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1.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191042, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394057

ABSTRACT

Abstract L-Asparaginase (L-ASNase) is a biopharmaceutical used for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) treatment, dramatically increasing the patients' chance of cure. However, its production and distribution in developing countries were disrupted because of its low profitability, which caused great concern among patients. This study evaluates the feasibility of combining fractional precipitation and aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) to purify L-ASNase from a low-grade product, commercially known as Acrylaway® L. The ATPS purification results were not particularly expressive compared to the two-step purification process composed of ethanol precipitation and gel filtration, which was able to recover the target molecule with a purification factor over 5 fold. Thus, we studied a purification process capable of manufacturing pharmaceutical grade L-ASNase from a commercially available low-grade raw material; however, improvements regarding its throughput must be achieved, and high purity is the first step to apply it as a new biopharmaceutical product. The proposed process could pose as a short-time solution to mitigate its shortage while a cost-effective production plant is being developed.


Subject(s)
Asparaginase , Fractional Precipitation/methods , Patients/classification , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Chromatography, Gel/instrumentation , Costs and Cost Analysis/statistics & numerical data
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e244735, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249280

ABSTRACT

Abstract L-Asparaginase catalysing the breakdown of L-Asparagine to L-Aspartate and ammonia is an enzyme of therapeutic importance in the treatment of cancer, especially the lymphomas and leukaemia. The present study describes the recombinant production, properties and anticancer potential of enzyme from a hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi. There are two genes coding for asparaginase in the genome of this organism. A 918 bp gene encoding 305 amino acids was PCR amplified and cloned in BL21 (DE3) strain of E. coli using pET28a (+) plasmid. The production of recombinant enzyme was induced under 0.5mM IPTG, purified by selective heat denaturation and ion exchange chromatography. Purified enzyme was analyzed for kinetics, in silico structure and anticancer properties. The recombinant enzyme has shown a molecular weight of 33 kDa, specific activity of 1175 U/mg, KM value 2.05mM, optimum temperature and pH 80°C and 8 respectively. No detectable enzyme activity found when L-Glutamine was used as the substrate. In silico studies have shown that the enzyme exists as a homodimer having Arg11, Ala87, Thr110, His112, Gln142, Leu172, and Lys232 being the putative active site residues. The free energy change calculated by molecular docking studies of enzyme and substrate was found as ∆G - 4.5 kJ/mole indicating the affinity of enzyme with the substrate. IC50 values of 5U/mL to 7.5U/mL were determined for FB, caco2 cells and HepG2 cells. A calculated amount of enzyme (5U/mL) exhibited 78% to 55% growth inhibition of caco2 and HepG2 cells. In conclusion, the recombinant enzyme produced and characterized in the present study offers a good candidate for the treatment of cancer. The procedures adopted in the present study can be prolonged for in vivo studies.


Resumo A L-asparaginase, que catalisa a degradação da L-asparagina em L-aspartato e amônia, é uma enzima de importância terapêutica no tratamento do câncer, especialmente dos linfomas e da leucemia. O presente estudo descreve a produção recombinante, propriedades e potencial anticancerígeno da enzima de Pyrococcus abyssi, um archaeon hipertermofílico. Existem dois genes que codificam para a asparaginase no genoma desse organismo. Um gene de 918 bp, que codifica 305 aminoácidos, foi amplificado por PCR e clonado na cepa BL21 (DE3) de E. coli usando o plasmídeo pET28a (+). A produção da enzima recombinante foi induzida sob 0,5mM de IPTG, purificada por desnaturação seletiva por calor e cromatografia de troca iônica. A enzima purificada foi analisada quanto à cinética, estrutura in silico e propriedades anticancerígenas. A enzima recombinante apresentou peso molecular de 33 kDa, atividade específica de 1.175 U / mg, valor de KM 2,05 mM, temperatura ótima de 80º C e pH 8. Nenhuma atividade enzimática detectável foi encontrada quando a L-glutamina foi usada como substrato. Estudos in silico mostraram que a enzima existe como um homodímero, com Arg11, Ala87, Thr110, His112, Gln142, Leu172 e Lys232 sendo os resíduos do local ativo putativo. A mudança de energia livre calculada por estudos de docking molecular da enzima e do substrato foi encontrada como ∆G - 4,5 kJ / mol, indicando a afinidade da enzima com o substrato. Valores de IC50 de 5U / mL a 7,5U / mL foram determinados para células FB, células caco2 e células HepG2. Uma quantidade de enzima (5U / mL) apresentou inibição de crescimento de 78% a 55% das células caco2 e HepG2, respectivamente. Em conclusão, a enzima recombinante produzida e caracterizada no presente estudo é uma boa possibilidade para o tratamento do câncer. Os procedimentos adotados na presente pesquisa podem ser aplicados para estudos in vivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asparaginase/biosynthesis , Asparaginase/pharmacology , Pyrococcus abyssi/enzymology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Substrate Specificity , Enzyme Stability , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , Caco-2 Cells , Escherichia coli/genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
3.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1359838

