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1.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(3): e00110121, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364629

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar a proposta metodológica denominada de "Pronta Resposta" modelada nas cidades de Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais) e Natal (Rio Grande do Norte), Brasil. A metodologia visa identificar e delimitar áreas prioritárias para o direcionamento das ações de vigilância em tempo oportuno, buscando a redução da intensidade e velocidade da dispersão de epidemias em áreas urbanas endêmicas. Para tanto, a metodologia utiliza três variáveis, que representam as causas necessárias para a produção e reprodução da dengue: casos notificados (vírus), ovos de Aedes (vetor) e população (hospedeiro). Trata-se de um estudo ecológico que utilizou os dados dos três planos de informações agregados em escalas temporais e espaciais mais finas, de três a quatro semanas e grades de 400 a 600 metros respectivamente. As áreas de pronta resposta foram definidas por meio de análise estatística de varredura Scan, com definição de clusters espaciais simultâneos para os três planos por meio do programa SaTScan. Os resultados observados foram: na cidade de Natal, as áreas definidas como pronta resposta ocuparam em média 15,2% do território do município e concentraram 67,77% dos casos de dengue do período posterior ao utilizado na delimitação das áreas de pronta resposta, e em Belo Horizonte, os números observados foram de 64,16% dos casos em 23,23% do território. Esses resultados foram obtidos em duas cidades com realidades socioambientais e geográficas diferentes e com perfis epidemiológicos também distintos, apontando que a metodologia pode ser aplicada em diferentes realidades urbanas, criando a possibilidade de os programas de controle atuarem em porções reduzidas do território e impactar num alto percentual de casos em tempo oportuno.


The study aimed to present the methodological proposal entitled "Prompt Response", modelled in the cities of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais State) and Natal (Rio Grande do Norte State), Brazil. The proposal aims to identify and demarcate priority areas for timely targeting of surveillance activities, aiming to reduce the intensity and velocity in the spread of epidemics in endemic urban areas. The methodology uses three variables that represent the necessary causes for the production and reproduction of dengue: notified cases (virus), Aedes eggs (vector), and population (host). This was an ecological study that used data from three information planes aggregated in finer temporal and spatial scales of 3 to 4 weeks and 400 to 600-meter grids, respectively. The prompt response areas were defined by Scan statistical analysis with definition of simultaneous spatial clusters for the three planes via the SaTScan program. In Natal, the areas defined as prompt response occupied, on average, 15.2% of the city's territory and concentrated 67.77% of the dengue cases in the period following demarcation of the prompt response areas. In Belo Horizonte, the observed proportions were 64.16% of cases in 23.23% of the territory. These results were obtained in two cities with different socioenvironmental and geographic realities and distinct epidemiological profiles, indicating that the methodology can be applied to different urban realities, allowing control programs to concentrate on reduced portions of the territory and impacting a high percentage of cases in timely fashion.


El objetivo del trabajo fue presentar la propuesta metodológica, denominada de "Resposta Rápida", modelada en las ciudades de Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais) y Natal (Rio Grande do Norte), Brasil. Esta última tiene como meta identificar y delimitar áreas prioritarias para la ejecución de acciones de vigilancia en el momento oportuno, buscando la reducción de la intensidad y velocidad de la dispersión de epidemias en áreas urbanas endémicas. Para tal fin, la metodología utiliza tres variables, que representan las causas necesarias para la producción y reproducción del dengue: casos notificados (virus), huevos de Aedes (vector) y población (huésped). Se trata de un estudio ecológico que utilizó los datos de los tres planos de información agregados en escalas temporales y espaciales más finas, de 3 a 4 semanas y tablas de 400 a 600 metros respectivamente. Las áreas de respuesta rápida se definieron a través del análisis estadístico de exploración Scan, con definición de clústeres espaciales simultáneos para los tres planos mediante el programa SaTScan. Los resultados observados fueron: en la ciudad de Natal, las áreas definidas como de respuesta rápida ocuparon de media un 15,2% del territorio del municipio y concentraron un 67,77% de los casos de dengue del período posterior al utilizado en la delimitación de las áreas de respuesta rápida y, en Belo Horizonte, los números observados fueron un 64,16% de los casos en un 23,23% del territorio. Estos resultados se obtuvieron en dos ciudades con realidades socioambientales y geográficas diferentes y con perfiles epidemiológicos también distintos, apuntando que la metodología se puede aplicar en diferentes realidades urbanas. Dando la posibilidad de que los programas de control actúen en secciones reducidas del territorio e impactar en un alto porcentaje de casos en el momento oportuno.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Aedes/physiology , Dengue/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Mosquito Vectors
2.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(1): e00000521, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355974

ABSTRACT

A partir da reemergência da febre amarela em 2014/2015, o Brasil registrou nos anos sequentes sua maior epidemia de febre amarela das últimas décadas, atingindo principalmente a região sudeste. A febre amarela, doença viral hemorrágica, é causada por um flavivírus, transmitido por mosquitos silvestres (Haemagogus; Sabethes). Na ocorrência do ciclo urbano, erradicado no Brasil desde 1942, a transmissão se dá pelo Aedes aegypti. Primatas não humanos são os principais hospedeiros do vírus e constituem "sentinelas" na vigilância da febre amarela. Este artigo descreve as ações de controle e prevenção desencadeadas durante a epidemia de febre amarela no Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil, e a implementação da vacinação por meio de um estudo ecológico com abordagem espacial. O estudo evidenciou a falha na detecção de epizootias em primatas não humanos pelos serviços de vigilância do Espírito Santo, sendo simultânea à detecção em humanos. Apresentou a evolução das ações de vacinação, com alcance de 85% de cobertura vacinal geral para o estado em seis meses, sendo heterogênea entre os municípios (de 59% a 122%). Destaca-se que 55% dos municípios com ações de imunização em tempo oportuno, considerando o intervalo adotado para este estudo, não apresentaram casos em humanos. A intensificação das ações de vigilância, interlocução entre as áreas e equipes multidisciplinares na condução da epidemia otimizou a detecção e o diagnóstico dos casos em humanos e viabilizou o controle da epidemia. Foi possível reconhecer avanços, apontar algumas medidas tardias e lacunas na vigilância que necessitam melhorias.


