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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(4): e179-e182, Agosto 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1378575

ABSTRACT

La taquicardia supraventricular (TSV) es la principal taquiarritmia en el recién nacido (RN) que requiere una resolución urgente. Por su parte, la enterocolitis necrosante (ECN) es la emergencia gastrointestinal más común que afecta principalmente a RN prematuros. Aunque estas se reconocen como patologías distintas, la bibliografía sugiere que los episodios de TSV pueden predisponer a los pacientes a la ECN a través de alteraciones en el flujo sanguíneo mesentérico y una disminución de la perfusión tisular. Se presenta aquí el caso clínico de un neonato prematuro que desarrolló un cuadro de ECN luego de un evento aislado de TSV con bajo gasto cardíaco


Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is the main tachyarrhythmia in the newborn (NB) that requires urgent resolution. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal emergency that mainly affects premature infants. Although these conditions are recognized as distinct pathologies, literature reports suggest that episodes of SVT may predispose patients to NEC secondary to disturbances in mesenteric blood flow and a decrease in tissue perfusion. We present here the clinical case of a premature neonate who developed NEC after an isolated SVT event with low cardiac output


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Tachycardia, Supraventricular/diagnosis , Tachycardia, Supraventricular/etiology , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing/complications , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing/diagnosis , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Infant, Premature, Diseases/diagnosis , Infant, Premature, Diseases/etiology , Fetal Diseases
7.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(1): 52-58, jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360111

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Os níveis de Proteína 3 relacionada ao fator de necrose tumoral/complemento sérico C1q (CTRP3) e a relação com a fibrilação atrial (FA) na doença arterial coronária estável (DAC) não estão claros atualmente. Objetivos O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a mudança nos níveis séricos de CTRP3 e sua relação com a FA paroxística em DAC estável. Método O estudo incluiu 252 pacientes com DAC e 50 controles saudáveis com idade/sexo compatíveis. Os níveis séricos de CTRP3 foram medidos, além da anamnese de rotina, exame físico, exames laboratoriais e ecocardiograma. Os pacientes foram divididos em grupos com e sem DAC e indivíduos com DAC com e sem FA paroxística. Os valores eram estatisticamente significativos quando p<0,05. Resultados Os níveis séricos de CTRP3 foram significativamente menores em pacientes com DAC do que no grupo controle (p<0,001). A FA foi detectada em 28 pacientes (15,08%) no grupo DAC. A frequência de hipertensão e do sexo feminino, a proteína C reativa de alta sensibilidade (PCR-as), o nitrogênio ureico no sangue, os níveis de creatinina e o diâmetro diastólico do átrio esquerdo foram maiores (p<0,05 para cada um), e os níveis de CTRP3 foram mais baixos em pacientes com FA (p<0,001). Na análise de regressão logística, os níveis séricos de CTRP3 e os diâmetros diastólicos do átrio esquerdo foram independentemente determinados pelos pacientes com FA (p<0,01 para cada um). Nesta análise, observamos que cada 1 ng/mL de redução nos níveis de CTRP3 aumentou o risco de FA em 10,7%. Na análise ROC dos valores de CTRP3 para detectar pacientes com FA, a área da curva ROC para CTRP3 foi 0,971 (0,951-991) e considerada estatisticamente significativa (p<0,001). Quando o ponto de corte de CTRP3 foi considerado em 300 ng/mL, demonstrava a presença de FA com 87,9% de sensibilidade e 86,8% de especificidade. Conclusão Os níveis séricos de CTRP3 caíram significativamente em pacientes com DAC estável, e níveis reduzidos de CTRP3 estiveram relacionados à presença de FA paroxística nesses pacientes.


Abstract Background Serum Complement C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein-3 (CTRP3) levels and the relationship with atrial fibrillation (AF) in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) are not clearly known. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the change in serum CTRP3 levels and its relationship with paroxysmal AF in stable CAD. Method The study included 252 patients with CAD and 50 age-sex matched healthy control subjects. Serum CTRP3 levels were measured in addition to routine anamnesis, physical examination, laboratory and echocardiography examinations. The patients were divided into groups with and without CAD and CAD patients with and without paroxysmal AF. Statistical significance was accepted as p<0.05. Results Serum CTRP3 levels were found to be significantly lower in patients with CAD than in the control group (p<0.001). AF was detected in 38 patients (15.08%) in the CAD group. The frequency of hypertension and female gender, hs-CRP, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine levels and left atrial end-diastolic (LAd) diameter were higher (p<0.05 for each one), and CTRP3 levels were lower in patients with AF (p <0.001). In the logistic regression analysis, serum CTRP3 levels and LAd diameters were independently determined the patients with AF (p<0.01 for each one). In this analysis, we found that every 1 ng/mL reduction in CTRP3 levels increased the risk of AF by 10.7%. In the ROC analysis of CTRP3 values for detecting patients with AF, the area under the ROC curve for CTRP3 was 0.971 (0.951-991) and was statistically significant (p<0.001). When the CTRP3 cut-off value was taken as 300 ng/mL, it was found to predict the presence of AF with 87.9% sensitivity and 86.8% specificity. Conclusion Serum CTRP3 levels were significantly reduced in patients with stable CAD and decreased CTRP3 levels were closely related to the presence of paroxysmal AF in these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Atrial Fibrillation , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography , ROC Curve , Heart Atria
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931638