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A L-asparaginase tem sido estudada como alternativa no tratamento da Leucemia Linfoblástica Aguda (LLA) uma vez que possui a capacidade de induzir apoptose em células leucêmicas sem causar danos às células normais. Estudos mostraram benefícios no tratamento da LLA, porém com o risco de desenvolver efeitos adversos. Objetivo: Este trabalho visa apresentar e explicar o histórico da L-asparaginase, desafios enfrentados pelo Brasil, mecanismos de ação que envolvem as formas da enzima e efeitos adversos de sua utilização. Métodos: Foram incluídos neste trabalho 54 artigos na língua portuguesa e inglesa consultados em bancos de artigos como PubMed e SciELO, entre o período de 1953 até 2021. Resultados: A L-asparaginase é uma enzima que converte asparagina em aspartato e amônia, isolada a partir de colônias de Escherichia coli e de Erwinia chrysanthemi, além disso foi polimerizada com polietilenoglicol. O uso de corticosteroides, anti-histamínicos e suplementação vitamínica se mostraram eficientes para amenizar os efeitos adversos. Conclusões: É necessário evitar um desabastecimento de L-Asparaginase no Brasil, principalmente por conta da dificuldade de comercialização e alto custo, mesmo sendo um medicamento presente na lista da Organização Mundial da Saúde, considerado essencial.


Introduction: L-asparaginase has been studied as an alternative in the treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) since it has the ability to induce apoptosis in leukemic cells without causing damage to normal cells. Studies have shown benefits in the treatment of ALL, but with the risk of developing adverse effects. Objective: This work aims to present and explain the history of L-asparaginase, challenges faced by Brazil, mechanisms of action involving the forms of the enzyme and adverse effects of its use. Methods: 54 articles in Portuguese and English were included in this work, consulted in article banks such as PubMed and SciELO, between the period of 1953 to 2021. Results: L-asparaginase is an enzyme that converts asparagine into aspartate and ammonia, isolated from from Escherichia coli and Erwinia chrysanthemi colonies, it was also polymerized with polyethylene glycol. The use of corticosteroids, antihistamines and vitamin supplementation proved to be efficient in mitigating adverse effects. Conclusions: It is necessary to avoid a shortage of L-Asparaginase in Brazil, mainly due to the difficulty of commercialization and high cost, even though it is a drug present on the World Health Organization list, considered essential.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Asparaginase/antagonists & inhibitors , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/prevention & control , Escherichia coli , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage
4.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2133-2136, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941456

ABSTRACT

OBJE CTIVE To investigate the clinical characteristics of a dverse drug reactions of asparaginase-associated pancreatitis(AAP),so as to provide reference for clinical safe medication. METHODS Analysis and identification were performed on a severe adverse reaction case of acute pancreatitis complicated with diabetic ketoacidosis and liver injury in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in our hospital after using pegaspargase. Retrieved from Wanfang database ,CNKI,PubMed and Embase database,case reports of AAP were collected and summarized in terms of patient demographics ,drug use ,incubation period and adverse reaction outcome. Combined with this case ,the disease characteristics and potential risk factors of AAP were analyzed and discussed. RESULTS After analysis and identification ,it was determined that AAP occurred in this patient. A total of 47 case reports were retrieved from the database ,and a total of 52 patients(including this patient )were included in the analysis ,including 29 males and 23 females,mainly minors (65.4%). L-asparaginase was the main asparaginase preparation that causes AAP (80.8%). Gastrointestinal symptoms were the main prodromal symptoms (92.3%),which could be accompanied by other asparaginase related adverse reactions. AAP could occur after 1-33 times of administration ,and the median latency was 14 days after administration;compared with children ,median latency of AAP in adult patients was shortened significantly (11 d vs. 16 d,P= 0.049);the median latency of AAP had longer tendency in patients treated with pegaspargase than that of L-asparaginase (17 d vs. 12.5 d,P=0.490). Of the cases included in the analysis ,8 patients died due to AAP ,1 of which was related to re-exposure to asparaginase preparations. CONCLUSIONS Acute pancreatitis is a serious and potentially fatal adverse drug reaction of ; asparaginase preparations. Clinical medical staff should pay attention to the characteristics of AAP ,consider the possibility : of AAP when the patients have gastrointestinal symptoms and do a good job in patient education and pharmaceutical care to minimize the damage caused by AAP to patients.

