococcus sp. foi altamente resistente a todos os antibióticos aplicados. A resistência a antibióticos de bactérias patogênicas também foi verificada contra extratos de plantas de Ricinus communis, todos os patógenos bacterianos isolados foram resistentes, mas apenas E. coli foi inibida em 300µl dos extratos. A presença de bactérias patogênicas nas amostras de suco de maçã deveu-se à contaminação da água de esgoto na água potável, enquanto algumas dessas bactérias patogênicas vieram da árvore da maçã e outras de armazéns de frutas.

3.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 55(4): 3-3, Dec. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550710

ABSTRACT

Abstract The use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in foods as biocontrol agents against foodborne pathogens has become increasingly known. Under the premise that controlling the adhesion of microorganisms to food contact surfaces is an essential step for meeting the goals of food processing, the aim of this work was to investigate the inhibitory and anti-biofilm effectiveness of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) and Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 393) against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes. Lactobacillus strains (108UFCCFU/ml) and pathogens (104UFCCFU/ml) were evaluated to monitor LAB anti-adhesive and antibiofilm effect, in two main scenarios: (i) co-adhesion and (ii) pathogen incorporation to stainless steel surfaces with a protective biofilm of Lactobacillus cells. In (i) the predominant effect was observed in L. rhamnosus against S. enterica and L. monocytogenes, whereas in (ii) both LAB significantly reduced the number of pathogenic adherent cells. The effect of pre-established LAB biofilms was more successful in displacing the three pathogens than when they were evaluated under co-adhesion. These findings show that both LAB can be considered good candidates to prevent or inhibit the adhesion and colonization of L. monocytogenes, S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 on surfaces and conditions of relevance for juice processing industries, offering alternatives for improving the safety and quality of fruit-based products.


Resumen Existe un creciente interés en el uso de bacterias ácido lácticas (BAL) como agentes de biocontrol frente a patógenos de transmisión alimentaria. Bajo la premisa de que el control de la adhesión de microorganismos a superficies de contacto con alimentos es el paso esencial para evitar su contaminación, el objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar la efectividad inhibitoria y antibiofilm de Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) y Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 393) frente a Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica y Listeria monocytogenes. A fin de cumplir con el objetivo propuesto, las cepas de Lactobacillus (108UFCUFC/ml) y los patógenos (104UFCUFC/ml) se ensayaron en 2 escenarios: (1) coadhesión, y (2) incorporación de los patógenos a las superficies de acero inoxidable con un biofilm preformado de Lactobacillus. En (1), el efecto predominante se observó con L. rhamnosus frente a S. enterica y L. monocytogenes, mientras que en (2), ambas BAL redujeron significativamente el número de células patógenas adheridas. En función de estos resultados, concluimos que el efecto de un biofilm preformado de ambas BAL fue más exitoso en el desplazamiento de los 3 patógenos que en coadhesión. Ambas BAL pueden considerarse buenas candidatas para mitigar la adhesión y colonización de L. monocytogenes, S. enterica y E. coli O157:H7 en superficies en condiciones de relevancia para la industria procesadora de jugos, y, de esta manera, ofrecer alternativas para mejorar la seguridad y calidad de los alimentos a base de frutas.

4.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2023 Mar; 61(3): 224-229
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-222590

ABSTRACT

Major loss in agricultural crops is caused by insect pests. In India, various synthetic insecticides are used against pests. These are much expensive and cause environmental hazards. The nanoparticles, as an alternative approach is gaining considerable interest in this field. In the present study, we explored the biological synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Giant milkweed, Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand. and its effects on the tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura. The reduction of zinc ions (Zn2+) to zinc nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) was prepared by mixing 50 g of C. procera leaves with 100 mL of single distilled water in a 250 mL glass beaker. To synthesize nanoparticles, 50 mL of C. procera leaf extract was taken using a stirrer-heater and 5 g of zinc oxide was added at 60ºC, boiled, then kept in a hot air oven at 70ºC for 24 h. Finally, the obtained light yellow coloured powder was carefully collected and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The results revealed that the biologically synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles pesticide was highly effective against the pest. The weight of the pest decreased from low concentration to high concentration. It is concluded that the Calotropis Procera based zinc oxide nanoparticles could be used for the control of Spodoptera litura.