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the clinical value of echocardiography in the diagnosis of fetal arrhythmia.Methods:1 500 pregnant women who underwent a regular prenatal examination in Cangnan Hospital Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University from March 2018 to March 2020 were included in this study. These pregnant women underwent fetal echocardiography in the second trimester of pregnancy (24-26 weeks). We evaluated the condition of, and calculated the incidence of, fetal arrhythmia complicated by fetal cardiac structure abnormality . The diameters of the descending aorta, umbilical artery, and middle cerebral artery were compared between normal fetuses and arrhythmia fetuses.Results:Fetal arrhythmia was found in 131 pregnant women who were in the second trimester of pregnancy, with an incidence of fetal arrhythmia of 8.73%. Fetal arrhythmia and cardiac structure abnormality were detected in 19 pregnant women, with an incidence of fetal arrhythmia and cardiac structure abnormality of 1.27%. Fetal arrhythmia was detected in 131 (8.73%) pregnant women who were in the second trimester of pregnancy and it was detected in 32 (2.13%) pregnant women who were in the third trimester of pregnancy. Arrhythmia was detected in 18 (1.2%) newborns. Only 5 (0.33%) fetuses died during the perinatal period. Four (0.27%) fetuses had arrhythmia complicated by cardiac structure abnormality. One (0.07%) fetus was normal. The diameters of the descending aorta and middle cerebral artery were greater in normal fetuses than in arrhythmia fetuses in pregnant women who were in the second trimester of pregnancy, and the diameter of the umbilical artery was significantly smaller in normal fetuses than in arrhythmia fetuses ( t = -8.27-19.62, all P < 0.001). Conclusion:Echocardiography can effectively help diagnose fetal arrhythmia and observe abnormal cardiac structure. The imaging technique is of great clinical value in improving the diagnosis and treatment of fetal arrhythmia.

12.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(9): 1311-1316, Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351458

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION: According to recent studies, the rate of atrioventricular block requiring permanent pacing in patients following transcatheter aortic valve implantation varied between 5.7% and 42.5%. Fragmented QRS is a useful marker of myocardial scar and can predict adverse cardiac events. In this study, we examined association between f ragmented QRS and postprocedural rhythm disturbances and the need for permanent pacing in patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we examined association between fragmented QRS and postprocedural rhythm disturbances and the need for permanent pacing in patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation' sentence is enough for it. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed standard 12-lead electrocardiographic recordings of 124 consecutive patients in whom a CoreValve prosthesis was implanted. We examined 12-lead electrocardiogram before and after procedure along with one- and six-month follow-up. We documented QRS fragmentation and postprocedural rhythm disturbances. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the frequency of left bundle branch block, (21.1 versus 0%, p<0.05) and the incidence of atrioventricular blocks requiring permanent pacing (21.1 versus 0%, p<0.05) following transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients whose preprocedural electrocardiogram recordings revealed fragmented QRS compared to those without fragmented QRS. Based our collected data, the presence of QRS fragmentation in anterior derivations was the only independent factor associated with postprocedural rhythm disturbances (B-value 0.217; OR 0.805; 95%CI 0.136-4.78; p=0.004). CONCLUSION: Our data showed an increased risk for the development of new-onset left bundle branch block and atrioventricular blocks following transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients whose baseline electrocardiogram recordings demonstrated QRS fragmentation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aortic Valve Stenosis/surgery , Pacemaker, Artificial , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/adverse effects , Cardiac Pacing, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Electrocardiography
13.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(1): 100-105, July. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285226

