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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249641, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339363

ABSTRACT

Abstract Estuaries receive daily inputs of chemical elements which can impact the quality of water and sediment, as well as the health of biota. In addition to the sediment, bivalve mollusks have been used in the chemical monitoring of these systems. This study investigated the presence and contents of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in superficial sediment and in bivalves (Crassostrea gasar, C. rhizophorae and Mytella guyanensis) from estuaries in the south / extreme south of Bahia State, northeast Brazil. The samples were evaluated with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, Varian 710). Except for Cd, all other elements were found in the samples, being that Co was exclusive in the sediment. The estuaries equivalent to sampling stations #1 - Valença, #2 - Taperoá, #3 - Ilhéus and #4 - Belmonte showed levels of metals compatibles with those established by the Brazilian legislation, however, the #5 - Santa Cruz Cabrália, in addition to the presence of As, presented a high level of Pb and Cu in C. gasar, which was attributed to the impacts of nautical activities in that locality.


Resumo Estuários recebem entradas diárias de elementos químicos, que podem impactar a qualidade de água e do sedimento, assim como a saúde da biota. Além do sedimento, moluscos bivalves têm sido utilizados no monitoramento químico desses sistemas. Neste estudo investigou-se a presença e os teores de As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb e Zn no sedimento superficial e em bivalves (Crassostrea gasar, C. rhizophorae e Mytella guyanensis) de estuários do sul / extremo sul do estado da Bahia, Nordeste do Brasil. As amostras foram avaliadas por espectrometria de emissão óptica de plasma indutivamente acoplado (ICP-OES, Varian 710). Exceto Cd, todos os demais elementos foram encontrados nas amostras, sendo que Co foi exclusivo no sedimento. Os estuários equivalentes às estações amostrais #1 - Valença, #2 - Taperoá, #3 - Ilhéus e #4 - Belmonte mostraram níveis de metais compatíveis com os estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira, porém, a #5 - Santa Cruz Cabrália, além da presença de As, apresentou alto nível de Pb e de Cu em C. gasar, o que foi atribuído aos impactos por atividades náuticas nesse local.


Subject(s)
Animals , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Bivalvia , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Brazil , Environmental Monitoring , Estuaries , Geologic Sediments
2.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 38(4): 530-536, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365920

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos. Determinar la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial y factores de riesgo cardiovascular (FRC) en una población rural expuesta al arsénico (As) en el agua de consumo en la provincia de Tucumán, Argentina. Materiales y métodos. Participaron 352 habitantes adultos. Se midió el consumo de arsénico en agua de bebida y se evaluó la presión arterial, el tabaquismo, el consumo de alcohol de riesgo y perjudicial, la ingesta de sal, la actividad física, el índice de masa corporal, la glucemia y la dislipidemia. El riesgo cardiovascular fue calculado usando el score de Framingham. Resultados. Se dividió la población en Grupo Expuesto (GE) n=90 y Grupo No Expuesto (GNE) n=262. La prevalencia de hipertensión fue 48,9 y 51,1%; tabaquismo 31,1 y 39,7%; consumo de alcohol de riesgo 22,2 y 17,9%; perjudicial 36,6 y 36,6%; ingesta de sal 100 y 100%; actividad física 16,7 y 18,7%; sobrepeso 43,3 y 43,9%; obesidad 25,5 y 25,6%; diabetes 24,4 y 32,8%; y dislipidemia 58,9 y 66,4%. El score de riesgo bajo, moderado o alto fue 50; 21,1; y 28,9% para GE, y 54,6; 19,1 y 26,3% para GNE, respectivamente. Conclusiones. La exposición al As no afecta la prevalencia de FRC. Se identifica una población rural en situación de vulnerabilidad con elevados FRC. La Encuesta Nacional de Factores de Riesgo no refleja lo que ocurre en zonas rurales. La escala de Framingham concuerda con los FRC encontrados. Se requiere la implementación de políticas de promoción de salud que permita mejorar el pronóstico de sufrir eventos cardiovasculares a corto y mediano plazo.