5.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 30(1): 1-12, 2023-01-22. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1425700

ABSTRACT

Background: Apple pomace is a by-product of the fruit juice industry and comprises peel, seed, stem, and pulp tissues. This by-product contains dietary fibers, polyphenols, vitamins, and organic acids that can benefit human health and have a high potential as a dietary source. Baked products are well-known food types to humans and have a key role in feeding people worldwide. Nowadays, enriched products such as bread, cakes, and biscuits are available in stores. Different studies worldwide have been done about applying the by-products of the fruit juice industry in the bakery. Objective: This research aimed to evaluate apple peel (APE) and pulp (APU) powders separately as a partial substitute for wheat flour in cake production. Methods: Apple peel and pulp separately produced as the residual wastes of juicing were dried for 3 hours in oven (60°C). The dried pulp and peel were ground and sieved using a 60 µm mesh. In this research, chemical and physicochemical analyses were performed according to AACC (Approved Methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists) and standard food analysis methods. Textural characteristic was analyzed by a texture analyzer (Brookfield CT3-10 Kg, US) equipped with an aluminum probe. Results: Different levels of APE and APU powders (10%, 20%, and 30 %) were used to enrich the cakes. The ash content, fat content, water adsorption capacity, and oil absorption capacity of the wheat flour were lower than APU and APE, whereas the moisture content, protein content, bulk density, and pH showed a reverse trend. Adding APU and APP to the cake formula increased total dietary fiber (TDF) from 4.14 % in the control sample to 27.71 % in the sample with 30 % apple peel powder (APE-30). The highest a* colorimetric parameter (redness) in the cake core was 3.82 in the APE-30 sample. The addition of APE and APU significantly increased the hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of the samples (p<0.05). APE-10 samples could improve the nutritional properties of the cakes without significant reduction (p>0.05) in overall acceptance compared to the control sample. Conclusion: The results of this research demonstrated that a partial replacement of the wheat flour with apple pulp and peel significantly increased the dietary fibers, especially insoluble dietary fiber, compared to the control sample. Apple pulp and apple peel powders had the potential for use in cake making as a good source of dietary fibers


Antecedentes: la pulpa de manzana es un subproducto de la industria del jugo de frutas y se compone de tejidos de cáscara, semillas, tallo y pulpa. Este subproducto contiene fibra dietética, polifenoles, vitaminas y ácidos orgánicos que pueden ser beneficiosos para la salud humana y tienen un alto potencial como fuente dietética. Los productos horneados son de tipos de alimentos bien conocidos para los seres humanos y son clave en la alimentación de las personas de todo el mundo. Hoy en día, los productos enriquecidos como pan, pasteles y galletas están disponibles en las tiendas. Se han hecho diferentes estudios en todo el mundo sobre la aplicación del subproducto de la industria del jugo de frutas en la panadería. Objetivo: El propósito de esta investigación fue evaluar los polvos de cáscara de manzana (APE) y pulpa (APU) como sustituto parcial de la harina de trigo en la producción de pasteles. Métodos: Cáscaras de manzana y pulpa producidas por separado como desechos residuales de jugos, se secaron durante 3 horas en el horno (60 °C). La pulpa seca y la cáscara fueron molidas y tamizadas usando una malla de 60 micras. En esta investigación el análisis químico y físico-químico realizado de acuerdo con el AACC (Aprobado Métodos de la Asociación Americana de Químicos del Cereales) y los métodos estándar de análisis de alimentos. La característica textural fue analizada por el analizador de textura (Brookfield CT3-10 Kg, US) equipado con una sonda de aluminio. Resultados: Se utilizaron diferentes niveles de polvos APE y APU (10, 20 and 30 %) para enriquecer los pasteles. La capacidad de absorción de ceniza, grasa, agua y aceite de la harina de trigo fue menor que la APU y APE, mientras que la humedad, la proteína, la densidad a granel y el pH mostraron una tendencia inversa. Además, APU y APE en fórmula de pastel, aumentaron la fibra dietética total (TDF) de 4.14 % en la muestra de control a 27.71 % en la muestra con un 30 % de polvo de pelar de manzana (APE-30). El parámetro más alto a* colorimétrico en núcleo de pastel fue de 3.82 (enrojecimiento) en la muestra APE-30. La adición de APE y APU aumentó significativamente la dureza, gomosidad y masticabilidad de las muestras (p<0.05). Las muestras de APE-10 podrían mejorar las propiedades nutricionales de los pasteles sin reducción significativa (P<0.05) en aceptación general, en comparación con la muestra de control. Conclusión: Los resultados de este estudio demostraron que un reemplazo parcial de la harina de trigo por pulpa de manzana y cáscara aumentó significativamente la fibra dietética especialmente la insoluble, cuando se compara con la muestra de control. La pulpa en polvo y la cáscara de manzana tienen el potencial de uso en la fabricación de pasteles como una buena fuente de fibra dietética.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dietary Fiber , Malus
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4965-4981, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008072