Following the reemergence of yellow fever in 2014/2015, Brazil recorded its largest yellow fever epidemic in recent decades, mainly affecting the country's Southeast region. Yellow fever is a hemorrhagic viral disease caused by a flavivirus transmitted by sylvatic mosquitos (Haemagogus; Sabethes). In the urban cycle, eradicated in Brazil since 1942, the virus is transmitted by Aedes aegypti. Nonhuman primates are the principal hosts of the virus and constitute "sentinels" in yellow fever surveillance. This article describes the control and prevention activities launched during the yellow fever epidemic in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, and the implementation of vaccination, through an ecological study with a spatial approach. The study revealed the lack of detection of epizootics in nonhuman primates by surveillance services in Espírito Santo, with simultaneous detection in humans. The study presented the evolution of vaccination activities, reaching 85% overall coverage for the state in six months, varying widely, from 59% to 122%, between municipalities (counties). Importantly, 55% of the municipalities with timely immunization, considering the interval adopted for this study, did not present human cases. The intensification of surveillance activities, communication between areas, and multidisciplinary teams in managing the epidemic optimized the detection and diagnosis of human cases and allowed control of the epidemic. The study identifies progress and points to some late measures and gaps in surveillance that require improvements.


A partir del resurgimiento de la fiebre amarilla en 2014/2015, Brasil registró los años siguientes su mayor epidemia de fiebre amarilla de las últimas décadas, alcanzando principalmente la región sudeste. La fiebre amarilla, enfermedad viral hemorrágica, es causada por un flavivirus, transmitido por mosquitos silvestres (Haemagogus; Sabethes). Respecto a la ocurrencia del ciclo urbano, erradicado en Brasil desde 1942, la transmisión se produce por el Aedes aegypti. Primates no humanos son los principales huéspedes del virus, y constituyen "centinelas" en la vigilancia de la fiebre amarilla. Este artículo describe las acciones de control y prevención desencadenadas durante la epidemia de fiebre amarilla en el Estado de Espírito Santo, Brasil, y la implementación de la vacunación mediante un estudio ecológico con abordaje espacial. El estudio evidenció el fallo en la detección de epizootias en primates no humanos por los servicios de vigilancia de Espírito Santo, siendo simultánea a la detección en humanos. Presentó la evolución de las acciones de vacunación, con alcance de un 85% de cobertura en la vacunación general para el estado en seis meses, siendo heterogénea entre los municipios (de 59% a 122%). Se destaca que un 55% de los municipios con acciones de inmunización en tiempo oportuno, considerando el intervalo adoptado para este estudio, no presentaron casos humanos. La intensificación de las acciones de vigilancia, interlocución entre las áreas y equipos multidisciplinarios en la gestión de la epidemia optimizó la detección y diagnóstico de los casos humanos y viabilizó el control de la epidemia. Fue posible reconocer avances, apuntar algunas medidas tardías y lagunas en la vigilancia que necesitan mejorías.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Yellow Fever/prevention & control , Yellow Fever/veterinary , Yellow Fever/epidemiology , Aedes , Epidemics , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary
3.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e58601, jan.-dez. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1365802

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo comparar o conhecimento autorreferido de formandos de medicina e enfermagem em relação à dengue, zika e chikungunya. Método estudo transversal, exploratório e de abordagem quantitativa, realizado em uma universidade pública com 41 formandos dos cursos de enfermagem e medicina. Os dados foram coletados por meio de um questionário autorrespondido e analisados por meio de um modelo linear generalizado com distribuição binomial com função de ligação identidade. Protocolo aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa. Resultados os graduandos de medicina apresentaram as maiores médias de acertos; porém, somente as variáveis referentes ao exame clínico e à evolução e complicações apresentaram diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os cursos. Conclusão esse estudo reforça a importância da formação de enfermeiros e médicos, para que estejam capacitados e preparados para assistir à população, desde o desenvolvimento de ações preventivas até a reabilitação de usuários acometidos por uma arbovirose.


RESUMEN Objetivo comparar los conocimientos autoinformados de egresados de medicina y enfermería en relación con el dengue, el zika y el chikungunya. Método estudio transversal, exploratorio con enfoque cuantitativo, realizado en una universidad pública con 41 egresados de los cursos de enfermería y medicina. Los datos se recolectaron mediante un cuestionario autoadministrado y se analizaron a través de un modelo lineal generalizado con distribución binomial con función de vínculo de identidad. Protocolo aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación. Resultados los estudiantes de medicina tuvieron el promedio más alto de respuestas correctas; sin embargo, solo las variables relacionadas con el examen clínico y la evolución y las complicaciones mostraron una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los cursos. Conclusión este estudio refuerza la importancia de formar enfermeros y médicos, para que estén capacitados y preparados para atender a la población, desde el desarrollo de acciones preventivas hasta la rehabilitación de usuarios afectados por un arbovirus.


ABSTRACT Objective to compare medical and nursing graduates' self-reported knowledge of dengue, zika and chikungunya. Method this quantitative, exploratory, cross-sectional study was conducted at a public university with 41 nursing and medical graduates. Data were collected using a self-answered questionnaire and analyzed using a generalized linear model with binomial distribution and identity link function. The protocol was approved by the research ethics committee. Results on average, medical students returned more correct answers; however, statistically significant differences were found between the courses only on variables relating to clinical examination and evolution and complications. Conclusion this study underlines the importance of training nurses and doctors, so that they are able and prepared to provide care ranging from preventive actions through to rehabilitation of users affected by an arbovirus.

4.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e58601, jan.-dez. 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354240

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: comparar o conhecimento autorreferido de formandos de medicina e enfermagem em relação à dengue, zika e chikungunya. Método: estudo transversal, exploratório e de abordagem quantitativa, realizado em uma universidade pública com 41 formandos dos cursos de enfermagem e medicina. Os dados foram coletados por meio de um questionário autorrespondido e analisados por meio de um modelo linear generalizado com distribuição binomial com função de ligação identidade. Protocolo aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa. Resultados: os graduandos de medicina apresentaram as maiores médias de acertos; porém, somente as variáveis referentes ao exame clínico e à evolução e complicações apresentaram diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os cursos. Conclusão: esse estudo reforça a importância da formação de enfermeiros e médicos, para que estejam capacitados e preparados para assistir à população, desde o desenvolvimento de ações preventivas até a reabilitação de usuários acometidos por uma arbovirose.


Objective: to compare medical and nursing graduates' self-reported knowledge of dengue, zika and chikungunya. Method: this quantitative, exploratory, cross-sectional study was conducted at a public university with 41 nursing and medical graduates. Data were collected using a self-answered questionnaire and analyzed using a generalized linear model with binomial distribution and identity link function. The protocol was approved by the research ethics committee. Results: on average, medical students returned more correct answers; however, statistically significant differences were found between the courses only on variables relating to clinical examination and evolution and complications. Conclusion: this study underlines the importance of training nurses and doctors, so that they are able and prepared to provide care ranging from preventive actions through to rehabilitation of users affected by an arbovirus.


