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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940736

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo establish a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the identification of Artemisia absinthium to allow accurate and convenient identification of A. absinthium and its related species. MethodThe chloroplast genome sequences of A. absinthium and its related species were searched from Chloroplast Genome Information Resource (CGIR), and the specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites of A. absinthium were screened out. A pair of specific identification primers (zykh1-F and zykh1-R) of A. absinthium was designed. The original plant samples of A. absinthium and its related species were collected. The specific PCR method was established and optimized, and the tolerance and feasibility of this method were investigated and verified. The method was used to identify A. absinthium samples purchased from Xinjiang medicinal materials market. ResultA 210 bp bright band was obtained from A. absinthium after PCR amplification and gel electrophoresis under the following conditions: specific primers zykh1-F and zykh1-R, annealing temperature of 54 ℃, and the number of cycles of 33. No such band was observed from its relative species, such as A. argyi, A. annua, A. leucophylla, and A. lavandulaefolia. ConclusionThe specific PCR identification method of established in this study can accurately identify A. absinthium and its common related species with high specificity. The method can save time and cost and allows a convenient and fast species identification for the introduction and utilization of A. absinthium resources.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-865420

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate chemical compositions, antioxidant and wound healing properties of Algerian Artemisia absinthium essential oil.Methods: The chemical composition of the essential oil from Artemisia absinthium was analyzed by a combination of GC-FID and GC/MS. The antioxidant capacities including the total antioxidant capacity, DPPH? and ABTS+? scavenging capacities were measured. The wound healing potential was assessed by the excision wound model of rats. The wounds were treated daily with an ointment prepared with two concentrations (5% and 10%) of Artemisia absinthium essential oil. The percentage of wound contraction was determined and wound healing was also evaluated by histological examination of the healed skin. Results: The main component of Artemisia absinthium essential oil was camphor (48%) followed by chamazulene (10%) that was responsible for the dark blue color of the oil. Artemisia absinthium essential oil exhibited moderate antioxidant activity compared with BHT and Trolox. All preparations showed significant effects on wound contraction and the ointment prepared with 10% of essential oil was effective as the reference drug Cicatryl. Conclusions: The essential oil of Artemisia absinthium shows moderate antioxidant activity. The 10% ointment enhances skin wound re-epithelialization and speeds up the healing process. The essential oil of Artemisia absinthium may be used as an alternative drug for wound healing.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-711438

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of Artemisia absinthium L. ( A. absinthium L. ) extracts on the maturation and function of dendritic cells (DCs). Methods A. absinthium water (AAW) and ethanol ( AAE) extracts were prepared. DCs were separated into several groups and treated with differ-ent concentrations of AAW (containing 5, 50 and 150μg/ml of polysaccharide) and AAE (containing 0. 6, 3 and 6 μg/ml of flavonoid) , respectively. Cell viability, antigen phagocytosis and maturation of DCs were detected by flow cytometry. Levels of cytokines were analyzed by ELISA. Western blot assay was performed to analyze the activation of key molecules in NF-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinase ( MAPK) and janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription ( JAK/STAT) signaling pathways. Results AAW promoted the maturation of DCs, significantly decreased antigen phagocytosis and increased cytokine produc-tion (IL-12p40 and TNF-α). AAE significantly enhanced the expression of co-stimulatory molecules on the surface of DCs and decreased antigen phagocytosis, but had no significant effect on cytokine production. Mo-reover, AAE significantly inhibited the LPS-induced expression of TNF-α, IL-12p40 and IL-6. Further anal-ysis revealed that AAW and AAE could activate the phosphorylation of p38, extra-cellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), IKKα/β, NF-κBp65 and JAK2. Besides, AAE could activate the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase ( JNK ) and inhibit the LPS-induced phosphorylation of inhibitor of NF-κB ( IκB-α) , IKKα/β, NF-κBp65, p38, ERK and JAK2. Conclusion AAW could enhance immunity and AAE could inhibit inflammation.

4.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(3): 1171-1184, jul.-sep. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-958204