ABSTRACT

Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit beta-1 (PDHB-1) is a gene encoding the β-subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, which plays an important role in fruit acid accumulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution characteristics of apple PDHB-1 family and its expression in apples with different acid contents. Bioinformatics analysis was performed using databases including NCBI, Pfam and software including ClustalX, MEGA, and TBtools. By combining titratable acid content determination and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), the expression of this family genes in the peel and pulp of apple 'Asda' and 'Chengji No.1' with different acid content were obtained, respectively. The family members were mainly located in chloroplast, cytoplasm and mitochondria. α-helix and random coil were the main factors for the formation of secondary structure in this family. Tissue-specific expression profiles showed that the expression of most members were higher in fruit than in other tissues. qRT-PCR results showed that the expression profile of most members was consistent with the profile of titratable acid contents. In the peel, the expression levels of 14 members in 'Asda' apples with high acid content were significantly higher than that in 'Chengji No.1' apples with low acid content, where the expression difference of MdPDHB1-15 was the most significant. In the pulp, the expression levels of 17 members in 'Asda' apples were significantly higher than that in 'Chengji No.1' apples, where MdPDHB1-01 was the most highly expressed. It was predicted that PDHB-1 gene family in apple plays an important role in the regulation of fruit acidity.


Subject(s)
Malus/metabolism , Fruit/genetics , Protein Structure, Secondary
7.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 574-586, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982401

ABSTRACT

Wax apple (Syzygium samarangense) has received growing research interest for its high nutritional and medicinal value due to its constituents such as polysaccharide, organic acids, flavonoids, minerals, and other substances. In this study, wax apple polysaccharide (WAP) was isolated from this plant and its protective effect against ethyl carbamate (EC)‍-induced oxidative damage was evaluated in human hepatocytes (L02 cells). Firstly, a series of analyses such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were conducted to identify the structure of WAP. Thereafter, in vitro cell experiments were performed to verify the protective effects of WAP against EC-induced cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and oxidative damage in L02 cells. Our results revealed that WAP is composed of mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, arabinose, and fucose in a molar ratio of 2.20:‍3.94:‍4.45:‍8.56:‍8.86:‍30.82:‍39.78:‍1.48. Using a combination of methylation and NMR spectroscopic analysis, the primary structure of WAP was identified as Araf-(1→, Glcp-(1→, →2)‍-Araf-(1→, →3)‍-Galp-(1→, →3)‍-Araf-‍(1→, and →6)‍-Galp-‍(1→. Cell experiments indicated that WAP exhibited significant protective effects on EC-treated L02 cells via suppressing cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and O2•- formation, as well as improving mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and glutathione (GSH). In a nutshell, WAP has the potential as an important therapeutic agent or supplement for hepatic oxidative damage. Meanwhile, further studies are needed to prove the above effects in vivo at the biological and clinical levels.


Subject(s)
Humans , Syzygium/chemistry , Urethane/pharmacology , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Oxidative Stress , Glutathione/pharmacology , Hepatocytes , Polysaccharides/pharmacology
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(1): 168-173, feb. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385588

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Dystrophin disfunction results in sarcolemma destabilization, leading muscle cell damage by continuous degeneration cycles and limited regeneration. In muscle dystrophy, caused by dystrophin dysfunction, inflammation, necrosis and fibrosis are pathophysiological muscle function loss characteristics. As a genetic disease, this muscle dystrophy has no cure, however, advances in drug therapy using glucocorticoids can decrease the disease progression. Subsequently, alternative therapies were studied, such as ursolic acid (UA), that inhibits muscle atrophy and increases muscle mass and strength. Herein, we used 10 mg/kg daily supplementation in mdx mice for 4 weeks to evaluate serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK), muscle strength (Kondziela test), muscular organization (histology) and expression of fibrosis related genes (TGF-ß, TNF-α, mstn and ostn). UA supplementation increased muscle morphological organization, motor strength and decreased muscular TGF-ß expression. Altogether, the gene expression profile, histological organization and strength could suggest that UA treatment did not stop the fibrogenesis but decreased its progress.