ABSTRACT Objective. To determine the prevalence of arterial hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors (CRF) in a rural population exposed to arsenic (As) in drinking water in the province of Tucumán, Argentina. Materials and methods. A total of 352 adult inhabitants participated. Consumption of arsenic in drinking water was measured. Blood pressure, smoking, risk and harmful alcohol consumption, salt intake, physical activity, body mass index, glycemia and dyslipidemia were evaluated. Cardiovascular risk was calculated using the Framingham score. Results. The population was divided into Exposed Group (EG) n=90 and Non-Exposed Group (NEG) n=262. The prevalence of hypertension was 48.9 and 51.1% in each group, respectively; for smoking it was 31.1 and 39.7%; for risky alcohol consumption, 22.2 and 17.9%; for harmful alcohol consumption, 36.6 and 36.6%; for salt intake, 100 and 100%; for physical activity, 16.7 and 18.7%; for being overweight, 43.3 and 43.9%; for obesity, 25.5 and 25.6%; for diabetes, 24.4 and 32.8%; and for dyslipidemia, 58.9 and 66.4%. The scores for low, moderate, or high-risk were 50; 21.1; and 28.9% in the EG, and 54.6; 19.1 and 26.3% in the NEG, respectively. Conclusions. Exposure to As does not affect the prevalence of CRFs. We identified a rural population in a vulnerable condition with high CRFs. The National Risk Factor Survey does not reflect what happens in rural areas. The Framingham scale is consistent with the found CRFs. The implementation of health promotion policies is required to improve the prognosis of suffering cardiovascular events in the short and medium term.

3.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 37(3): e1505, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341404

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Con el protocolo LPM-TOA para el tratamiento de la leucemia promielocítica se obtienen excelentes resultados, se prolonga la sobrevida global y es posible la curación de los enfermos. En la de inducción a la remisión se utilizan dos drogas, una antraciclina y trióxido de arsénico, y en la consolidación los enfermos reciben de nuevo una dosis elevada de arsénico. Objetivo: Evaluar la toxicidad hepática tardía en pacientes con leucemia promielocítica tratados según el protocolo LPM-TOA. Métodos: Se realizó estudio longitudinal prospectivo que incluyó20 pacientes tratados con dicho protocolo, todos con más de dos años de haberlo suspendido. Se revisaron las historias clínicas para evaluar mediante los valores iniciales y evolutivos de las enzimas hepáticas, la función hepática inicial y evolutiva. Se determinó el índice de Ritis para predecir evolución a la cronicidad de existir daño hepático. Resultados: Hombres y mujeres se presentaron con la misma frecuencia y la media para la edad del sexo masculino fue 36,39 y para el femenino 39, con desviación estándar de ±14,02 y ±9,43, respectivamente. La variedad morfológica más frecuente fue la hipergranular, el promedio del índice de Ritis fue de solo 1,006 con desviación estándar de 0,745. Conclusiones: No hubo evidencias clínica ni enzimática de toxicidad hepática tardía en los pacientes estudiados(AU)


Introduction: With the LPM-TOA protocol for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia, excellent results are obtained, overall survival is prolonged and the patients are cured, in the induction to remission two drugs are used, an anthracycline and arsenic trioxide, and in consolidation the patients again receive a high dose of arsenic. Objective: To assess late liver toxicity in patients with promyelocytic leukemia treated according to the PML-TOA protocol. Methods: A prospective longitudinal study was carried out that included 20 patients treated with this protocol, all with more than two years of having suspended treatment. The clinical histories were reviewed and by means of the initial and evolutionary values of liver enzymes, the initial and evolutionary liver function was evaluated and the Ritis index was determined to predict evolution to chronicity if there is liver damage. Results: Men and women presented with the same frequency and the mean age for males was 36.39 and for females it was 39, with a standard deviation of ± 14.02 and ± 9.43 respectively. The most frequent morphological variety was hypergranular, the average Ritis index was only 1.006 with a standard deviation of 0.745. Conclusions: There was no clinical or enzymatic evidence of late liver toxicity in the patients studied(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/drug therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Arsenic Trioxide/toxicity , Survival Analysis , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
4.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 37(1): e1249, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251713

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Con el protocolo LPM-TOA para tratamiento de la leucemia promielocítica, se han obtenido excelentes resultados, ya que se logra sobrevida global prolongada y posible curación de los enfermos. En la inducción se utilizan dos drogas cardiotóxicas: las antraciclinas y el trióxido de arsénico y en la consolidación los enfermos reciben una dosis elevada de arsénico. Objetivo: Evaluar la toxicidad cardíaca tardía en pacientes con leucemia promielocítica tratados según el protocolo LPM-TOA. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo, prospectivo y longitudinal que incluyó 20 pacientes tratados con protocolo LPM-TOA, seguidos en consulta entre enero y julio 2019. Los pacientes tenían más de dos años de haber recibido las drogas cardiotóxicas. Se revisaron las historias clínicas y se determinó la fracción de eyección ventricular izquierda y la deformidad longitudinal global, mediante ecocardiograma. Resultados: Se presentaron hombres y mujeres con igual frecuencia, edad promedio 41,5 ± 11,0 años. Durante la inducción, en menos de la mitad de los enfermos se suspendió el arsénico por elevación del segmento QT corregido; en la mayoría solo se suspendió por uno o dos días. La mayor parte de los pacientes tuvo la fracción de eyección ventricular izquierda con valores entre 61 y 70 por ciento y la deformidad longitudinal global fue - 24 - 22 por ciento Conclusiones: En los pacientes estudiados, el tiempo de haber recibido el trióxido de arsénico y la dosis recibida, no influyó en la función cardíaca(AU)