Objetivo: comparar los conocimientos autoinformados de egresados de medicina y enfermería en relación con el dengue, el zika y el chikungunya. Método: estudio transversal, exploratorio con enfoque cuantitativo, realizado en una universidad pública con 41 egresados de los cursos de enfermería y medicina. Los datos se recolectaron mediante un cuestionario autoadministrado y se analizaron a través de un modelo lineal generalizado con distribución binomial con función de vínculo de identidad. Protocolo aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación. Resultados: los estudiantes de medicina tuvieron el promedio más alto de respuestas correctas; sin embargo, solo las variables relacionadas con el examen clínico y la evolución y las complicaciones mostraron una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los cursos. Conclusión: este estudio refuerza la importancia de formar enfermeros y médicos, para que estén capacitados y preparados para atender a la población, desde el desarrollo de acciones preventivas hasta la rehabilitación de usuarios afectados por un arbovirus.

5.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(2): 247-259, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339264

ABSTRACT

Abstract | Introduction: Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) cause morbidity and mortality in humans and domestic animals worldwide. The percentage of population immunity or susceptibility to these viruses in Ecuador is unknown. Objectives: To investigate the proportion of Ecuadorian populations with IgG antibodies (Abs) (past exposure/immunity) and IgM Abs (current exposure) against flaviviruses and alphaviruses and to study the activity of these viruses in Ecuador. Materials and methods: During 2009-2011, we conducted a serosurvey for selected arboviruses in humans (n=1,842), equines (n=149), and sentinel hamsters (n=84) at two coastal locations and one in the Amazon basin (Eastern Ecuador) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and hemagglutination inhibition test. Results: From 20.63% to 63.61% of humans showed IgG-antibodies for the flaviviruses: Dengue virus (DENV), yellow fever virus (YFV) Saint Louis encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus (WNV); from 4.67% to 8.63% showed IgG-Abs for the alphaviruses: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus, and western equine encephalitis virus. IgM-Abs were found for DENV and WNV. Equines and hamsters showed antibodies to alphaviruses in all locations; two hamsters seroconverted to YFV in the Amazonia. Conclusions: The results show a YFV vaccination history and suggest the activity of arboviruses not included in the current surveillance scheme. Enhanced arbovirus and mosquito surveillance, as well as continued YFV vaccination and evaluation of its coverage/ effectiveness, are recommended.


Resumen | Introducción. Los virus transmitidos por artrópodos (arbovirus) causan morbilidad y mortalidad en humanos y animales domésticos mundialmente. Se desconoce el porcentaje de inmunidad o vulnerabilidad de la población ecuatoriana ante estos virus. Objetivos. Investigar la proporción de poblaciones ecuatorianas con anticuerpos IgG (exposición o inmunidad pasada) y anticuerpos IgM (exposición reciente) contra flavivirus y alfavirus, e investigar su actividad en Ecuador. Materiales y métodos. Entre 2009 y 2011, se llevó a cabo una encuesta serológica para arbovirus en humanos (n=1.842), equinos (n=149) y hámsters centinela (n=84) en dos localidades costeras y en una en la Amazonía, utilizando la prueba ELISA (Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay) y la prueba de inhibición de la hemaglutinación. Resultados. Entre el 20,63 y el 63,61 % de los humanos registraron IgG contra el virus del dengue (DENV), el de la fiebre amarilla (YFV), el de la encefalitis de San Luis y el del Nilo Occidental (WNV); entre 4,67 y 8,63 % tenían IgG para los virus de la encefalitis equina venezolana, de la encefalitis equina del este y de la encefalitis equina del oeste. Se encontró IgM para DENV y WNV. En los equinos y en los hámsters se encontraron anticuerpos contra alfavirus en todas las localidades muestreadas; dos hámsters mostraron seroconversión a YFV en la Amazonía. Conclusiones. Los resultados del estudio evidenciaron los antecedentes de vacunación contra el YFV y sugieren la actividad de arbovirus no incluidos en el esquema de vigilancia actual. Se recomienda ampliar la vigilancia de arbovirus y mosquitos, continuar con la vacunación contra el YFV, y evaluar su cobertura y efectividad.


Subject(s)
Arboviruses , West Nile virus , Yellow fever virus , Dengue Virus , Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine , Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine
6.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(2): 353-373, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339273

ABSTRACT

Resumen | El virus de chikunguña (CHIKV) es un Alfavirus perteneciente al grupo denominado del Viejo Mundo; estos son virus artritogénicos que causan una enfermedad febril caracterizada por artralgias y mialgias. Aunque la muerte por CHIKV es poco frecuente, la enfermedad puede llegar a ser incapacitante y generar un amplio espectro de manifestaciones atípicas, como complicaciones cardiovasculares, respiratorias, oculares, renales y dérmicas, entre otras. Cuando el dolor articular persiste por tres o más meses, da lugar a la forma crónica de la enfermedad denominada reumatismo inflamatorio crónico poschikunguña, el cual es la principal secuela de la enfermedad. Se considera que este virus no es neurotrópico, sin embargo, puede afectar el sistema nervioso central y generar secuelas graves y permanentes, principalmente, en niños y ancianos. En África, Asia y Europa se habían reportado anteriormente brotes epidémicos por CHIKV, pero solo hasta finales del 2013 se documentó la introducción del virus a las Américas; desde entonces, el virus se ha propagado a 45 países o territorios del continente y el número de casos acumulados ascendió a cerca de dos millones en dos años. Esta revisión describe de manera general la biología molecular del virus, sus manifestaciones clínicas, su patogénesis y las principales complicaciones posteriores a la infección. Además, reúne la información de la epidemia en Colombia y el continente americano publicada entre el 2014 y el 2020.


Abstract | The chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an Alphavirus that belongs to the Old World group. These arthritogenic viruses cause a febrile illness characterized by arthralgias and myalgias. Although fatal cases during CHIKV infection are rare, the disease may be disabling and generate a broad spectrum of atypical manifestations, such as cardiovascular, respiratory, eye, kidney, and skin complications, among others. When joint pain persists for three or more months, it results in the chronic form of the disease called post-chikungunya chronic inflammatory rheumatism, which constitutes the main disease sequel. CHIKV is not considered a neurotropic virus; however, it can affect the central nervous system, especially in children and the elderly, causing severe and permanent sequelae. CHIKV outbreaks had been previously reported in Africa, Asia, and Europe, but the virus introduction to the American continent was documented until the end of 2013. Since then, the virus has spread to 45 countries and territories causing near two million cases in just two years. This review describes the molecular biology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, and significant post-infection complications of CHIKV. Additionally, it collects published information about the outbreak in Colombia and the American continent between 2014 and 2020.