RESUMEN: La disfunción de la distrofina resulta en la desestabilización del sarcolema, llevando al daño de las células musculares por ciclos continuos de degeneración y regeneración limitada. En la distrofia muscular, debido a la disfunción de la distrofina, la inflamación, la necrosis y la fibrosis, son características fisiopatológicas de la pérdida de la función muscular. Como enfermedad genetica no es possible remediar esta distrofia muscular, sin embargo, los avances en la terapia de medicamentos con glucocorticoides pueden disminuir la progresión de la enfermedad. Se estudiaron terapias alternativas, como el ácido ursólico (UA), que inhibe la atrofia muscular y aumenta la masa y la fuerza muscular. En este estudio, utilizamos una suplementación diaria de 10 mg / kg en ratones mdx durante 4 semanas para evaluar la creatina fosfoquinasa (CPK) sérica, la fuerza muscular (prueba de Kondziela), la organización muscular (histología) y la expresión de genes relacionados con la fibrosis (TGF-ß, TNF- α, mstn y ostn). La suplementación con AU aumentó la organización morfológica muscular, la fuerza motora y la disminución de la expresión muscular de TGF-ß. El perfil de expresión génica, la organización histológica y la fuerza simultáneamente podrían sugerir que el tratamiento con AU no detuvo la fibrogénesis sino que disminuyó su progreso.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Oleanolic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Muscular Dystrophies , Oleanolic Acid/administration & dosage , Fibrosis , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Mice, Inbred mdx , Creatine Kinase/blood , Muscle Strength
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e256277, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364494

ABSTRACT

The wax apple or jambu madu, is a non-climacteric tropical fruit from Myrtaceae family and widely cultivated in South East Asia. The limited availability of good quality seedlings of wax apple is the main problem to development of flourish it's market share in the current fruit industry. Therefore, in order to produce good quality planting materials, a study aimed at optimizing propagation and adventitious rooting technique and survivability of wax apple air layer was conducted. In this study, four different levels of Indole-3-Butyric Acid (IBA) concentration (0, 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg L-1) and three rooting media (sphagnum moss, vermicompost and garden soil) were applied after removal of bark (phloem) on the shoot to determine the effect on rooting and survivability of the wax apple air layer under field conditions. The results showed that the wax apple shoots treated with 2000 mg L-1 IBA produced the significantly higher number of roots, increased length of root, diameter of branch, length of branch, number of leaf and leaf area of air layers. In addition, the highest chlorophyll content and stomatal aperture were recorded in 2000 mg L-1 IBA treatment compared to other treatments including control. Vermicompost medium was better than garden soil and sphagnum moss in respect of rooting and survivability of air layers. The results showed that the combination of 2000 mg L-1 IBA and vermicompost as rooting media give the best combination to root initiation, root number, root length and survival rate (100%) of wax apple air layers. From this study, it can be concluded that 2000 mg L-1 IBA and vermicompost treatment enhance the root initiation, early establishment and survivability of wax apple air layered under field conditions.


A maçã de cera, ou jambu madu, é uma fruta tropical não climatérica da família Myrtaceae e amplamente cultivada no Sudeste Asiático. A disponibilidade limitada de mudas de macieira de boa qualidade é o principal problema para o desenvolvimento de sua participação de mercado na fruticultura atual. Portanto, com o objetivo de produzir materiais de plantio de boa qualidade, foi realizado um estudo visando otimizar a técnica de propagação e enraizamento adventício e a sobrevivência da camada aérea da cera de macieira. Neste estudo, quatro diferentes níveis de concentração de ácido indol-3-butírico (AIB) (0, 1000, 1500 e 2000 mg L-1) e três meios de enraizamento (musgo esfagno, vermicomposto e solo de jardim) foram aplicados após a remoção da casca (floema) na parte aérea para determinar o efeito no enraizamento e capacidade de sobrevivência da camada de ar da macieira em condições de campo. Os resultados mostraram que os brotos de macieira tratados com 2000 mg L-1 de AIB produziram significativamente maior número de raízes, maior comprimento de raiz, diâmetro de galho, comprimento de galho, número de folhas e área foliar das camadas aéreas. Além disso, o maior teor de clorofila e abertura estomática foram registrados no tratamento 2000 mg L-1 IBA em comparação com outros tratamentos, incluindo o controle. O meio de vermicomposto foi melhor do que o solo de jardim e o musgo esfagno em relação ao enraizamento e capacidade de sobrevivência das camadas aéreas. Os resultados mostraram que a combinação de 2000 mg L-1 de AIB e vermicomposto como meio de enraizamento proporciona a melhor combinação para iniciação radicular, número de raízes, comprimento radicular e taxa de sobrevivência (100%) das camadas aéreas de macieira. A partir deste estudo, pode-se concluir que 2.000 mg L-1 de AIB e tratamento com vermicomposto melhoram a iniciação radicular, o estabelecimento precoce e a capacidade de sobrevivência de macieiras em camadas de ar em condições de campo.