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Na fibrilação atrial paroxística (FAP), o isolamento das veias pulmonares com criobalão (IVP-CB) tem eficácia semelhante à da ablação por radiofrequência (IVP-RF). Em procedimentos de reablação após IVP-RF, a reconexão das VPs é alta, ao passo que em pacientes com reablação após IVP-CB, as informações são escassas. Objetivo Determinar os locais de reconexão das VPs em pacientes que foram submetidos à reablação após IVP-CB inicial. Métodos Pacientes que foram submetidos a um procedimento de reablação de fibrilação atrial, após um IVP-CB inicial para FAP foram incluídos. O mapeamento eletroanatômico do AE foi utilizado. Um local de reconexão foi definido com a presença de uma voltagem de 0,3mV ou maior nas VPs e condução unidirecional ou bidirecional nas VPs durante o ritmo sinusal. Os locais de reconexão foram identificados por meio de corte paraesternal longitudinal e posteriormente ablacionados com radiofrequência. Resultados Dos 165 pacientes submetidos ao IVP inicial, 27 necessitaram reablações, dos quais 18 (66,6%) eram do sexo masculino, com média de idade de 55+12,3 anos. O tempo de recorrência foi de 8,9+6,4 meses. A reconexão das VPs foi encontrada em 21 (77,8%) pacientes. Houve um total de 132 lacunas de condução, seis por paciente, 3,6 por VP. Um número significativo de lacunas ocorreu na região ântero-superior da VP superior esquerda (VPSE) e nas regiões septal e inferior da VP superior direita (VPSD). Conclusões As VPs superiores apresentaram os locais de maior reconexão, principalmente na região anterior da VPSE e na região septal da VPSD. A razão por trás disso pode ser devido à maior espessura da parede atrial e à dificuldade em alcançar o contato de criobalão adequado.


Abstract Background In paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF), pulmonary vein isolation using cryoballoon (CB-PVI) has similar efficacy as radiofrequency ablation (RF-PVI) has. In redo ablation procedures following RF-PVI, PV reconnection is high, whereas in patients with redo following CB-PVI, information is scarce. Objective To determine the sites of PV reconnection in patients who underwent redo ablation after initial CB-PVI. Methods Patients who underwent an AF redo procedure, following an initial CB-PVI for PAF were included. LA electroanatomic mapping was used. A reconnection site was defined as the presence of a voltage of 0.3mV or greater in the PV and unidirectional or bidirectional conduction in the PV during sinus rhythm. Reconnections sites were identified using a clock-face view description and were ablated with radiofrequency afterwards. Results Out of the 165 patients who underwent initial PVI, 27 required redo ablations, of which 18 (66.6%) were males, with a mean age of 55+12.3 years. The time of recurrence was 8.9+6.4 months. PV reconnection was found in 21 (77.8%) patients. There was a total of 132 conduction gaps, six per patient, 3.6 per PV. A significant number of gaps were in the anterosuperior region of the left superior PV (LSPV), and in the septal and inferior regions of the right superior PV (RSPV). Conclusions The upper PVs had the most reconnection sites, mostly at the anterior region of the LSPV and the septal region of the RSPV. The reason behind this may be due to greater atrial wall thickness, and difficulty in achieving adequate cryoballoon contact.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Pulmonary Veins/surgery , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Catheter Ablation , Cryosurgery , Recurrence , Treatment Outcome , Middle Aged
14.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(3): 412-415, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288231

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dual-chamber pacemaker is a fully automatic pacemaker with the function of simulating human physiological pacing. It regulates pacing by programming different refractory periods and various special functions, which are closely related to arrhythmia. After in-depth understanding of these special functions, regular electrocardiogram follow-up analysis is required to provide individualized optimal program control and so is appropriate the administration of the pacemaker's special functions to better provide optimal clinical guidance for patients with arrhythmia.


Subject(s)
Pacemaker, Artificial/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Electrocardiography , Logic
15.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(2): 268-271, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251097

ABSTRACT

Abstract Inappropriate therapy due to noise oversensing caused a true ventricular fibrillation (VF) and a life-threatening event in a patient. A 19-year-old patient with surgically corrected congenital heart disease and systolic dysfunction had an implantable cardioverter defibrillator implanted for primary prevention in 2013. This patient was admitted at the Emergency Department in June 2018 after receiving eight shocks from the device on the same day, with a prolonged syncope after the third shock. Another noise-induced VF detection occurred, and two inappropriate shocks followed sequentially, causing true VF. Four appropriate shocks were subsequently needed until sinus rhythm was finally restored.