Subject(s)
Chikungunya virus/pathogenicity , Arboviruses , Arthritis , Epidemiology
7.
Medisur ; 19(2): 228-235, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279438

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Fundamento La introducción de dos nuevas arbovirosis (Chikungunya y Zika), además del dengue, ha creado un nuevo desafío para la salud pública en las Américas. Por ello es importante conocer el grado de asimilación por los profesionales de la salud respecto a las estrategias implementadas para enfrentar dicha problemática. Objetivo describir los resultados de una estrategia de capacitación dirigida a médicos y enfermeros, sobre diagnóstico y manejo clínico de arbovirosis. Métodos estudio cuasi-experimental, del tipo antes y después, desarrollado en Cienfuegos, Cuba, en el período comprendido entre julio de 2018 y enero del 2019. Se tomó una muestra de 95 profesionales, a quienes se aplicaron encuestas antes y después del estudio del documento instructivo (Instrumento para el diagnóstico y la atención a pacientes con sospecha de arbovirosis, publicado por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud) por los participantes; las cuales cubrieron los dominios: cuadro clínico, diagnóstico diferencial, manejo de casos y pronóstico. Resultados se obtuvo un valor medio de respuestas correctas de 70,93. Transcurrido el tiempo destinado a la preparación, y aplicadas nuevas encuestas, la media de respuestas correctas fue de 78,34, diferencia que fue estadísticamente significativa. Se identificaron las principales necesidades de aprendizaje. Conclusión el ejercicio realizado y la evaluación global de las respuestas fueron satisfactorios, según mostraron los valores medios de respuestas correctas antes y después del estudio del documento instructivo en temas de diagnóstico y manejo de arbovirosis.


ABSTRACT Background The introduction of two new arboviruses (Chikungunya and Zika), in addition to dengue, has created a new challenge for public health in the Americas. For this reason, it is important to know the assimilation degree by health professionals regarding the strategies used to face this problem. Objective to describe the results of training strategy aimed at doctors and nurses, on the arboviruses diagnosis and clinical management. Methods a quasi-experimental study, of the before and after type, developed in Cienfuegos, Cuba, in the period between July 2018 and January 2019. A sample of 95 professionals was taken, to whom surveys were applied before and after the study of the instructive document (Instrument for the diagnosis and care of patients with suspected arbovirosis, published by the Pan American Health Organization) by the participants; who covered the domains: clinical picture, differential diagnosis, case management and prognosis. Results a mean value of correct answers of 70.93 was obtained. After the time assigned to preparation, and new surveys were applied, the mean of correct responses was 78.34, a difference that was statistically significant. The main learning needs were identified. Conclusion the exercise carried out and the global evaluation of the responses was satisfactory, as shown by the mean values of correct responses before and after the study of the instructional document on issues of arbovirosis diagnosis and management.

8.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(2): 194-200, mar.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279101

ABSTRACT

Resumen En países americanos, simultáneas a la pandemia de enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) se están dando epidemias ocasionadas por diferentes arbovirus (del dengue, chikunguña y virus del Zika). En México, varias de las estrategias para control del mosquito Aedes aegypti, transmisor de arbovirus, involucran la interacción del personal salubrista y los moradores. Debido a la pandemia de COVID-19 se han implementado medidas de distanciamiento social y resguardo domiciliario. Para respetar estas medidas y evitar riesgo de contagio por coronavirus 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2), el Centro Nacional de Programas Preventivos y Control de Enfermedades (CENAPRECE) ha presentado la estrategia de control de vectores en el escenario de transmisión simultánea por dengue y COVID-19 en México. En este trabajo mencionamos las medidas habituales de manejo integral de mosquito y mencionamos las adaptaciones realizadas. De igual forma, discutimos la relevancia de la capacitación y la supervisión al personal médico, esto debido a la similitud entre la sintomatología entre ambas patologías.


Abstract Countries of Latin America are dealing with a simultaneous COVID-19 and vector borne disease (VBDs, Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya) outbreaks. In Mexico, certain activities to control Aedes aegypti mosquito (the main VBDs vector) comprise community participation through the interaction between householders and vector control personnel. Preventive measures against COVID-19 include social distancing and stay-at-home strategy, to obey these policies, and reduce the risk of infection, the National Center for Preventive Programs and Disease Control of Mexico (CENAPRECE) has adapted the vector control approaches in the country. In this paper we mention routine prevention and control activities to control mosquitoes and show the adapted measures. Because, a number of symptoms of the COVID-19 and dengue fever overlap with each other, we also discuss the relevance of accurate disease surveillance and medic’s training and supervision.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Mosquito Control/methods , Aedes/virology , Pandemics , Epidemiological Monitoring , COVID-19/epidemiology , Arbovirus Infections/prevention & control , Dengue/epidemiology , Information Dissemination , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Promotion
9.
RECIIS (Online) ; 15(1): 187-200, jan.-mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177392

ABSTRACT

A mobilização social para o enfrentamento da dengue, zika, chikungunya e controle do Aedes aegypti tem sido um desafio no país. Esse artigo apresenta o processo de elaboração de uma plataforma virtual, incluindo a composição do seu acervo e a análise exploratória do seu uso, como ferramenta, numa proposta de mobilização social que envolve a criação de comitês populares nos territórios para o enfrentamento das três doenças e vetor. A construção da plataforma considerou: facilidade para usuário; acesso; armazenamento de material; interatividade e banco para monitoramento de dados. A seleção do acervo baseou-se em critérios: técnico, referente à fonte e autoria; acurácia, concordância entre informação e evidência em saúde; e legibilidade, garantindo a compreensão por diferentes grupos. A análise exploratória utilizou o banco de dados da plataforma. Os resultados apontaram a plataforma como uma ferramenta que pode contribuir com a comunicação e informação em saúde nessa proposta de mobilização social.


Social mobilization for dengue, zika and chikungunya prevention and control of Aedes aegypti has been a challenge in the country. This paper presents the process of elaboration of a virtual platform, including the composition of its collection and the exploratory analysis of its use, as a tool in a social mobilization proposal that encompasses the creation of popular committees in the territories for the confrontation of the three diseases and vector. The construction of the platform considered: ease of use; access; material storage; interactivity and database for data monitoring. The selection of the collection was based on the following criteria: technical, considering source and authorship; accuracy, regarding the agreement between health information and evidence; legibility, ensuring the understanding by different groups. The exploratory analysis used the platform database. The results showed the platform as a tool which can contribute to health communication and information in this proposal of social mobilization.