Subject(s)
24444 , Plant Roots/growth & development , Malus/growth & development , Fertilizers
10.
Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 607-610, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936478

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo prepare pesticide residues in fruit matrix samples that meet the requirements of homogeneity and stability for the proficiency test. MethodsThe pollution-free apple was selected as the main raw material to prepare the pesticide residue proficiency test samples of myclobutanil and procymidone, and to evaluate the homogeneity and stability. The results of the proficiency test were assessed using robust analysis and Ζ value. ResultsThe homogeneity and stability of the reference materials met the relevant requirements. Among 109 laboratories participated in the proficiency testing, 107 (98.2%) laboratories had satisfactory results. Suspicious test results were reported only in two laboratories, one laboratory for each of the two assessment items. ConclusionAn apple powder matrix sample with pesticide residues is successfully prepared for proficiency test, and could provide an evaluation tool for pesticide residue testing laboratories.

11.
Malaysian Journal of Microbiology ; : 473-481, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-979388

ABSTRACT

Aims@#Wax apple is an important fruit crop in Malaysia and other tropical countries. However, the black spot disease caused by Lasiodoplodia theobromae can damage the wax apple plants, reducing fruit production and quality. Chemical fungicides are commonly used to overcome this disease. However, their overuse might increase fungal resistance to chemicals. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal properties of an Aloe vera film incorporated with cinnamon oil on L. theobromae in wax apples.@*Methodology and results@#In vitro antifungal tests were conducted using the poisoned food. This present study found that the inhibition of L. theobromae mycelia when treated with A. vera film with different percentages of cinnamon oil was significantly different compared to the control film at (P<0.05). Results suggest that A. vera film without cinnamon oil showed the highest percentage of inhibition (37.31%) than other films with cinnamon oil due to the antagonistic and less synergistic effect. However, A. vera film with 0.07% of cinnamon oil showed the highest percentage of mycelia inhibition (36.15%) compared to the film with 0.06%, 0.05% and 0.04% cinnamon oil, with mycelia inhibition of 30.55%, 24.25% and 18.82%, respectively, while the mancozeb (positive control) showed 100% inhibition.@*Conclusion, significance and impact of study@#In conclusion, A. vera film alone had 37.31% inhibition compared to 36.15% inhibition in A. vera film with 0.7% cinnamon oil. As a result, a tiny amount of cinnamon oil added to the mixture might aid in controlling the black spot disease in wax fruits.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents , Aloe , Oils, Volatile , Plant Extracts
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2856-2869, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887848

ABSTRACT

The environmental gas concentration affects the storage period and quality of fruits and vegetables. High concentration CO₂ treating for a long time will cause damage to fruits, However, the specific molecular mechanism is unclear. To analyze the mechanism of CO₂ injury in apple, high-throughput sequencing technology of Illumina Hiseq 4000 and non-targeted metabolism technology were used to analyze the transcriptome sequencing and metabolomics analysis of browning flesh tissue of damage fruit and normal pulp tissue of the control group. A total of 6 332 differentially expressed genes were obtained, including 4 187 up-regulated genes and 2 145 down regulated genes. Functional analysis of the differentially expressed genes confirmed that the occurrence of CO₂ injury in apple was related to redox process, lipid metabolism, hormone signal transduction process and energy metabolism process. Twenty candidate browning genes were successfully screened, among which grxcr1 (md14g1137800) and gpx (md06g1081300) participated in the reactive oxygen species scavenging process, and pld1_ 2 (md15g1125000) and plcd (md07g1221900) participated in phospholipid acid synthesis and affected membrane metabolism. mdh1 (md05g1238800) participated in TCA cycle and affected energy metabolism. A total of 77 differential metabolites were obtained by metabolomic analysis, mainly organic acids, lipids, sugars and polyketones, including 35 metabolites related to browning. The metabolism of flavonoids was involved in the browning process of apple. Compared with the control tissue, the content of flavonoids such as catechin and quercetin decreased significantly in the damaged apple tissue, the antioxidant capacity of cells decreased, the redox state was unbalanced, and the cell structure was destroyed, resulting in browning. The results of this study further enrich the theoretical basis of CO₂ damage, and provide reference for the practical application of high concentration CO₂ preservation technology.