Introduction: The PML-ATO protocol for the treatment of promyelocytic leukemia has obtained excellent results, achieving high overall survival rates and the possible healing of patients. Two cardiotoxic drugs are used in the induction process: anthracyclines and arsenic trioxide, whereas during consolidation patients receive a high dose of arsenic. Objective: Evaluate the late cardiotoxicity in patients with promyelocytic leukemia treated by the PML-ATO protocol. Methods: An observational prospective longitudinal descriptive study was conducted of 20 patients treated with the PML-ATO protocol and followed-up in outpatient consultation from January to July 2019. More than two years had elapsed since the patients received the cardiotoxic drugs. A review was carried out of the patients' medical records and echocardiographic determination was made of left ventricular ejection fraction and overall longitudinal deformity. Results: Men and women presented the same frequency; mean age was 41.5 ± 11.0 years. During induction, arsenic was suspended in less than half the patients due to corrected QT elevation. In most it was only suspended for one or two days. Most patients had left ventricular ejection fraction values between 61 percent and 70 percent, whereas overall longitudinal deformity was - 24 percent - 22 percent. Conclusions: In the patients studied, cardiac function was not affected by the time elapsed since arsenic trioxide administration or the dose received(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/mortality , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/therapy , Anthracyclines , Arsenic Trioxide/therapeutic use , Medical Records , Survival Rate , Cardiotoxicity/drug therapy
5.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(1): 99-110, ene.-mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249062

ABSTRACT

Resumen | Introducción. El arsénico es un tóxico ambiental ampliamente diseminado en todo el mundo. En hombres y animales, diversos órganos y tejidos son blancos de sus efectos deletéreos, entre ellos, el los del sistema inmunológico. Objetivo. Determinar la intoxicación aguda por arsénico en tejidos y células diana de ratones Balb/c in vivo. Materiales y métodos. Se aplicó una inyección intraperitoneal de 9,5 o 19 mg/kg de arsenito de sodio (NaAsO2) o un volumen equivalente de solución fisiológica como control, en ratones Balb/c con 3 por cada grupo experimental. Tras media hora, los animales fueron sacrificados y se extrajeron bazos, timos, hígados, riñones y sangre. En cada muestra, se determinó la concentración de arsénico, polifenoles y hierro, y también, se evaluaron marcadores oxidativos, como peróxidos, productos avanzados de oxidación proteica y grupos sulfhidrilos libres. En los esplenocitos obtenidos del bazo, se determinaron la viabilidad celular y el potencial mitocondrial. Resultados. La dosis aguda inyectada de NaAsO2 redujo la función mitocondrial de los esplenocitos, lo que derivó en muerte celular. La presencia confirmada de arsénico en las muestras de bazo y la citotoxicidad resultante, produjeron disminución de los polifenoles y de los grupos sulfhidrilos libres, y alteraron el contenido y la distribución del hierro, pero no se aumentó la producción de peróxidos. Conclusión. Estos hallazgos aportan evidencia científica sobre los cambios en biomarcadores involucrados en la inmunotoxicidad del arsénico y ofrecen, además, una metodología para ensayar potenciales tratamientos frente a la acción deletérea de este compuesto en el sistema inmunológico.


Abstract | Introduction: Arsenic is an environmental toxic present worldwide. In men and animals, various organs and tissues are targets of its deleterious effects including those of the immune system. Objective: To determine acute arsenic toxicity in tissues and target cells of Balb/c mice using an in vivo methodology. Materials and methods: We injected Balb/c mice intraperitoneally with 9.5 or 19 mg/ kg of sodium arsenite (NaAsO2), or an equivalent volume of physiological solution as a control (with 3 per experimental group). After 30 minutes, the animals were sacrificed to obtain spleen, thymus, liver, kidneys, and blood. We determined arsenic, polyphenols, and iron concentrations in each sample and we evaluated the oxidative markers (peroxides, advanced products of protein oxidation, and free sulfhydryl groups). In splenocytes from the spleen, cell viability and mitochondrial potential were also determined. Results: The exposure to an acute dose of NaAsO2 reduced the mitochondrial function of splenocytes, which resulted in cell death. Simultaneously, the confirmed presence of arsenic in spleen samples and the resulting cytotoxicity occurred with a decrease in polyphenols, free sulfhydryl groups, and an alteration in the content and distribution of iron, but did not increase the production of peroxides. Conclusion: These findings provide scientific evidence about changes occurring in biomarkers involved in the immunotoxicity of arsenic and offer a methodology for testing possible treatments against the deleterious action of this compound on the immune system.