La movilización social para combatir el dengue, zika, chikungunya y control de Aedes ha sido un desafío. Este artículo presenta el proceso de elaboración de una plataforma virtual, que incluye la composición de su acervo y el análisis exploratorio de su uso, como herramienta en una propuesta de movilización social que implica la creación de comités populares en los territorios para enfrentar las enfermedades y el vector. La construcción de la plataforma consideró: facilidad para usuario; acceso; almacenamiento de material; interactividad y bases de datos para el monitoreo. La selección del acervo se basó en criterios: técnico, con fuente y autoría; precisión, concordancia entre información y evidencia en salud; legibilidad, para garantizar la comprensión por diferentes grupos. El análisis utilizó datos de la plataforma. Los resultados mostraron que la plataforma puede ser una herramienta para contribuir a la comunicación e información de salud en esta propuesta de movilización social.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arbovirus Infections , Community Participation , Health Communication , Social Media , Health Promotion , Chikungunya virus , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Aedes , Dengue , Zika Virus
10.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 37(1): e402, mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1180962

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Los arbovirus son microorganismos transmitidos al ser humano por artrópodos. Existen más de 100 tipos de arbovirus, con una presentación clínica común para todos ellos de fiebre, síntomas articulares, hemorrágicos y neurológicos1. Además, representan un riesgo particular para la mujer embarazada y el feto por el potencial teratogénico que algunos de ellos presentan, particularmente a nivel del sistema nervioso central. Utilizando los motores de búsqueda de Pubmed y de Google Scholar, realizamos una búsqueda bibliográfica enfocada a los arbovirus en general y luego enfocada en cada una de las patologías específicas abordadas, que fueron definidas en función del riesgo de ingreso a nuestro país y sus potenciales consecuencias. El objetivo de esta revisión es analizar las principales características de presentación de los arbovirus, en particular dengue, zika, chikungunya y fiebre amarilla ante la eventualidad de la aparición de casos de transmisión vertical, para que nuestros recursos humanos especializados tengan un marco de referencia del manejo actualizado. Esta revisión nos permitió concluir sobre los elementos comunes de estas virosis, así como sus potenciales afectaciones en el feto y en el recién nacido, y nos planteó el desafío vinculado a su dificultad diagnóstica por las reacciones cruzadas.


Summary: Arbovirus are microorganisms transmitted to humans through arthropods. There are more than 100 different arboviruses with a common clinical presentation of fever, articular, hemorrhagic and neurological symptoms1. They represent a mayor risk to pregnant women and fetuses due to their teratogenic effect, particularly affecting the central nervous system. We performed a specific search focused on arbovirus using search engines Pubmed and Google Scholar and we classified evidence according to the risk of a certain virus entering our country and its potential consequences. The objective of this review is to update the main clinical characteristics of arbovirus, particularly Dengue, Zika, Chikungunya and Yellow Fever particularly due to the potential introduction of these viruses in our country and the possibility of vertical transmission, so that our human resources have a guide on how to approach these patients nowadays. This review allowed us to conclude on common characteristics of these viruses, their possible consequences on fetus and newborns, and concluding on the difficulty of etiological diagnosis due to cross reactions.


Resumo: Os arbovírus são microrganismos transmitidos ao homem por artrópodes. Existem mais de 100 tipos de arbovírus, com apresentação clínica comum a todos eles de febre, sintomas articulares, hemorrágicos e neurológicos1. Além disso, representam um risco particular para a gestante e para o feto devido ao potencial teratogênico que alguns deles apresentam, principalmente ao nível do sistema nervoso central. Realizamos uma busca bibliográfica utilizando Pubmed e Google Scholar sobre arbovírus em geral e posteriormente, sobre cada uma das patologias específicas abordadas que foram definidas de acordo com o risco de entrada em nosso país e suas possíveis consequências. O objetivo desta revisão é analisar as principais características de apresentação dos arbovírus, em particular dengue, Zika, Chikungunya e febre amarela, considerando a possibilidade de casos de transmissão vertical, para servir como uma referência atualizada para os profissionais especializados nesta área. Esta revisão permitiu elaborar conclusões sobre os elementos comuns a esses vírus, bem como suas possíveis afetações no feto e no recém-nascido, e apresentou o desafio relacionado à dificuldade diagnóstica devido às reações cruzadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Arboviruses , Yellow Fever , Chikungunya virus , Dengue , Zika Virus , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
11.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(1): 37-42, jan-abr. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151406

ABSTRACT

As infecções ocasionadas pelos vírus da Dengue (DENV), Zika (ZIKV) e Chikungunya (CHIKV) em gestantes são de grande preocupação pelos possíveis danos causados pelos mesmos às mães e fetos. O ZIKV está relacionado à microcefalia e outras anomalias cerebrais graves em neonatos e a infecção por CHIKV em gestantes no período intraparto pode levar à transmissão vertical, com possibilidade de agravamento no quadro do neonato. E, apesar de ainda não haver relatos de ocorrência de malformações congênitas associadas à infecção por DENV em gestantes, as mesmas são consideradas um grupo de risco, pois apresentam maiores chances de evolução para formas graves ou óbito e aumento no risco de partos prematuros decorrente da infecção materna perinatal. Neste estudo, foi realizada uma análise retrospectiva dos resultados envolvendo os vírus DENV, ZIKV e CHIKV para determinar a taxa de positividade destas arboviroses em gestantes no município de São José do Rio Preto-SP, nos anos de 2018 e 2019. Para isso, foram coletados resultados de PCR em tempo real (RT-PCR) para DENV, ZIKV e CHIKV de amostras de soro e urina obtidas de 557 gestantes com histórico de febre, bem como 93 amostras de recém-nascidos (RN). Na análise dos resultados foi verificado que o sorotipo-2 de Dengue (DENV-2) foi detectado em 106/557 correspondendo a 19% das amostras, o sorotipo-1 (DENV-1) foi detectado em apenas uma amostra e o ZIKV foi detectado em duas amostras. CHIKV não foi detectado. Não foi detectado arbovírus nas amostras de RN testadas pela técnica de RT-PCR. Quanto à idade, 40% das gestantes pertenciam à faixa etária de 25 a 32 anos, seguidas pelas faixas de 33 a 40 anos e 17 a 24 anos com percentuais de 31 e 29%, respectivamente. No período, uma gestante que estava na 13ª semana de gestação foi a óbito por DENV-2. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam a importância do diagnóstico precoce das arboviroses neste grupo, viabilizando a assistência adequada às gestantes. Nesse sentido, o monitoramento da circulação simultânea de arboviroses responsáveis por causarem complicações em gestantes e infecções congênitas deve continuar em áreas endêmicas como a de São José do Rio Preto, visando um diagnóstico materno precoce e manejo adequado de gestantes testadas positivas verificando a presença de sinais de alerta e de dengue grave.