Subject(s)
Carbon Dioxide , Fruit , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Malus/genetics , Metabolome , Transcriptome
13.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 51(6): e20200688, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1180746

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Based on the apple acreage and output data of 23 provinces in China, the LMDI decomposition method and the barycenter analysis model were used to systematically analyze the spatiotemporal characteristics of apple production in China from 1978 to 2016. The results showed that the apple acreage and output continued to increase, and the apple production layout has moved to south-westward; Shaanxi, Shandong, Henan, Shanxi, Gansu, Hebei, Liaoning, and Xinjiang were the main contributors to the apple output increase in China; yield contributed more to apple output increase, the increase of yield was a significant contributing factor to the apple output growth in 17 provinces, whereas the expansion of apple acreage was a significant contributing factor in the other 6 provinces; the barycenter of apple acreage and output respectively moved to the southwest by 506.63 kilometers and 574.12 kilometers, and the barycenter of apple production gradually shifted to the Loess Plateau. To stabilize the effective supply of apple and maintain industrial security, the policymakers should attach importance to the fundamental role of technological progress in the development of the apple industry, and bring into play the technological progress, economic, social, and environmental effects of apple industry agglomeration by optimizing the apple production layout and strengthening policy guidance and regulatory measures.


RESUMO: Com base nos dados de área cultivada e produção de maçã de 23 províncias na China, o método de decomposição do LMDI e o modelo de análise de barcenter foram utilizados para analisar sistematicamente as características espaço-temporais da produção de maçã na China entre 1978 e 2016. Os resultados mostraram que a área cultivada de maçã e a produção continuou a aumentar, e o layout da produção da maçã mudou para o Sudoeste; Shaanxi, Shandong, Henan, Shanxi, Gansu, Hebei, Liaoning e Xinjiang foram os principais contribuintes para o aumento da produção de maçãs na China; o rendimento contribuiu mais para o aumento da produção de maçã, o aumento do rendimento foi fator de contribuição significativo para o crescimento da produção de maçã em 17 províncias, enquanto a expansão da área cultivada de maçã foi fator de contribuição significativo nas outras 6 províncias; o baricentro da área cultivada e a produção de maçãs se deslocaram para o Sudoeste em 506,63 quilômetros e 574,12 quilômetros respectivamente. O baricentro da produção de maçãs mudou gradualmente para o platô de Loess. Para estabilizar o fornecimento efetivo de maçã e manter a segurança industrial, os formuladores de políticas devem atribuir importância ao papel fundamental do progresso tecnológico no desenvolvimento da indústria da maçã e colocar em jogo o progresso tecnológico, os efeitos econômicos, sociais e ambientais da indústria da maçã aglomeração, otimizando o layout da produção da maçã e fortalecendo a orientação política e as medidas regulatórias.

14.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-206212

ABSTRACT

Background: The pattern of obesity as decided by body fat distribution is an important predictor of adverse health effects such as diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and coronary events. Waist hip ratio has been correlated with cardiovascular risk. Obesity is been known to cause restrictive respiratory impairment however; the effect of body fat distribution on the respiratory system is often underappreciated and limited evidence is available on spirometric pulmonary function in subjects with different body fat distribution. Hence here is a need to know weather pattern of obesity affects pulmonary function. Objectives: 1) To measure Waist Hip ratio (WHR) of subjects having BMI of more than 23 kg/m2 and based on this form two groups, one with apple and the other with pear shape fat distribution 2) To measure FVC and FEV1 in subjects of the above two groups.3) To compare FVC, FEV1 and %FEV1/FVC in above two groups. Methodology: In this comparative study a total of 182 subjects comprising of 91 subjects of Apple shaped and Pear shaped each were recruited in a period of 6 months. Study Settings: The study was conducted in the outpatient Physiotherapy department of a tertiary care hospital. The subjects in the study belonged to age group of 18-40 years. The mean age of the enrolled subjects was 29 years. Outcome measure: 1.FVC (L); 2. %FEV1 /FVC Results: The present study provides the evidence that FVC and %FEV1/FVC values are not statistically different in apple and pear shaped fat distribution individuals. Although both apple and pear shaped individuals showed %FEV1/FVC value more than 70% predicted, apple shaped individuals showed greater obstructive tendency i.e. reduced flow rates as compared to pear shaped individuals. Also more individuals of apple shaped showed restrictive pattern as compared to pear shaped. Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference in the pulmonary function test in the two groups but there is a possibility of subclinical reduction in pulmonary function more in apple shaped than in pear shaped individuals