5.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 78(2): 95-101, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249113

ABSTRACT

Resumen La pancreatitis aguda es una enfermedad inflamatoria del páncreas. Se observa con mayor frecuencia en niños bajo tratamiento por alguna enfermedad hematooncológica y se asocia principalmente con la administración de L-asparaginasa. Identificar esta complicación de forma temprana y establecer un plan terapéutico adecuado puede mejorar el pronóstico y reducir el riesgo de otras complicaciones. En este trabajo se realizó una revisión crítica de la literatura actual, con especial énfasis en los aspectos clínicos, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de la pancreatitis aguda en niños con cáncer.


Abstract Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas. It is currently seen more frequently in children undergoing treatment for a hemato-oncological disease and it is mainly associated with the administration of L-asparaginase. The early identification of this complication and the establishment of an appropriate therapeutic plan can improve its prognosis and reduce the risk of other complications. In this article, we make a critical review of the current literature, with special emphasis on the clinical aspects, diagnosis, and treatment of acute pancreatitis in children with cancer.

6.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(1): 9-14, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154298

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: To assess the frequency of allergic reactions to asparaginase (ASP) and possible risk factors for reactions in a cohort of pediatric patients. Method: The study was performed based on retrospective data from patients under acute lymphoid leukemia treatment in a general university hospital located in southern Brazil. Information on patients who used ASP from 2010 to 2017 was collected. Allergic reactions were identified in electronic medical records. Results: Among the 98 patients included in the study, 16 (16.3 %) experienced an allergic reaction to native l-asparaginase (L-ASP). Of the 22 patients (22.4 %) that received only intravenous (IV) administration of l-ASP, 10 (62.5 %) had allergic reactions, while 48 patients (49 %) received intramuscular (IM) administration and 28 (28.6 %) received IV and IM administrations. The occurrence of allergic reactions differed between the groups (p < 0.001), and IV administration was associated with allergic reactions. Association was also observed between the severity of the reaction and the route of administration, with the IM route associated with grade 2 and IV route associated with grade 3. Occurrence of allergic reactions was higher when the commercial formulation of l-ASP, Leuginase®, was used (p = 0.0009 in the analysis per patient and p = 0.0003 in the analysis per administration). Conclusions: The IV administration and commercial Leuginase® presentation were associated with more allergic reactions in the study population, which corroborates the findings in the literature. The IV route was also associated with higher severity of reactions in the present study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Asparaginase/toxicity , Child , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/diagnosis , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/therapy , Hypersensitivity
7.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359773

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Objetivos: Apresentar um caso raro de cetoacidose diabética (CAD) e pancreatite secundários ao uso de PEG-asparaginase em paciente pediátrico em tratamento para leucemia linfoblástica aguda (LLA) e alertar quanto aos sinais que remetem a esses diagnósticos. Descrição do caso: Adolescente do sexo feminino, 10 anos e 11 meses, em tratamento para LLA e uso prévio de PEG-asparaginase há seis dias da internação, admitida com choque hipotensivo grave e encaminhada à Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. Inicialmente o quadro foi interpretado como choque séptico. Em seguida a anamnese detalhada e os exames laboratoriais direcionaram para os diagnósticos de CAD e pancreatite, iniciando-se as intervenções específicas. Recebe alta hospitalar após 30 dias, sem necessidade de insulinoterapia, mas com reposição de enzimas pancreáticas. Comentários: Geralmente, às crianças com LLA gravemente enfermos e leucopênicos, atribui-se apenas o diagnóstico de sepse, que é um diagnóstico prioritário. Entretanto, no grupo em uso de PEG-asparaginase, o pediatra emergencista deve estar alerta ao raciocínio diferencial envolvendo CAD e pancreatite, o que pode ser bem difícil inicialmente. O alerta dos diagnósticos diferenciais do choque séptico, mesmo que raros, na assistência a pacientes oncológicos pediátricos, além da correta e pronta identificação do quadro e seu manejo apropriado, correlacionam-se diretamente ao sucesso terapêutico e, em algumas situações, à sobrevivência do paciente. (AU)