Infections caused by Dengue (DENV), Zika (ZIKV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses in pregnant women represent great concern because of the possible damage that can be caused by these viruses to both mothers and fetuses. ZIKV is related to microcephaly and other severe brain abnormalities in neonates, while CHIKV infection in pregnant women in the intrapartum period can lead to vertical transmission, with the possibility of worsening in the neonate. And although there are no reports of congenital malformations associated with DENV infection in pregnant women, they are also considered of risk group, since they have greater probability to progress to severe forms or even death. In addition, there is an increased risk of premature childbirth. In this study, a retrospective result analysis involving DENV, ZIKV and CHIKV viruses was carried out to determine the positivity rate of those arboviruses in pregnant women in the city of São José do Rio Preto-SP, in the years 2018 and 2019. For this purpose, real-time PCR results (RT-PCR) were collected for DENV, ZIKV and CHIKV from serum and urine samples obtained from 557 pregnant women with a history of fever, as well as samples from 93 newborns (NB). Dengue serotype-2 (DENV-2) was detected in 106/557, which corresponds to 19% of the samples; dengue serotype-1 (DENV-1) was detected in only one sample, and the ZIKV was detected in two samples. CHIKV was not detected. Arboviruses were not detected in the NB samples tested by the RT-PCR technique. In relation to age groups, 40% of pregnant women were between 25 to 32 years old, followed by the groups of 33 to 40 years old, and 17 to 24 years old, with 31% and 29%, respectively. In the period, a pregnant woman who was in the 13th week of pregnancy died due to DENV-2. The results obtained emphasize the importance of the early diagnosis of arboviruses in this group, thus enabling adequate assistance to pregnant women. In this sense, the monitoring of arboviruses circulation responsible for causing complications and congenital infections in pregnant women should continue in endemic areas such as São José do Rio Preto, aiming at an early maternal diagnosis and adequate management of the patients who tested positive, checking for the presence of any alert signs and severe dengue.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Arbovirus Infections , Pregnant Women , Infant, Newborn/growth & development , Chikungunya virus , Dengue/complications , Early Diagnosis , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection/complications , Vector Borne Diseases/virology , Microcephaly/virology
12.
Rev. baiana saúde pública ; 45(Especial 1): 62-78, 20210101.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178346

ABSTRACT

Sindemia é a interação entre duas ou mais doenças, podendo causar danos maiores do que a simples soma dessas. Na Bahia, a chegada do novo coronavírus foi precedida por um contexto epidemiológico alarmante quanto às arboviroses, com aumento exponencial de casos de chikungunya e registro de maior coeficiente de incidência de dengue da última década. Este artigo analisa indicadores e fatores de risco dos agravos para estabelecer interações nas dinâmicas epidemiológicas e o impacto causado nos serviços de saúde. O estudo foi realizado entre as semanas epidemiológicas 11 e 40 de 2020, com dados coletados no e-SUS Notifica, Sivep-Gripe (Covid19), Sinan On-line (chikungunya e dengue) e Sinan Net (zika). As análises foram elaboradas por meio do programa estatístico R versão 3.6.3, incluindo descritiva e de risco relativo entre comorbidades e óbito por Covid-19. No período analisado, observou-se que as maiores incidências para a sindemia ocorreram nas macrorregiões Sul (260.040), Centro Leste (200.135) e Sudoeste (148.130), com destaque para Covid-19 e dengue. Para dengue, as maiores incidências coincidiram com a elevada incidência para Covid-19. A análise multivariada demonstrou que a presença de diabetes, doenças respiratórias, cardíacas e renais aumentaram o risco de óbito por Covid-19. As medidas de prevenção e controle dessas doenças são complexas, considerando que não existem vacinas e drogas específicas. Torna-se, portanto, imprescindível a intensificação de políticas públicas mais abrangentes, voltadas à compreensão da interação entre essas doenças em um contexto social e ambiental caracterizado por profundas desigualdades e que exacerba o impacto das ocorrências simultâneas.


Syndemic is the interaction between two or more diseases that can cause more damage than the simple sum of these. In the state of Bahia, the arrival of the new coronavirus was preceded by an alarming epidemiological context regarding arboviruses, with an exponential increase in cases of chikungunya and a record of the highest coefficient of dengue incidence in the last decade. This article analyzes indicators and risk factors for the diseases to establish interactions in the epidemiological dynamics and the effect on health services. This study was conducted between the epidemiological weeks (EW) 11 and 40 of 2020, with data collected in the e-SUS Notifica, Sivep-Gripe (Covid-19), Sinan online (chikungunya and dengue) and Sinan Net (zika). The analyzes were performed using the statistical program R version 3.6.3, including descriptive and relative risk between comorbidities and death by COVID-19. The highest incidences for the syndemic were observed in the South (260,040), Central East (200,135) and Southwest (148,130) macroregions, especially of Covid-19 and dengue. For dengue, the highest incidences did not coincide with those with a high incidence for COVID19. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of diabetes, respiratory, heart and kidney diseases increased the risk of death from COVID-19. Prevention and control measures for these diseases are complex, considering that there are no specific vaccines and drugs. More comprehensive public policies, aimed at understanding the interaction of these diseases in a social and environmental context characterized by profound inequalities and that exacerbates the effect of simultaneous occurrences must be intensified.


La sindemia es la interacción entre dos o más enfermedades que pueden causar más daño que la simple suma de estas. En Bahía, la llegada del nuevo coronavirus estuvo precedida de un contexto epidemiológico alarmante en cuanto a los arbovirus, con un aumento exponencial de casos de chikunguña y un récord del mayor coeficiente de incidencia de dengue en la última década. Este artículo analiza indicadores y factores de riesgo de enfermedades para establecer interacciones en la dinámica epidemiológica y el impacto en los servicios de salud. El estudio se realizó entre las semanas epidemiológicas 11 y 40 de 2020, con datos recogidos en el e-SUS Notifica, Sivep-Gripe (Covid-19), Sinan On-line (chikunguña y dengue) y Sinan Net (zika). Los análisis se realizaron utilizando el programa estadístico R versión 3.6.3, incluido el riesgo descriptivo y relativo entre comorbilidades y muerte por Covid-19. En el período analizado, las mayores incidencias para la unión se observaron en las macrorregiones Sur (260.040), Centro Oriente (200.135) y Suroeste (148.130), con énfasis en Covid-19 y dengue. Para el dengue, las incidencias más altas no coincidieron con aquellas con una alta incidencia de Covid-19. El análisis multivariado demostró que la presencia de diabetes, enfermedades respiratorias, cardíacas y renales aumentaba el riesgo de muerte por Covid-19. Las medidas de prevención y control de estas enfermedades son complejas, considerando que no existen vacunas y medicamentos específicos. Por tanto, es fundamental intensificar políticas públicas más integrales, orientadas a comprender la interacción de estas enfermedades en un contexto social y ambiental caracterizado por profundas desigualdades y que agrava el impacto de ocurrencias simultáneas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Health Care , Coronavirus Infections , Public Health Surveillance , Epidemiological Monitoring
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0837-2020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155559