15.
Rev. peru. biol. (Impr.) ; 27(2): 139-148, abr.-jun 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144944

ABSTRACT

Resumen En la Amazonia Peruana los caracoles dulceacuícolas de la familia Ampullariidae son conocidos como churos y originalmente han sido descritas para Perú alrededor de 20 especies. Aunque son muy usadas para alimentación, medicina tradicional y objeto de muchos estudios para su cultivo e industrialización, solamente es mencionada en la literatura la especie Pomacea maculata. Se llevó a cabo la identificación molecular sobre la base del marcador mitocondrial COI, de individuos de churos negros (Pomacea) comercializados en los mercados de Iquitos, así como los usados en platos a la carta en la ciudad de Lima, contrastados con otros individuos de procedencia de su hábitat natural. Se encontró que estos especímenes expendidos corresponden a la especie Pomacea nobilis (Reeve, 1856). El análisis filogenético molecular mostró que P. nobilis es especie hermana de P. guyanensis, en el grupo de P. glauca, distantemente relacionada de P. maculata. Las distancias no corregidas encontradas entre ellas, para el marcador mitocondrial COI, fueron de 11.33% a 13.17%, mientras que con P. maculata fueron de 13.67% a 15.33%. Estos resultados demostraron la eficacia del código de barras de ADN para la identificación y autenticación de la especie, lo que le da un valor agregado para su eventual comercio de exportación.


Abstract In the Peruvian Amazon, freshwater snails of the Ampullariidae family are known as churos, and around 20 species have originally been described for Peru. Although they are widely used for food, traditional medicine and the object of many studies for their cultivation and industrialization, only the species Pomacea maculata is mentioned in the literature. Molecular identification was carried out based on the mitochondrial marker COI of individuals of "churo negro" apple snails (Pomacea) commercialized in the markets of Iquitos, as well as those used in restaurant dishes in the city of Lima, and contrasted with specimens from their natural habitat. It was found that these specimens, correspond to the species Pomacea nobilis (Reeve, 1856). The molecular phylogenetic analysis showed P. nobilis as the sister species of P. guyanensis, in the P. glauca group, distantly related to P. maculata. The uncorrected distances found between them, for the mitochondrial marker COI, were from 11.33% to 13.17%, while with P. maculate were from 13.67% to 15.33%. These results demonstrated the effectiveness of the DNA barcode for the identification and authentication of the species, which gives it added value for its eventual export trade.

16.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-210894

ABSTRACT

This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of incorporation of wheat bran (WB) with dried apple pomace (DAP) or dried carrot pomace (DCP) on quality attributes of chicken nuggets. Raw emulsion was stuffed in rectangular moulds, cooked in electric oven at 165°C for 40 minutes and nuggets were prepared by slicing cooked emulsion to 2-3 cm3 size. Colour scores increased with increase in DAP level in WB + DAP treated nuggets. A steady decrease in scores for all other sensory attributes was noticed in both WB + DAP and WB + DCP treated nuggets with increase in fibre level. Hardness and shear press value increased whereas springiness and cohesiveness decreased with increase in fibre level. Gumminess and chewiness of WB + DAP treated nuggets increased with increase in fibre level while gumminess and chewiness of WB + DAP treated nuggets showed a variable trend. Cooking yield and emulsion stability of fibre enriched nuggets were significantly higher whereas moisture, protein, cholesterol content and pH were significantly lower than control. Insoluble, soluble and total dietary fibre content increased drastically in treated nuggets. Thiobarbituric acid reacting substance (TBARS) value and microbial counts increased significantly during refrigerated storage in all the products. It is concluded that healthier and dietary fibre enriched chicken nuggets with refrigerated storage stability up to 15 days can be prepared using combination of wheat bran (2%) with dried apple pomace (6%) or dried carrot pomace (4%) each