Subject(s)
Humans , Defibrillators, Implantable , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Electric Countershock
16.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(2): 179-187, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154555

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) causes electrical heterogeneity on ventricular myocardium and ventricular arrhythmia due to myocardial ischemia linked to ventricular repolarization abnormalities. Objective Our aim is to investigate the impact of increased level of CAD spectrum and severity on ventricular repolarization via Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QT and Tp-e/QTc ratios. Methods 127 patients with normal coronary artery (group 1), 129 patients with stable CAD (group 2) and 121 patients with acute coronary syndrome (group 3) were enrolled. Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QT and Tp-e/QTc ratios were evaluated as well as baseline demographic and clinical parameters. Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA test was used for comparing quantitative variables with abnormal distribution while One-Way ANOVA test was used for comparing the means between groups with normal distribution. Tukey HSD and Welch tests were used for subgroups analyses with normal distribution. Spearman analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between clinical variables and repolarization markers. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Tp-e interval [66(50-83), 71(59-82) and 76(64-86); group 1,2 and 3 respectively, p<0.001], Tp-e/QT (0.170.02, 0.180.01 and 0,190.01; group 1,2 and 3 respectively, p<0.001) and Tp-e/QTc (0.150.02, 0.160.02 and 0.170.02; group 1,2 and 3 respectively, p<0.001) ratios were found to be associated with increased level of CAD spectrum. Syntax score was positively correlated with Tp-e interval (r=0.514, p<0.001), Tp-e/QT (r=0.407, p<0.001), and Tp-e/QTc ratios (r=0.240, p<0.001). Conclusion Prolonged Tp-e interval and increased Tp-e/QT and Tp-e/QTc ratios were detected in the presence of CAD and especially in patients with acute ischemic syndromes. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Electrocardiography/methods , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Reference Values , Cross-Sectional Studies
17.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(3): 454-463, Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248868

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento O diagnóstico diferencial de taquicardia de QRS largo, entre taquicardia ventricular (TV) ou taquicardia supraventricular com condução aberrante (TSV-A) é algumas vezes difícil de ser feito na sala de emergência. Objetivo Avaliar a acurácia de um algoritmo novo e simples para a detecção de TV no eletrocardiograma (ECG) em pacientes com taquicardia de QRS largo. Métodos ECGs de 12 derivações para detecção de taquicardia de QRS largo foram obtidos prospectivamente de 120 pacientes durante estudo eletrofisiológico. Seis médicos com diferentes experiências analisaram os ECGs, e fizeram o diagnóstico com base no algoritmo D12V16, que envolve a análise da polaridade predominante do complexo QRS nas derivações I, II, V1 e V6. O diagnóstico foi comparado com os obtidos pelo algoritmo tradicional de Brugada e pelo estudo eletrofisiológico, o qual é considerado padrão ouro. Adotou-se um nível de significância de 5% (p<0,05) nas análises estatísticas. Resultados De acordo com o estudo eletrofisiológico, 82 ECGs eram de TV e 38 de TSV-A. Doenças cardíacas estruturais estavam presentes em 71 (86,6%) dos pacientes com TV e em oito (21,1%) com TSV-A. O algoritmo de Brugada teve uma maior sensibilidade global (87,2%), enquanto o algoritmo D12V16 apresentou maior especificidade global (85,1%) para TV. Tanto o algoritmo D12V16 como o de Brugada apresentou um alto valor preditivo positivo (90,9% vs. 85,8%, respectivamente) e acurácia similar (73,8% vs. 81,4%, respectivamente) para o diagnóstico de TV. Nos avaliadores experientes, a acurácia foi maior utilizando o algoritmo de Brugada que o algoritmo D12V16, mas a acurácia dos dois algoritmos foi similar segundo os avaliadores menos experientes. Conclusão O algoritmo simplificado pode ser um método útil para reconhecer TV no ECG, principalmente para médicos menos experientes. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Abstract Background The differential diagnosis of wide QRS complex tachycardia (WCT) between ventricular tachycardia (VT) or supraventricular tachycardia with aberrant conduction (SVT-A) is sometimes difficult in the emergency room. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a new simple electrocardiographic algorithm to recognize VT in patients with wide complex tachycardia. Methods The 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECG) for WCT were prospectively obtained from 120 patients during electrophysiological study. Six physicians with different expertise analyzed the electrocardiographic recordings, and made the diagnosis based on the D12V16 algorithm, that involves the analysis of the predominant polarity of QRS in leads I, II, V1 and V6. The diagnosis was compared with that made using the traditional Brugada algorithm and the "gold-standard" electrophysiological study. Statistical analyses were performed with a significance level of 5% (p<0.05). Results According to the EPS study, 82 ECG recordings were VT and 38 SVT-A. Structural heart diseases were present in 71 (86.6%) patients with VT and in 8 (21.1%) with SVT-A. The Brugada algorithm had higher global sensitivity (87.2%), and the D12V16 algorithm had higher global specificity (85.1%) for VT. Both D12V16 and Brugada's algorithms presented a high positive predictive value (90.9% vs 85.8%, respectively) and similar accuracy (73.8% vs 81.4%, respectively) for the diagnosis of VT. Experienced evaluators were more accurate using Brugada algorithm than the D12V16 algorithm, but the accuracy of both algorithms was similar according to less experienced examiners. Conclusion The simplified algorithm may be a useful method to recognize VT in the ECG, especially for less experienced doctors. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Humans , Tachycardia, Supraventricular , Tachycardia, Ventricular/diagnosis , Algorithms , Sensitivity and Specificity , Diagnosis, Differential , Electrocardiography , Heart Rate
18.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(2): 334-343, fev. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153006