Subject(s)
Arsenic , Mice , Oxidative Stress , Acute Toxicity , Immune System
6.
Iatreia ; 34(1): 42-53, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154357

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La leucemia promielocítica aguda (LPA) es un subtipo de leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA) que se origina por una traslocación balanceada entre los cromosomas 15 y 17, involucra al gen que codifica para el receptor alfa del ácido retinoico (RARA) en el cromosoma 17 y el de la leucemia promielocítica (PML) en el cromosoma 15, lo que da origen a la traslocación t(15;17) PML/RARA. Dicho reordenamiento origina la proteína de fusión PML/RAR alfa, que bloquea la diferenciación de las células madre mieloides en el estadio de promielocito. La LPA afecta con mayor frecuencia a adultos jóvenes y conlleva un alto riesgo de mortalidad temprana, en especial por el desarrollo de una coagulopatía grave, que sin tratamiento es definitivamente fatal. El diagnóstico temprano, el tratamiento de soporte y la introducción de fármacos que promueven la diferenciación terminal de los promielocitos patológicos como la tretinoina, también conocida como ácido todo transretinoico (ATRA) o trióxido de arsénico (ATO), ha hecho que en la actua-lidad esta sea una enfermedad curable con altas tasas de remisión completa.


SUMMARY Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that results from a balanced translocation between chromosomes 15 and 17, which involves the gene encoding the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA) on chromosome 17 and the gene for promyelocytic leukemia (PML) on chromosome 15, causing the translocation t (15; 17) PML / RARA. This rearrangement originates the PML / RAR alpha fusion protein, which blocks the differentiation of myeloid stem cells at the promyelocyte stage. APL affects young adults more frequently and carries a high risk of early mortality, especially due to development of severe coagulopathy that, without treatment, is invariably fatal. Early diagnosis, supportive treatment, and the introduction of drugs that promote the terminal differentiation of pathological promyelocytes such as alltrans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO), have currently made this a curable disease with high rates of complete remission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute
7.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200132, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153298

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS Arsenic is considered as one of the highly hazardous elements in the environment and a serious carcinogen for the human health. An enzymatic method has been described by using arsenite oxidase for arsenic detection. Residual activity of the immobilized enzyme was 43% of the initial activity after being recycled 10 times.


Abstract Arsenic is considered as one of the highly hazardous elements in the environment and a serious carcinogen for the human health. More attention has taken towards the arsenic due to its presence in ground water in India, China, Bangladesh, Inner Mongolia and several other regions of the world. It's been a challenge to remove arsenic due to the lack of its efficient detection approach in the complicated environmental matrix. The proposed method describes an enzymatic method for arsenic determination using arsenite oxidase, which catalyzes the oxidation of arsenite to arsenate. Hence, a colorimetric PVC strip with immobilized arsenite oxidase has been developed to detect the arsenic concentration and also having potential for the field-testing. The influence of the optimal conditions i.e. pH, temperature, storage stability, and reusability of free and immobilized enzyme were evaluated and compared. The results have shown that the stabilities were significantly enhanced compared with free counterpart. Residual activity of the immobilized enzyme was 43% of the initial activity after being recycled 10 times. We approve that this novel low cost immobilized carrier presents a new approach in large scale applications and expected to act as a model for establishment of indigenous arsenic sensor in miniature form.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arsenic/analysis , Polyvinyl Chloride/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Groundwater/analysis , Enzymes, Immobilized/analysis , Oxidoreductases , Biodegradation, Environmental
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922118

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of arsenic trioxide (As@*METHODS@#Transplantation of LVG hamster hearts to Lewis rats was performed by anastomosis of vessels in the neck using end-to-end anastomosis with a non-suture cuff technique. Four groups of recipient rats (n=6 in each) were treated with normal saline (control), As@*RESULTS@#Expression of Nrf2-ARE-HO-1 signaling pathway was upregulated in heart xenografts in rats treated with As@*CONCLUSION@#Combination treatment with As


Subject(s)
Animals , Arsenic Trioxide , Cricetinae , Heart Transplantation , Heme Oxygenase-1/metabolism , Heterografts , Leflunomide , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Inbred Lew , Signal Transduction
9.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 902-905, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909122