17.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205172

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aims to compare the effect of metformin monotherapy with the combination therapy of metformin and apple cider vinegar on the parameters of Body Mass Index and glycemic control of recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Methods: A total of 126 patients were enrolled in this open-label randomized controlled trial, divided into two parallel arms: Group I (Metformin 750 mg alone per day) and Group II (Metformin 750 mg+Apple Cider Vinegar 2 tablespoons per day) and assessed for weight, Body Mass Index, Fasting Blood Sugar and Hemoglobin A1c after which the post-treatment values of the aforementioned parameters were compared between the two groups. Informed consent from all patients and ethical approval from the institutional ethics board was obtained. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: All the parameters underwent a significant reduction in the pre and post intra group comparison of each group (p-value<0.001). Moreover, a significant difference was found in the post-treatment comparisons of the Fasting Blood Sugar (p-value<0.001) and HbA1c (p-value=0.04) in between the two groups. However, no significant difference was obtained in the post-treatment comparisons of weight and Body Mass Index in between the two groups. Conclusion: Apple Cider Vinegar in combination with Metformin appears to be more effective in improving glycemic control versus Metformin monotherapy.

18.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180413, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132167

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Freshly prepared apple tea wine (a combination of tea extract and apple juice) is having yeasty and dull flavour, which needs to be improved to increase the acceptability of this product. Therefore, an attempt has been made for artificial ageing of apple tea wine using different wood chips to improve its physico-chemical, sensory and antimicrobial attributes. Different types of wood chips (Quercus spp., Bombax spp. and Acacia spp.) were added respectively (2.5 g/L to the freshly prepared apple tea wine) and allowed for ageing in carboys for the six months at the room temperature. The influence of each wood species on physico-chemical, sensory and antimicrobial attributes was tested upto 6 months of storage. Storage intervals significantly affected all the physico-chemical attributes (except total sugars, volatile acidity, and antioxidant activity), whereas, the addition of wood chips affected titratable acidity, ethanol, higher alcohols, total phenols, and amino acid. Cluster analysis of the physico-chemical attributes data revealed the same and showed that storage intervals exerted more effect on the physico-chemical and antimicrobial properties of the apple tea wine rather than the wood chips. The antimicrobial activity of 6 months aged wine was low as compared to the fresh wine. Among all the wood chips, apple tea wine aged with Quercus spp. possesses a significantly higher score (according to desirability) than the wine aged with other wood chips and control. In nutshell, apple tea wine matured with Quercus spp. wood chips for 6 months were the best with improved physico-chemical and sensory attributes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tea/chemistry , Wine/analysis , Malus/chemistry , Juices , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Chemical Phenomena
19.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190272, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132258

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Apple Germplasm Bank (AGB) of Santa Catarina Agricultural Research and Rural Extension Company - Epagri, AGB-Epagri, is the largest of the genus Malus in Brazil. Twenty-eight main accessions of this bank were virus screened through DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR and IC-RT-PCR during two consecutive reproductive cycles, and each accession showed latent mixed infection by at least two species, among ASGV, ASPV and ACLSV. The combined use of diagnostic methods helped overcome inconsistencies commonly found in apple virus detection and was shown essential for the AGB-Epagri can be safely used as a source of genetic variability and for the exchange of virus-free propagative material.


Subject(s)
Malus/genetics , Malus/virology , Flexiviridae , Seed Bank , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Malus/growth & development
20.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 26(3): 951-968, jul.-set. 2019. graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039950

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é problematizar as formas de governo do corpo e da saúde requeridas aos usuários dos aplicativos do Apple Watch. A pesquisa abrange o uso do "relógio inteligente" em uma genealogia sobre a concepção de captura de informações, indução e notificação de ações que afetam as condutas dos sujeitos, colocando-os em ritmos e ritos realizáveis e provocando uma sensação de maior governo sobre o corpo, parte de um aceite de desgoverno perante a máquina. Os resultados apontam que as tecnologias vestíveis se tornaram "próteses" que capturam informações em tempo real, operando como um "órgão confessor" para o governo dos corpos e sua normalização, gerenciadas pelo mercado como um biocapital.


Abstract The objective of this article is to question the ways in which Apple Watch applications require users to manage their body and health. The survey describes the use of "smart watches" within a genealogy of the concept of capturing information, inducing and notifying users of activities that affect their behavior, placing users into achievable rhythms and routines, and creating the perception of better bodily management, all part of accepting the notion of granting control to machines. The results indicate that wearable technologies became "prosthetics" capturing information in real time, acting as a "confession mechanism" for governing and normalizing the body, and are managed by the market as biocapital.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mobile Applications , Wearable Electronic Devices , Population Health Management
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