ABSTRACT

Resumo Após mais de 20 anos desde sua utilização inicial, a ablação por cateter se tornou um procedimento rotineiramente realizado para tratamento de pacientes com fibrilação atrial (FA). Fundamentado inicialmente no isolamento elétrico das veias pulmonares em pacientes com FA paroxística, subsequentes avanços no entendimento da fisiopatologia levaram a técnicas adicionais não só para obter melhores resultados, mas também para tratar pacientes com formas persistentes de arritmia, assim como pacientes com cardiopatia estrutural e insuficiência cardíaca.


Abstract More than 20 years since its initial use, catheter ablation has become a routinely performed procedure for the treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Initially based on the electrical isolation of pulmonary veins in patients with paroxysmal AF, subsequent advances in the understanding of pathophysiology led to additional techniques not only to achieve better results, but also to treat patients with persistent forms of arrhythmia, as well as patients with structural heart disease and heart failure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Veins/surgery , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Catheter Ablation , Recurrence , Treatment Outcome
20.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(1): 129-139, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152979

ABSTRACT

Resumo A fibrilação atrial é a arritmia sustentada mais comum na prática clínica com predileção pelas faixas etárias mais avançadas. Com o envelhecimento populacional, as projeções para as próximas décadas são alarmantes. Além de sua importância epidemiológica, a fibrilação atrial é destacada por suas repercussões clínicas, incluindo fenômenos tromboembólicos, hospitalizações e maior taxa de mortalidade. Seu mecanismo fisiopatológico é complexo, envolvendo uma associação de fatores hemodinâmicos, estruturais, eletrofisiológicos e autonômicos. Desde os anos 1990, o estudo Framingham em análises multivariadas já demonstrou que, além da idade, a presença de hipertensão, diabetes, insuficiência cardíaca e doença valvar é preditor independente dessa normalidade do ritmo. Entretanto, recentemente, vários outros fatores de risco estão sendo implicados no aumento do número de casos de fibrilação atrial, tais como sedentarismo, obesidade, anormalidades do sono, tabagismo e uso excessivo de álcool. Além disso, as mudanças na qualidade de vida apontam para uma redução na recorrência de fibrilação atrial, tornando-se uma nova estratégia para o tratamento de excelência dessa arritmia cardíaca. A abordagem terapêutica envolve um amplo conhecimento do estado de saúde e hábitos do paciente, e compreende quatro pilares principais: mudança de hábitos de vida e tratamento rigoroso de fatores de risco; prevenção de eventos tromboembólicos; controle da frequência; e controle do ritmo. Pela dimensão de fatores envolvidos no cuidado ao paciente portador de fibrilação atrial, ações integradas com equipes multiprofissionais estão associadas aos melhores resultados clínicos.


Abstract Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia in clinical practice, with a preference for older age groups. Considering population ageing, the projections for the next decades are alarming. In addition to its epidemiological importance, atrial fibrillation is evidenced by its clinical repercussions, including thromboembolic phenomena, hospitalizations, and a higher mortality rate. Its pathophysiological mechanism is complex and involves an association of hemodynamic, structural, electrophysiological, and autonomic factors. Since the 1990s, the Framingham study of multivariate analyses has demonstrated that hypertension, diabetes, heart failure, and valvular disease are independent predictors of this rhythm abnormality along with age. However, various other risk factors have been recently implicated in an increase of atrial fibrillation cases, such as sedentary behavior, obesity, sleep disorders, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Moreover, changes in quality of life indicate a reduction in atrial fibrillation recurrence, thus representing a new strategy for excellence in the treatment of this cardiac arrhythmia. Therapeutic management involves a broad knowledge of the patient's health state and habits, comprehending 4 main pillars: lifestyle changes and rigorous treatment of risk factors; prevention of thromboembolic events; rate control; and rhythm control. Due to the dimension of factors involved in the care of patients with atrial fibrillation, integrated actions performed by interprofessional teams are associated with the best clinical results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Thromboembolism , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use
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