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the arsenic content in internal and external environment of the people in drinking-water-borne endemic arsenic poisoning areas in Shaanxi Province, the status quo of the disease and the management and services of the existing patients, so as to provide a theoretical basis for evaluating the effect of prevention and control measures on drinking-water-borne endemic arsenic poisoning.Methods:From 2019 to 2020, in accordance with the requirements of the "Notice of Shaanxi Provincial Health Commission on Issuance of Monitoring Plans for Key Endemic Diseases such as Kashin-Beck Disease" and "Monitoring Plans for Drinking Water Arsenic Poisoning in Shaanxi Province", investigation was carried out in all villages of drinking-water-borne endemic arsenic poisoning in Mianxian County of Hanzhong City, Shanyang County and Zhen'an County of Shangluo City to understand the operation of water improvement project. One terminal water sample was collected to determine the content of arsenic in water, and permanent population of the whole village who are and/or had been exposed to excessive arsenic water in the past were examined for arsenic poisoning and the disease condition was determined according to the standard of "Diagnosis of Endemic Arsenicosis" (WS/T 211-2015). Five villages were randomly selected, and 50 people were selected from each village. Real-time urine sample was collected to determine the content of urinary arsenic. At the same time, management and services of the existing arsenic poisoning patients was investigated.Results:A total of 13 villages were investigated, all of which had been improved in water quality, and all 13 water improvement projects were operating normally, with arsenic content < 0.01 mg/L. A total of 12 577 people were examined, and 417 cases of arsenic poisoning were detected, with a detection rate of 3.32%. No new arsenic poisoning case and arsenic-related skin cancer case had been detected. A total of 260 urine samples were detected, and the geometric mean value of urinary arsenic (< 0.001 mg/L) was lower than the safety guideline value of human urinary arsenic (0.032 mg/L). The existing arsenic poisoning patients (417 cases) were included in health management and contracted services.Conclusions:Shaanxi Province has reached the elimination standard of drinking-water-borne endemic arsenic poisoning. In the future, more attention should be paid to the management of water improvement project, as well as to strengthen health promotion and management services for existing patients to consolidate the effects of prevention and control.

10.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 441-447, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909029

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effects of Ginkgo biloba on regulating NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway in liver injury induced by coal-burning-borne endemic arsenic poisoning in rats.Methods:Group design method was adopted, according to body weight (80-100 g), a total of 30 Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups (6 rats in each group, half males and half females) by random number table method. The normal control group was fed with normal diet ad libitum for 4.5 months; the Ginkgo biloba control group was fed with Ginkgo biloba (25 mg/kg, 6 d/week) for 1.5 months after normal feeding for 3 months; the drinking water arsenic poisoning group and the arsenic contaminated grain group were fed respectively with 100 mg/L arsenic trioxide (As 2O 3) solution and 100 mg/kg arsenic-containing feed for 3 months, and then fed with normal diet for 1.5 months; the Ginkgo biloba treatment group was fed with 100 mg/kg arsenic-containing feed for 3 months, and then was given Ginkgo biloba (25 mg/kg, 6 d/week) for 1.5 months. After sacrificing the animals, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), the activity of copper zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in serum were detected by thiobarbituric acid colorimetry, xanthine oxidase method and dimercaptodinitrobenzoic acid reduction method, respectively. The mRNA and protein expressions of indicator genes of Nrf2-Keap1-ARE signaling pathway in liver tissues were detected by quantitative real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Correlation between the indexes was analyzed by Pearson. Results:In drinking water arsenic poisoning group, arsenic contaminated grain group and Ginkgo biloba treatment group, the contents of MDA in serum were (3.54±0.51), (3.83±0.87) and (2.93±0.84) μmol/L, respectively, which were higher than that in normal control group [(1.85±0.36) μmol/L, P < 0.05]; and SOD1 activities [(68.21±4.37), (64.53±9.96), (73.09±5.43) U/ml] and GPx activities [(486.41±40.45), (458.24±42.25), (539.79±79.43) U/L] in serum were lower than those in normal control group [(81.47±5.73) U/ml, (747.86±80.33) U/L, P < 0.05]. Compared with the arsenic contaminated grain group, the content of MDA in serum in Ginkgo biloba treatment group was decreased, the activities of SOD1 and GPx in serum were increased ( P < 0.05). Compared with normal control group, the mRNA expressions of SOD1 and GPx1 in the liver tissues in drinking water arsenic poisoning group, arsenic contaminated grain group and Ginkgo biloba treatment group were significantly higher ( P < 0.05). Compared with arsenic contaminated grain group, the mRNA expressions of SOD1 and GPx1 in the liver tissue in Ginkgo biloba treatment group were increased ( P < 0.05). Compared with the normal control group, the protein expression of SOD1 in liver tissue in arsenic contaminated grain group was decreased ( P < 0.05), the protein expressions of GPx1 were decreased in the liver tissues in drinking water arsenic poisoning group, arsenic contaminated grain group and Ginkgo biloba treatment group ( P < 0.05). Compared with the arsenic contaminated grain group, the protein expressions of SOD1 and GPx1 were increased in the liver tissue in Ginkgo biloba treatment group ( P < 0.05). Compared with the normal control group and arsenic contaminated grain group, the protein expression of Keap1 was decreased in the liver tissue in Ginkgo biloba treatment group ( P < 0.05). Compared with the normal control group, the protein expressions of Nrf2 and phosphorylation of Nrf2 (pNrf2) were increased in the cytoplasm in drinking water arsenic poisoning group, arsenic contaminated grain group and Ginkgo biloba treatment group ( P < 0.05). Compared with the arsenic contaminated grain group, the protein expression of pNrf2 was decreased in the cytoplasm in Ginkgo biloba treatment group ( P < 0.05). The protein expressions of Nrf2 and pNrf2 in the nucleus in drinking water arsenic poisoning group, arsenic contaminated grain group and Ginkgo biloba treatment group were also higher than those in normal control group ( P < 0.05). Compared with the arsenic contaminated grain group, the protein expressions of Nrf2 and pNrf2 were increased in the nucleus in Ginkgo biloba treatment group ( P < 0.05). The results of correlation analysis revealed that the protein expressions of Nrf2 and pNrf2 in the nucleus were negatively correlated with Keap1 protein expression ( r=-0.523,-0.401, P < 0.05), and positively correlated with the mRNA expressions of SOD1 and GPx1 ( r=0.658, 0.530, 0.555, 0.603, P < 0.05). In addition, the protein expressions of SOD1 and GPx1 were positively correlated with their enzyme activities ( r=0.472, 0.629, P < 0.05). Conclusions:Arsenic could induce oxidative stress and liver injury. Ginkgo biloba could reduce the protein expression of Keap1, and promote nuclear translocation of Nrf2, which might induce the up-regulation of mRNA expressions of SOD1 and GPx1, and partially reverse the posttranscriptional regulation of arsenic on SOD1 and GPx1, and then increase their protein expressions and enzyme activities, thereby improve arsenic induced oxidative stress and liver injury.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907583