ABSTRACT: Objectives: We present a rare case of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and pancreatitis secondary to the use of PEG-asparaginase in a pediatric patient being treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and draw attention to the signs that refer to these diagnoses. Case description: A female adolescent, aged 10 years and 11 months, undergoing treatment for ALL, used PEG-asparaginase for 6 days prior to admission. She was hospitalized due to severe hypotensive shock and was then referred to the intensive care unit. Initially, the clinical condition was interpreted as septic shock. However, detailed anamnesis and results of laboratory tests led to the diagnoses of DKA and pancreatitis; hence, appropriate interventions were initiated. She was discharged after 30 days without the need for insulin therapy but received pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. Comments: Generally, diagnosing severely ill and leukopenic children with ALL is only attributed to sepsis, which is a priority diagnosis. However, in the group treated with PEG-asparaginase, the pediatric emergency specialist should consider differential reasoning in patients with DKA and pancreatitis, which can be quite difficult to assess initially. Alertness towards the differential diagnoses of septic shock, although rare, in the care of pediatric oncology patients, in addition to the correct and prompt identification of the condition and provision of appropriate management, directly correlates with treatment success and, in some situations, the improvement in patient's survival. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Pancreatitis , Asparaginase , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Sepsis , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Enzyme Replacement Therapy
8.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2012-2018, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886587

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To mine and evaluate the post-marketing safety alert signals of pegaspargase (PEG-ASP) and L-asparaginase (L-ASP),and compare the safety differences between them ,so as to provide reference for clinical safe and rational drug use. METHODS : The adverse drug event (ADE) reports of PEG-ASP and L-ASP issued by FDA adverse event reporting system from Jan. 1st,2004-Jun. 30th,2020 were retrieved. BCPNN method was used to mine the safety signals of these two drugs under the condition that the lower limit of information component (IC-2SD)>0 and the number of events ≥3. The medium and strong signals of two drugs with IC -2SD≥1.5 were evaluated and compared in 8 system organ class,such as gastrointestinal system ,hepatobiliary system ,blood and lymphatic system ,blood vessels and lymphatic vessels , nervous system ,immune system ,metabolism and nutrition ,various examinations. IC value of specific ADE signal and its 95% confidence interval were analyzed by time scanning spectrum. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS :The reports of PEG-ASP and L-ASP as suspected drugs were 2 324 and 3 824;67 and 68 medium and strong signals were included ,respectively. In gastrointestinal system,the common strong signal of PEG-ASP and L-ASP was necrotic pancreatitis. In hepatobiliary system ,both of them showed strong signal in venoocclusive liver disease ,and this ADE was not included in the drug instruction. In blood and lymphatic system , common strong signals of the two drugs were febrile neutropenia ,coagulation disorder ,neutropenia and febrile bone marrow regeneration disorder ;in blood vessels and lymphatic vessels ,in addition to haemodynamic instability ,IC values of other signals of L-ASP were higher than those of PEG-ASP. In nervous system ,IC values of other signals of L-ASP were higher than those of PEG-ASP except for intracranial haemorrhage. In immune system ,anaphylactic reaction was a medium signal for L-ASP but was a strong signal for PEG-ASP. In metabolism and nutritional diseases ,except for tumor lysis syndrome ,IC values of other signals of L-ASP were higher than those of PEG-ASP. The results of time scanning spectrum showed that the signals of necrotic pancreatitis and coagulation disorder of PEG-ASP were stable ,while the signals of veno occlusive liver disease and hypersensitivity were unstable and needed to be observed ;above four signals of L-ASP were stable signals. When using PEG-ASP or L-ASP clinically , close attention should be paid to the safety problems such as hypersensitivity ,coagulation disorder ,thrombosis,necrotic pancreatitis,venoocclusive liver disease and hypoproteinemia.