ABSTRACT

ResumenEntre los principales compuestos químicos sintetizados por las plantas, pero considerados no esenciales para su metabolismo básico, están los alcaloides, los polifenoles, los glucósidos cianogénicos y las saponinas que tienen diversas funciones en las plantas y reconocidas propiedades medicinales y farmacológicas. En esta investigación se determinaron las concentraciones de los mencionados metabolitos secundarios en los extractos de las hojas de las plantas medicinales Taraxacum officinale, Parthenium hysterophorus, Artemisia absinthium, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius y Piper carpunya y se relacionaron con la toxicidad aguda contra Artemia salina. En cada bioensayo con A. salina se usaron los extractos alcohólicos de las hojas de las plantas seleccionadas a diferentes concentraciones, calculándose la proporción de organismos muertos y los CL50. Las concentraciones de alcaloides, fenoles totales, taninos, glucósidos cianogénicos y saponinas fueron determinadas mediante métodos espectrofotométricos. Este es el primer reporte de cuantificación de metabolitos secundarios en las plantas analizadas provenientes de Ecuador. T. officinale presentó las mayores concentraciones de fenoles (22.30 ± 0.23 mg/g) y taninos (11.70 ± 0.10 mg/g), C aconitifolius de glucósidos cianogénicos (5.02 ± 0.37 µg/g) y P. hysterophorus de saponinas (6.12 ± 0.02 mg/g). Las plantas evaluadas presentaron actividades hemolíticas dependiendo de las concentraciones de saponinas. Los valores de taninos determinados estuvieron entre 0.20 ± 0.01 y 11.70 ± 0.10 mg/g, por lo que no son adversos para su consumo. Aunque los valores de glucósidos cianogénicos son permisibles, es necesario monitorear la presencia de estos compuestos químicos en las plantas para minimizar problemas de salud. Los CL50 obtenidos oscilaron entre los valores 3.37 µg/mL, extremadamente letal o tóxica, para P. carpunya y 274.34 µg/mL, altamente tóxica, para T. officinale. De los análisis de correlaciones realizados a los resultados, se observó que los alcaloides favorecen de manera significativa (p<0.001) a la toxicidad aguda contra A. salina, mientras que a mayor contenido de polifenoles dicha toxicidad disminuye significativamente (p<0.001) el nivel de toxicidad de las plantas. Del análisis de componentes principales, se demuestra que las saponinas están en sinergia con los polifenoles para disminuir la toxicidad, pero tienen un efecto antagónico con los alcaloides y los glucósidos cianogénicos, lo cual evidencia que estos metabolitos secundarios presentan variabilidades en los mecanismos de acción contra A. salina, como compuestos citotóxicos. Estos resultados demuestran que las saponinas y los polifenoles pueden ser letales para A. salina a bajas concentraciones, evidenciando que este bioensayo permite evaluar extractos vegetales que contengan bajas concentraciones de compuestos con altas polaridades. La correspondencia significativamente positiva entre citoxicidad y concentración de los alcaloides, confirmada con el bioensayo de Artemia salina, puede ser útil para hallar fuentes promisorias de compuestos antitumorales y para evaluar los límites tolerables que no afecten otras células benignas. El contenido de metabolitos secundarios hallados en las plantas analizadas les atribuye un gran valor farmacológico.


Abstract:Alkaloids, polyphenols, cyanogenic glycosides and saponins are among the main chemical compounds synthesized by plants but not considered essential for their basic metabolism. These compounds have different functions in plants, and have been recognized with medicinal and pharmacological properties. In this research, concentrations of the mentioned secondary metabolites were determined in the medicinal plants Artemisia absinthium, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Parthenium hysterophorus, Piper carpunya and Taraxacum officinale, from Ecuador, and related with cytotoxic effects against Artemia salina. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts from leaves of these selected plants were prepared at different concentrations. To assess cytotoxicity of these extracts, different bioassays with A. salina were undertaken, and the mortality rates and LC50 were obtained. Besides, concentrations of alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, phenols, tannins and saponins were determined by spectrophotometric methods; this constituted the first report of quantification of secondary metabolites in the selected plants from Ecuador. T. officinale had the highest concentration of total phenols (22.30 ± 0.23 mg/g) and tannins (11.70 ± 0.10 mg/g), C. aconitifolius of cyanogenic glycosides (5.02 ± 0.37 µg/g) and P. hysterophorus of saponins (6.12 ± 0.02 mg/g). Tannins values obtained were not adverse to their consumption. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of selected plants had hemolytic activity depending on the concentration of saponins. Although the values of cyanogenic glycosides were permissible, it was necessary to monitor the presence of this metabolite in plants to minimize health problems. LC50 values ranged from extremely toxic (3.37 µg/mL) to highly toxic (274.34 μg/mL), in P. carpunya and T. officinale, respectively. From correlation analysis, it was observed that increase values of alkaloids concentrations had highly significant (p<0.001) acute toxicity against A. salina, while at a higher polyphenol concentration the level of plants cytotoxicity decreased significantly (p<0.001). The results of principal component analysis showed that saponins apparently were in synergy with polyphenols to decrease cytotoxicity, but antagonize with alkaloids and cyanogenic glycosides, indicating that these secondary metabolites present variability in the mechanisms of action against A. salina, as cytotoxic compounds. These results also demonstrate that polyphenols and saponins can be lethal at low concentrations, demonstrating the potential of brine shrimp bioassay as a model to evaluate plant extracts containing low concentrations of chemical compounds with high polarities. The significant positive correlation between cytotoxicity and concentration of alkaloids confirmed by the bioassay of brine shrimp can be useful to identify promising sources of antitumor compounds, and to evaluate tolerable limits not affecting other benign cells. Contents of secondary metabolites found in the selected plants confer them great pharmacologic values. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (3): 1171-1184. Epub 2016 September 01.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Artemia/drug effects , Saponins/analysis , Alkaloids/analysis , Polyphenols/analysis , Glycosides/analysis , Time Factors , Biological Assay , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Asteraceae/toxicity , Asteraceae/chemistry , Euphorbiaceae/chemistry , Artemisia absinthium/chemistry , Taraxacum/chemistry , Piper/chemistry , Ecuador , Secondary Metabolism
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(5): 693-699, Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755897