ABSTRACT

Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is involved in a variety of biological processes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, including apoptosis induction, proliferation inhibition, invasion and metastasis inhibition, and tumor stem cell inhibition. ATO has a variety of therapeutic approaches in the treatment of HCC, mainly including single drug therapy, combined local therapy, combined systemic therapy, and so on. Further research on the anti-cancer mechanism and clinical application of ATO is expected to provide new ideas for the treatment of liver cancer.

12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3243-3251, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906845

ABSTRACT

This study aims at the critical role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in tumor drug resistance, taking advantage of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) dependence of P-gp mediated drug transport and efflux across the cell membrane. Mitochondrial targeted calcium arsenite/doxorubicin (DOX) lipid nanoparticles were constructed via hydrothermal method and thin-film dispersion method for reversing tumor drug resistance. The results showed that the lipid nanoparticles were uniform in size and well dispersed with a mean particle size of (261 ± 7) nm, zeta potential of (-9.6 ± 1.3) mV. The DOX loading efficiency and encapsulation efficiency were 22.6% and 84.0%. The in vitro drug release profile was pH-dependent; the drug accumulation at mitochondria was significantly increased, which then caused overload of calcium and inhibition of P-gp and ATP, thereby reversing tumor drug resistance. The simultaneously released arsenite ion and DOX could synergistically kill the tumor cells. In summary, the lipid nanoparticles prepared in this study have uniform particle size, high drug loading efficiency and encapsulation efficiency, excellent colloidal stability, pH responsiveness, and impressive ability to reverse tumor drug resistance, which may hold great potential in further clinical applications.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906456

ABSTRACT

Objective:To determine the contents of inorganic arsenic(iAs),monomethylarsonic acid(MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid(DMA) in brain tissues and blood by using hydride generation-cold trap-atomic absorptionspectrometry(HG-CT-AAS), and to explore the toxic effects of Realgar on central nervous system of rats. Method:The 96 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups:normal control group,0.3,0.9 and 2.7 g·kg<sup>-1</sup> Realgar groups. They then received intragastric administration for 14,28 and 42 days respectively, so a total of 12 groups were formed, with 8 animals in each group. The normal group was given the same dose of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na) by gavage. The contents of iAs,MMA and DMA in blood and brain tissues were determined by HG-CT-AAS. The novel object recognition test was conducted to observe the learning and memory ability of rats. The changes of hippocampal neuron ultrastructure were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Result:There was no difference in the growth,weight and hippocampal coefficient of the experimental animals. The method of HG-CT-AAS showed a good linearity,precision,accuracy and recovery in content determination of arsenic (at various forms) in rat brain and blood. MMA and DMA were detected in the brain of realgar groups at time-dose-effect relationship. iAs,MMA and DMA were detected in the blood of Realgar groups. The nuclear membrane, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum in hippocampus neurons of rats were gradually damaged with the increase of Rhubarb exposure dose and time. After 14 days of exposure to Realgar,compared with the normal control group,there was no significant difference in the novel object recognition index among Realgar groups. After 28 days of exposure,only 2.7 g·kg<sup>-1</sup> Realgar group showed statistically significant difference with the control group (<italic>P</italic><0.05). After 42 days of exposure, the novel object recognition index of 0.9 and 2.7 g·kg<sup>-1</sup> Realgar groups was significantly lower than that in normal control group(<italic>P</italic><0.05). Conclusion:The metabolites of Realgar in rats are iAs,MMA and DMA. MMA and DMA can be accumulated in the brain tissue through the blood-brain barrier,causing the decline of the ability of learning and memory and leading to damage of hippocampal neurons.