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the epidemiological implications of arbovirus infections and coronavirus disease (COVID-19) co-occurrences in Espírito Santo, Brazil. METHODS: This ecological study of dengue, chikungunya, zika, and COVID-19 was performed from January 1 to July 31, 2020. RESULTS: Espírito Santo registered 44,614, 8,092, 3,138, and 91,483 cases of dengue, chikungunya, zika, and COVID-19, respectively (January-July, 2020). In the 27 and four municipalities with a high incidence of dengue and chikungunya, respectively, the incidence of COVID-19 was 647.0-3,721.7 and 1,787.2-3,403.0 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Espírito Santo experienced an overlap of epidemics, especially in urban areas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Dengue/epidemiology , Epidemics , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus Infection/complications , Brazil/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus
15.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 55: 41, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1280610

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the performance of post mortem laboratory analysis in identifying the causes of hemorrhagic fever and/or neuroinvasive disease in deaths by arbovirus infection. METHODS Retrospective cross-sectional study based on the differential analysis and final outcome obtained in patients whose samples underwent laboratory testing for arboviruses at the Pathology Center of the Adolfo Lutz Institute, in São Paulo, Brazil. RESULTS Of the 1355 adults clinically diagnosed with hemorrhagic fever and/or neuroinvasive disease, the most commonly attributed cause of death and the most common final outcome was dengue fever. Almost half of the samples tested negative on all laboratory tests conducted. CONCLUSION The failure to identify the causative agent in a great number of cases highlights a gap in the diagnosis of deaths of unknown etiology. Additional immunohistochemical and molecular assessments need to be added to the post-mortem protocol if all laboratory evaluations performed fail to identify a causative agent. While part of our findings may be due to technical issues related to sample fixation, better information availability when making the initial diagnosis is crucial. Including molecular approaches might lead to a significant advancement in diagnostic accuracy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Dengue/diagnosis , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
16.
Rev. cienc. med. Pinar Rio ; 24(6): e4363, nov.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156269

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: el trabajo antivectorial permite el enfrentamiento y prevención de las arbovirosis con elevado impacto higiénico-sanitario. Objetivo: caracterizar el trabajo antivectorial en una institución del nivel primario de atención. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal en el Policlínico universitario "Pedro Borrás Astorga" de la ciudad Pinar del Río, durante el período julio a noviembre del 2019. Las variables empleadas fueron: índice de infestación vectorial, recursos humanos participantes, indicadores epidemiológicos y resultados del trabajo antivectorial. Resultados: prevalecieron los índices de infestación bajos en octubre y noviembre con 0,56 y 0,46 respectivamente, fue significativo el trabajo de los operarios de vectores para un 42,17 %. Como principales indicadores epidemiológicos 1 675 pacientes presentaron sintomatología para arbovirosis, se confirmaron con dengue 243 enfermos, mientras que los resultados del trabajo antivectorial destacaron el tratamiento a 71 535 viviendas, pesquisados 33 288 pacientes, bloqueados 1 549 febriles y 175 manzanas tratadas. Conclusiones: el trabajo antivectorial en el policlínico de elección mantuvo indicadores de infestación altos, recursos humanos eficientes en su control, indicadores epidemiológicos de elevado impacto higiénico-sanitario, así como resultados satisfactorios en el trabajo contra las arbovirosis.


ABSTRACT Introduction: anti-vector work allows facing up and preventing the arbovirosis with a high hygienic and public health impact. Objective: to characterize anti-vector work in a primary health care level institution. Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out at Pedro Borras Astorga University Polyclinic, Pinar del Rio city, from July to November 2019. The variables collected were: index of vector infestation, participation of human resources, epidemiological indicators and results of the anti-vector work. Results: in October and November the infestation indexes were low with 0.56 and 0.46 respectively, the work of the vector-control-operators was significant (42.17%). As the main epidemiological indicators 1 675 patients presented symptoms for arbovirosis, dengue fever was confirmed in 243 patients, whereas the results of the anti-vector work stood out the treatment to 71 535 houses, 33 288 people were surveyed, 1 549 people had fever stayed under surveillance and 174 housing blocks underwent treatment. Conclusions: anti-vector work in the chosen polyclinic maintained higher infestation indicators, the human resources were efficient in the work and control activities they developed, the epidemiological indicators had a high hygienic and public health impact, as well as satisfactory results concerning the work against arbovirosis.

17.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(6): 498-504, Nov.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1145138

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The numbers of cases of arboviral diseases have increased in tropical and subtropical regions while the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic overwhelms healthcare systems worldwide. The clinical manifestations of arboviral diseases, especially dengue fever, can be very similar to COVID-19, and misdiagnoses are still a reality. In the meantime, outcomes for patients and healthcare systems in situations of possible syndemic have not yet been clarified. OBJECTIVE: We set out to conduct a systematic review to understand and summarize the evidence relating to clinical manifestations, disease severity and prognoses among patients coinfected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and arboviruses. METHODS: We conducted a rapid systematic review with meta-analysis, on prospective and retrospective cohorts, case-control studies and case series of patients with confirmed diagnoses of SARS-CoV-2 and arboviral infection. We followed the Cochrane Handbook recommendations. We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, LILACS, Scopus and Web of Science to identify published, ongoing and unpublished studies. We planned to extract data and assess the risk of bias and the certainty of evidence of the studies included, using the Quality in Prognosis Studies tool and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment. RESULTS: We were able to retrieve 2,407 citations using the search strategy, but none of the studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. CONCLUSION: The clinical presentations, disease severity and prognoses of patients coinfected with SARS-CoV-2 and arboviruses remain unclear. Further prospective studies are necessary in order to provide useful information for clinical decision-making processes. Protocol registration number in the PROSPERO database: CRD42020183460


Subject(s)
Humans , Arbovirus Infections/complications , Coinfection/virology , COVID-19/complications , Arboviruses , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(6): 554-560, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1145129

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Dengue is an arbovirus that has caused serious problem in Brazil, putting the public health system under severe stress. Understanding its incidence and spatial distribution is essential for disease control and prevention. OBJECTIVE: To perform an analysis on dengue incidence and spatial distribution in a medium-sized, cool-climate and high-altitude city. DESIGN AND SETTING: Ecological study carried out in a public institution in the city of Garanhuns, Pernambuco, Brazil. METHODS: Secondary data provided by specific agencies in each area were used for spatial analysis and elaboration of kernel maps, incidence calculations, correlations and percentages of dengue occurrence. The Geocentric Reference System for the Americas (Sistema de Referência Geocêntrico para as Américas, SIRGAS), 2000, was the software of choice. RESULTS: The incidence rates were calculated per 100,000 inhabitants. Between 2010 and 2019, there were 6,504 cases and the incidence was 474.92. From 2010 to 2014, the incidence was 161.46 for a total of 1,069 cases. The highest incidence occurred in the period from 2015 to 2019: out of a total of 5,435 cases, the incidence was 748.65, representing an increase of 485.97%. Population density and the interaction between two climatic factors, i.e. atypical temperature above 31 °C and relative humidity above 31.4%, contributed to the peak incidence of dengue, although these variables were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The dengue incidence levels and spatial distribution reflected virus and vector adjustment to the local climate. However, there was no correlation between climatic factors and occurrences of dengue in this city.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dengue/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Cities/epidemiology , Climate , Spatial Analysis
19.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 19(3): 379-385, dez 5, 2020. fig, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357885