9.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2021. 98 p. graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396067

ABSTRACT

A enzima L-asparaginase é comumente utilizada como biofármaco para o tratamento da Leucemia Linfoblástica Aguda e possui altas taxas de cura com o medicamento disponível no mercado. Atualmente a aquisição deste biofármaco é fruto integral de importação, não sendo realizada produção nacional, muito embora existam grupos de pesquisas nacionais que trabalham em pesquisas e no desenvolvimento de biofármacos alternativos da L-asparaginase. Assim, a presente dissertação tem como objetivo realizar análises técnico-econômicas para avaliar a viabilidade de implementação industrial de bioprocessos para a produção da L-asparaginase do tipo Erwinase PEGuilada e não PEGuilada, que foram previamente desenvolvidos na FCF-USP. As análises técnico-econômicas foram conduzidas por meio do software SuperPro Design® (Intelligen, Inc.) e permitiram adaptar o processo laboratorial para um processo piloto e possibilitaram estimar os valores de custo de produção unitário (Unity Cost of Production - UPC) de US$ 12,37/mg e US$ 3,46/mg para a L-asparaginase monoPEGuilada e nativa obtida por processo similar, respectivamente. O custo unitário de produção para a enzima peguilada foi, portanto, estimado em cerca de 4 vezes o mesmo custo para a produção da enzima peguilada, sendo tal aumento de custo devido às operações de peguilação, já que ambas as plantas foram mantidas nas mesmas dimensões. Ainda, foram obtidos indicadores econômicos, que indicam a atratividade do processo desenvolvido, muito embora tenham sido identificados diversos gargalos de processo e fatores a serem otimizados e melhorados de forma a tornar o processo mais atrativo sob os pontos de vista técnico e econômico. Em uma análise de sensibilidade preliminar um aumento factível da densidade celular já mostra que é possível reduzir em mais de 30% o UPC. De toda forma, ainda que não otimizado, o processo apresentou valores e dados compatíveis com os biofármacos de L-asparaginase já disponíveis no mercado


The enzyme L-asparaginase is commonly used as a biopharmaceutical in the treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, presenting high cure rates with the formulations available on the market. Nowadays, the acquisition of this biopharmaceutical is only from importation, given that there is no national production being carried out, although there are national research groups working on research and development of alternative L-asparaginase biopharmaceuticals. Thus, this project aims at carrying out technical-economic analyzes to evaluate the viability of industrial implementation of bioprocesses for the production of L-asparaginase of the PEGylated and non-PEGylated Erwinase type previously developed at FCF-USP. The technical-economic analyzes, conducted by means of the software SuperPro Design® (Intelligen, Inc.), allowed to adapt the laboratory process to a pilot process and made it possible to estimate the unit cost of production (UPC) values of US $ 12.37 / mg and US $ 3.56 / mg for monoPEGylated L-asparaginase and bare obtained by similar process, respectively. The unit cost of production for the pegylated enzyme was, therefore, estimated at about 4 times the same cost for the production of the pegylated enzyme, such an increase in cost due to pegylation operations, since both plants were maintained in the same dimensions. Moreover, economic indicators were obtained, which indicate the attractiveness of the developed process. However, several process bottlenecks and factors to be optimized and improved were identified to make the process more attractive from the technical and economic point of view. In a preliminary sensitivity analysis, a feasible increase in cell density already shows that it is possible to reduce UPC by more than 30%. Accordingly, although not optimized, the process presented values and data compatible with the L-asparaginase biopharmaceuticals already available on the market


Subject(s)
Asparaginase/analysis , Biological Products/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Cell Count/instrumentation , Costs and Cost Analysis/classification , Growth and Development , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/pathology
10.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2021. 84 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380519