14.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 977-982, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905036

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To explore the impact of arsenic on cholesterol efflux and the expression of ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A, member 1 ( ABCA1 ), ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 ( ABCG1 ), and scavenger receptor class B member I ( SRBI ) in macrophages, so as to provide the evidence for the mechanism of arsenic induced atherosclerosis.@*Methods@#The human myeloid leukemia mononuclear cells ( THP-1 ), induced by phorbol myristate acetate, and mouse primary macrophages were treated with 0, 0.625, 1.25, 2.5 and 5 μmol/L NaAsO2 for 48 hours. Then the cells treated with 2.5 μmol/L NaAsO2 were changed to arsenic free mediums for 48 hours and collected every 12 hours to analyze the time effect of arsenic. The expression levels of ABCA1, ABCG1 and SRBI were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Cholesterol efflux rates were measured by 3H isotope tracer. @*Results@#Arsenic significantly down-regulated the expression levels of ABCA1 and ABCG1, and cholesterol efflux in a dose-dependent manner. The levels of ABCA1 mRNA decreased by 69% and 72%, the levels of ABCG1 mRNA decreased by 42% and 34%, and the rate of cholesterol efflux decreased by 55% and 59% in THP-1 and mouse primary macrophages cells treated with 5 μmol/L NaAsO2 ( all P<0.05 ). Arsenic had no significant effect on SRBI expression ( all P>0.05 ). Arsenic inhibited ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux in THP-1 in a time-dependent manner. Compared with cells before the exposure of arsenic, the level of ABCA1 mRNA and the rate of cholesterol efflux in THP-1 bottomed at 48 hours by 43% and 42%, and gradually recovered when arsenic was removed. @*Conclusions@#Arsenic inhibits cholesterol efflux by down-regulating the expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in macrophages.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888614

ABSTRACT

High levels (> 100 ug/L) of arsenic are known to cause lung cancer; however, whether low (≤ 10 ug/L) and medium (10 to 100 ug/L) doses of arsenic will cause lung cancer or other lung diseases, and whether arsenic has dose-dependent or threshold effects, remains unknown. Summarizing the results of previous studies, we infer that low- and medium-concentration arsenic cause lung diseases in a dose-dependent manner. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is recognized as a chemotherapeutic drug for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), also having a significant effect on lung cancer. The anti-lung cancer mechanisms of ATO include inhibition of proliferation, promotion of apoptosis, anti-angiogenesis, and inhibition of tumor metastasis. In this review, we summarized the role of arsenic in lung disease from both pathogenic and therapeutic perspectives. Understanding the paradoxical effects of arsenic in the lungs may provide some ideas for further research on the occurrence and treatment of lung diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arsenic/toxicity , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Mice
16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 609-620, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881159

ABSTRACT

The Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway plays important roles in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis and the gastrointestinal tumor microenvironment (TME). Aberrant HH signaling activation may accelerate the growth of gastrointestinal tumors and lead to tumor immune tolerance and drug resistance. The interaction between HH signaling and the TME is intimately involved in these processes, for example, tumor growth, tumor immune tolerance, inflammation, and drug resistance. Evidence indicates that inflammatory factors in the TME, such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interferon-

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Arsenic is a developmental neurotoxicant. It means that its neurotoxic effect could occur in offspring by maternal arsenic exposure. Our previous study showed that developmental arsenic exposure impaired social behavior and serotonergic system in C3H adult male mice. These effects might affect the next generation with no direct exposure to arsenic. This study aimed to detect the social behavior and related gene expression changes in F2 male mice born to gestationally arsenite-exposed F1 mice.@*METHODS@#Pregnant C3H/HeN mice (F0) were given free access to tap water (control mice) or tap water containing 85 ppm sodium arsenite from days 8 to 18 of gestation. Arsenite was not given to F1 or F2 mice. The F2 mice were generated by mating among control F1 males and females, and arsenite-F1 males and females at the age of 10 weeks. At 41 weeks and 74 weeks of age respectively, F2 males were used for the assessment of social behavior by a three-chamber social behavior apparatus. Histological features of the prefrontal cortex were studied by ordinary light microscope. Social behavior-related gene expressions were determined in the prefrontal cortex by real time RT-PCR method.@*RESULTS@#The arsenite-F2 male mice showed significantly poor sociability and social novelty preference in both 41-week-old group and 74-week-old group. There was no significant histological difference between the control mice and the arsenite-F2 mice. Regarding gene expression, serotonin receptor 5B (5-HT 5B) mRNA expression was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the arsenite-F2 male mice compared to the control F2 male mice in both groups. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and dopamine receptor D1a (Drd1a) gene expressions were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) only in the arsenite-F2 male mice of the 74-week-old group. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression was significantly increased (p < 0.001) in the arsenite-F2 male mice of both groups, but plasma 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression were not significantly different. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expression was significantly increased only in 41-week-old arsenite-F2 mice.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These findings suggest that maternal arsenic exposure affects social behavior in F2 male mice via serotonergic system in the prefrontal cortex. In this study, COX-2 were not increased although oxidative stress marker (HO-1) was increased significantly in arsnite-F2 male mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arsenic/toxicity , Arsenites/toxicity , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Female , Gene Expression/drug effects , Genetic Markers , Male , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred C3H , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/psychology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serotonin/metabolism , Social Behavior , Sodium Compounds/toxicity
18.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 457-467, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923218