ABSTRACT

Artemisia absinthium is an aromatic and medicinal plant of ethnopharmacological interest and it has been widely studied. The use ofA. absinthiumbased on the collection of wild populations can result in variable compositions of the extracts and essential oils (EOs). The aim of this paper is the identification of the active components of the vapour pressure (VP) EO from a selected and cultivated A. absinthiumSpanish population (T2-11) against two parasitic protozoa with different metabolic pathways: Trypanosoma cruzi andTrichomonas vaginalis. VP showed activity on both parasites at the highest concentrations. The chromatographic fractionation of the VP T2-11 resulted in nine fractions (VLC1-9). The chemical composition of the fractions and the antiparasitic effects of fractions and their main compounds suggest that the activity of the VP is related with the presence oftrans-caryophyllene and dihydrochamazulene (main components of fractions VLC1 and VLC2 respectively). Additionally, the cytotoxicity of VP and fractions has been tested on several tumour and no tumour human cell lines. Fractions VLC1 and VLC2 were not cytotoxic against the nontumoural cell line HS5, suggesting selective antiparasitic activity for these two fractions. The VP and fractions inhibited the growth of human tumour cell lines in a dose-dependent manner.

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Subject(s)
Humans , Artemisia absinthium/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Trichomonas/drug effects , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Cell Line , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
6.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 15(4): 316-320, out.-dez. 2005. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-570936

ABSTRACT

Especialmente nas últimas décadas, inúmeros esforços têm sido dirigidos para conferir às plantas seu real papel e valor na terapia. Neste estudo foi avaliada a atividade antimicrobiana de extratos secos de Artemisia absinthium L. (losna), Mentha pulegium L. (poejo), Punica granatum L. (romã), Xanthosema violaceum Schott (taioba) e Syzygium cuminii L. (jambolão). Para avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana foi realizado o teste de difusão em ágar, com 15 diferentes microrganismos, utilizando discos impregnados com as dispersões aquosas dos extratos vegetais. A Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM) foi determinada para os extratos que apresentaram atividade inibitória. Os resultados mostraram que os extratos de X. violaceum e S. cuminii inibiram, respectivamente, 8 e 6 bactérias. Conclui-se que os extratos de X. violaceum e S. cuminii são capazes de inibir expressivamente o crescimento microbiano.


In the last decades, innumerable efforts have been directed to confer to the plants its real value in the therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of dry extracts of Artemisia absinthium L. (wormwood), Mentha pulegium L. (poejo), Punica granatum L. (pomegranate), Xanthosema violaceum Schott(taro) and Syzygium cuminii L. (jambolan). To evaluate the antimicrobial activity the diffusion test in agar was carried through, with 15 different microorganisms, using discs impregnated with aqueous dispersions of the vegetal extracts. For those extracts that had presented inhibitory activity, the calculation of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration was carried out (CIM). The results had shown that the extracts of X. violaceum and S. cuminii had inhibited 8 and 6 bacteria, respectively. What leads to the conclusion that the extracts of X. violaceum and S. cuminii are capable to inhibit the microbial growth.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-203173

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In this study, a possible suppressive effect of a flavon extracted from Artemisia absinthium on a mouse collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model was investigated. METHODS: DBA/1 mice were injected intradermally with emulsified chicken type II collagen. Three weeks after immunization, a flavon was introduced p.o. everyday. Clinical incidences of arthritis and arthritis index were measured. Measurement of anti-collagen antibodies and a stimulation index of the splenocytes of the mice were measured. IL-10 and TNF-alpha in the supernatants of the mice sera were measured by ELISA. mRNA expression for IL-10 and TNF-alpha in the splenocytes were tested. RESULTS: Flavon extracted from Artemisia absinthium appears to be an effective suppressor of CIA in mice. The serum anti-collagen antibody level and stimulation index of the cultured splenocytes showed no significant differences among the three experimental groups. Also serum IL-10 and TNF-alpha levels did not show any significant differences among the three experimental groups. An increased expression of mRNA for IL-10 was observed in the splenocytes treated with flavon. CONCLUSION: With these results, flavon extracted from Artemisia absinthium appears to have a suppressive effect of CIA. The mechanism of the suppressive effect of flavon extracted from Artemisia absinthium may be from a stimulation of IL-10 production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Artemisia absinthium , Artemisia , Arthritis , Arthritis, Experimental , Chickens , Collagen Type II , Collagen , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunization , Incidence , Interleukin-10 , Mice , RNA, Messenger , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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