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: avaliar a taxa de incidência anual da dengue no município de Salvador-BA entre os anos de 2007 a 2019, de modo a descrever o perfil sociodemográfico da população acometida e traçar o perfil epidemiológico nos anos de 2011 e 2013 que correspondem, respectivamente, ao ano de maior e menor taxa de incidência da doença. Metodologia: trata-se de um estudo epidemiológico cujos dados foram obtidos de fontes secundárias, através do Tabnet Salvador. Foram incluídas variáveis sociodemográficas, clínicas e distribuição sazonal dos casos de dengue. Resultados: foram notificados 76.227 casos de dengue na região estudada durante o período de 2007 a 2019, cujos anos de 2011 e 2013 observou-se a predominância do nível de escolaridade fundamental/médio incompleto. Conclusão: o retrato geográfico da dengue deve servir de alerta sobre o comportamento da enfermidade, a fim de evidenciar a necessidade de medidas mais efetivas relativas às ações de controle, vigilância e tratamento da doença, sendo de fundamental importância o desenvolvimento de estratégias com enfoque na atenção primária à saúde objetivando a conscientização da população através de ações educativas e abordagens midiáticas, e fazendo-se necessário a compreensão do papel de fatores socioeconômicos e ambientais e suas importantes implicações para a implementação de medidas efetivas de prevenção e combate ao mosquito vetor.


Objective: to evaluate the annual incidence rate of dengue in the city of Salvador-BA between the years 2007 to 2019, in order to describe the sociodemographic profile of the affected population and to trace the epidemiological profile in the years 2011 and 2013 that correspond, respectively, the year with the highest and lowest incidence rate of the disease. Methodology: this is an epidemiological study whose data were obtained from secondary sources, such as Tabnet Salvador and includes sociodemographic, clinical variables and seasonal distribution of dengue cases. Results: 76.227 cases of dengue were reported in the studied region during the period from 2007 to 2019, whose years from 2011 to 2013 the predominance of the level of incomplete primary/secondary education was observed. Conclusion: the geographic portrait of dengue should serve as a warning about the behavior of the disease, in order to highlight the need for more effective measures related to the control, surveillance and treatment of the disease, with the development of strategies focusing on primary care being of fundamental importance. to health aiming at population awareness through educational actions and media approaches and making it necessary to understand the role of socioeconomic and environmental factors and their important implications for the implementation of effective measures to prevent and combat the vector mosquito.


Objective: to evaluate the annual incidence rate of dengue in the city of Salvador-BA between the years 2007 to 2019, in order to describe the sociodemographic profile of the affected population and to trace the epidemiological profile in the years 2011 and 2013 that correspond, respectively, the year with the highest and lowest incidence rate of the disease. Methodology: this is an epidemiological study whose data were obtained from secondary sources, such as Tabnet Salvador and includes sociodemographic, clinical variables and seasonal distribution of dengue cases. Results: 76.227 cases of dengue were reported in the studied region during the period from 2007 to 2019, whose years from 2011 to 2013 the predominance of the level of incomplete primary/secondary education was observed. Conclusion: the geographic portrait of dengue should serve as a warning about the behavior of the disease, in order to highlight the need for more effective measures related to the control, surveillance and treatment of the disease, with the development of strategies focusing on primary care being of fundamental importance. to health aiming at population awareness through educational actions and media approaches and making it necessary to understand the role of socioeconomic and environmental factors and their important implications for the implementation of effective measures to prevent and combat the vector mosquito.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arbovirus Infections , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Aedes , Dengue , Time Series Studies , Database , Evaluation Studies as Topic
20.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(4): e671, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156451

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las enfermedades producidas por arbovirus son un problema grave a nivel mundial. Objetivo: Caracterizar los pacientes estudiados por sospecha de arbovirosis en una institución de salud. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal en el policlínico Edor de los Reyes Martínez Áreas del municipio Jiguaní, provincia Granma, en el periodo comprendido entre el 1 de enero y el 31 de diciembre de 2019. Se trabajó con una muestra de 2947 personas y se estudiaron las siguientes variables: edad, sexo, consejos populares, forma de identificación de signos/síntomas, diagnóstico inicial y positividad a dengue. Resultados: El 40,07 por ciento de los casos estudiados pertenece al consejo popular Jiguaní Norte. Fueron pacientes femeninas 1590 (53,95 por ciento). El rango de edad predominante fue 41-60 años (n = 1222; 41,47 por ciento). En 1908 (64,74 por ciento) pacientes la identificación de signos y síntomas sugerentes de arbovirosis fue mediante las pesquisas. El 98,88 por ciento de los pacientes (n = 2914) fue diagnosticado inicialmente con síndrome febril inespecífico. La única arbovirosis identificada fue el dengue, el que se encontró en 637 pacientes. Octubre fue el mes con mayor número de pacientes estudiados (n = 1063; 36,07 por ciento). Conclusiones: La mayoría de los casos pertenecía al sexo femenino y a la zona urbanizada del municipio. El consejo popular urbano Jiguaní Norte fue el que más casos positivos a dengue aportó(AU)


Introduction: Arbovirus infections are a serious global health problem. Objective: Characterize the patients studied for suspected arbovirus infection at a health institution. Methods: A cross-sectional observational descriptive study was conducted at Edor de los Reyes Martínez Arias polyclinic in the municipality of Jiguaní, province of Granma, from 1 January to 31 December 2019. The study sample was 2947 people, and the variables examined were age, sex, people's council, form of sign / symptom identification, initial diagnosis and positivity for dengue. Results: Of the cases studied, 40.07 percent were from the people's council of Jiguaní Norte. 1590 patients were female (53.95 percent). The prevailing age group was 41-60 years (n = 1222; 41.47 percent). In 1908 patients (64.74 percent) signs and symptoms suggesting arbovirus infection were identified through screening. 98.88 percent of the patients (n = 2914) were initially diagnosed with unspecific febrile syndrome. The only arbovirus infection identified was dengue, which was detected in 637 patients. October was the month when the highest number of patients were studied (n = 1063; 36.07 percent). Conclusions: Most cases were female and from urbanized areas in the municipality. Jiguaní Norte urban people's council contributed the most dengue positive cases(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/prevention & control , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
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