ABSTRACT

Telomere is a DNA-protein complex located at the end of linear chromosome of eukaryotic cells, which has the function of stabilizing chromosome. The change of telomere length is closely related to the exposure to environmental carcinogens. The repair and elongation of telomere rely on the catalysis and mediation of telomerase. Exposure to typical environmental carcinogens polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) can affect the change of telomere length by regulating the expression of telomere-related genes. Long-term exposure to PAHs can shorten the telomeres of peripheral blood leukocytes in a dose-response relationship. Telomere dysfunction is one of the important mechanisms of arsenic poisoning. The change of telomere length can be used as a biomarker of arsenic exposure. However, there are differences in the research results on the effect of arsenic exposure on telomere length, so the consistency of the effect of arsenic exposure on telomere length and the possible mechanism need to be further studied. Exposure to atmospheric fine particulate matter can attack genetic material by inducing oxidative stress and inflammatory response in the body, and then affect the telomere length of cells in vivo. Acute particulate matter exposure can increase telomere length in a short time(a few hours to a few days), and subsequent telomere shortening may be related to the inflammatory mechanism. Telomere length and telomerase activity can be used as biomarkers and play an important role in monitoring early carcinogenesis, diagnosis and prognosis assessment of cancers caused by environmental carcinogens.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Previous studies have suggested that exposures to heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and selenium) may be associated with differences in blood pressure. However, the findings of these studies have been inconsistent. This study was performed to examine the associations between urinary heavy metal concentrations and blood pressure among residents of four Asian countries (Bangladesh, Indonesia, Nepal, and Vietnam).@*METHODS@#This cross-sectional study examined 1899 adults in four Asian countries. Urinary concentrations of heavy metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A questionnaire survey was administered regarding individual characteristics. Anthropometric measurements (height and weight) were performed. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured after a short rest. Multiple linear regression models were applied to investigate associations between urinary heavy metal concentrations and blood pressure after adjustments for age, sex, and body mass index.@*RESULTS@#The geometric means of the urinary concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and selenium were 84.6, 0.885, 2.09, and 16.5 μg/g creatinine, respectively. The urinary arsenic concentrations were slightly higher than those typically reported in non-polluted populations, while urinary cadmium, lead, and selenium concentrations were equivalent or slightly lower. The urinary lead concentrations were positively associated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, but urinary selenium concentrations were negatively associated with them.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Variations in the urinary concentrations of lead and selenium were associated with blood pressure at low levels of exposure/intake.


Subject(s)
Adult , Arsenic/urine , Bangladesh , Blood Pressure , Cadmium/urine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environmental Exposure , Female , Humans , Indonesia , Lead/urine , Linear Models , Male , Metals, Heavy/urine , Middle Aged , Nepal , Selenium/urine , Vietnam
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887736

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to assess the risk of cumulative exposure to Pb, Cd, Hg, and iAs through aquatic products consumed by Chinese people.@*Methods@#Heavy metal concentration data were obtained from the national food contamination monitoring program during 2013-2017. Consumption data were derived from the China National Food Consumption Survey in 2014 and the relative potency factor (RPF) method was used to estimate cumulative exposure for neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.@*Results@#The results demonstrated that the cumulative exposure based on neurotoxicity was below the lower confidence limit on benchmark doses of lead (BMDL @*Conclusion@#The cumulative exposures of the 2-6 year-old group to the four heavy metals did not reach (but came close to) the corresponding safety threshold for both neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Given that there are still other food sources of these four heavy metals, it is necessary to more closely study their cumulative health effects.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Arsenic/analysis , Child , Child, Preschool , Dietary Exposure/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Food Contamination/analysis , Humans , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Seafood/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Young Adult
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