ABSTRACT

A enzima L-asparaginase de Escherichia coli (ASNase) é um biofármaco indicado para o tratamento de leucemia linfoblástica aguda, mas que pode causar reações de hipersensibilidade nos pacientes tratados. Na tentativa de amenizar esse efeito, foi desenvolvida a PEG-ASNase (enzima conjugada com polietilenoglicol) que apresenta a vantagem de ser menos imunogênica e ter maior meia-vida biológica. Mais recentemente, novas abordagens têm sido desenvolvidas visando aprimorar os processos de PEGuilação por meio de reações sítio dirigidas, por exemplo N-terminal, a fim de promover maior similaridade lote a lote e controle das características farmacocinéticas e farmacodinâmicas do biofármaco. Porém, existe ainda uma limitação associada à hidrólise do PEG reativo, desta forma surge a necessidade de procurar solventes alternativos para a PEGuilação que permitam manter a estabilidade das proteínas, aumentar o rendimento de PEGuilação e a estabilidade do PEG reativo. Nesse trabalho, líquidos iônicos foram investigados como solventes alternativos para a peguilação N-terminal de PEG-ASNase. Para tal, a estabilidade de ASNase em Lis foi investigada em LIs da família metil-imidazol, analisando a influência do aumento da cadeia alquílica e de diferentes ânions. A estabilidade da ASNase é favorecida quando em contato com Lis relativamente hidrofóbicos ([C2mim]Cl, [C4mim]Cl e [C6mim]Cl), mas sua a atividade é prejudicada quando o LI é muito polar, como o [C4mim][(CH3)2PO4] ou anfifílico como o [C12mim]Cl. Apesar de seu efeito desnaturante, o [C4mim][(CH3)2PO4] resultou no maior rendimento da reação de PEGuilação da ASNase (56%) quando empregado a 75% e a reação realizada em 10 min. O [C4mim]Cl resultou em rendimento semelhante ao tampão fosfato (~ 49%), mas ambos os LIs reduziram a poliPEGuilação. Portanto, os Lis [C4mim]Cl e [C4mim][(CH3)2PO4] fornecem uma alternativa viável à reação de PEGuilação pela redução na formação de espécies poliPEGuiladas, o que facilitaria os processos de purificação e permitiria maior controle lote a lote da reação, bem como pelo aumento do rendimento da reação no caso do [C4mim][(CH3)2PO4]


Escherichia coli L-asparaginase enzyme (ASNase) is a biopharmaceutical indicated for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, but may cause hypersensitivity in the patients used. In an attempt to alleviate this effect, PEG-ASNase (polyethylene glycol conjugated enzyme) was developed, which has the advantage of being less immunogenic and having a longer biological half-life. More recently, new approaches have been applied to improve PEGylation processes through targeted sites, for example N-terminal, in order to promote greater similarity to the batch and control of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of the biopharmaceutical. However, there is still a limitation associated with reactive PEG hydrolysis, thus increasing the need to look for alternative PEGylation solvents to maintain protein stability, increase PEGylation yield and use reactive PEG. In this work, ions were investigated as alternative solvents for the N-terminal PEG-ASNase. For example, a stability of ASNase in ILs was investigated in imidazole ILs by analyzing the influence of increased alkyl chain and different anions. ASNase stability is enhanced when in contact with relatively hydrophobic ILs ([C2min]Cl, [C4min]Cl and [C6min]Cl), but its activity is impaired when very polar ILs such as [C4min][(CH3)2PO4] or amphiphilic as [C12mim]Cl. Despite its denaturing effect, [C4min][(CH3)2PO4] resulted in higher yield of ASNase PEGylation reaction (56%) when employed at 75% and reaction performed in 10 min. [C4min]Cl yielded similar phosphate buffer yield (~ 49%), but both ILs reduced polyPEGylation. Therefore, [C4min]Cl and [C4min][(CH3)2PO4] Ils may use a viable alternative to the PEGylation reaction and reduce the formation of polyPEGylated species, or that facilitate purification processes and allow for greater batch use of the solution, as well as increased reaction yield in the case of [C4min][(CH3)2PO4]


Subject(s)
Ionic Liquids , Asparaginase/analysis , Escherichia coli/classification , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/pathology , Protein Stability
11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 3779-3790, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922440

ABSTRACT

PEGylated-l-asparaginase (PEG-ASNase) is a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Its use is avoided in adults due to its high risk of liver injury including hepatic steatosis, with obesity and older age considered risk factors of the injury. Our study aims to elucidate the mechanism of PEG-ASNase-induced liver injury. Mice received 1500 U/kg of PEG-ASNase and were sacrificed 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after drug administration. Liver triglycerides were quantified, and plasma bilirubin, ALT, AST, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were measured. The mRNA and protein levels of genes involved in hepatic fatty acid synthesis,

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907967

ABSTRACT

Retrospective analysis was performed on 1 child with silent inactivation (SI) of asparaginase (ASNas) who was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and treated in the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University in October 2019.The patient was a 9 years and 3 months old boy who was diagnosed as ALL accompanied with late bone marrow relapse.After pegylated Escherichia coli-Asparaginase (PEG-ASNase) was given, he did not have the expected treatment-related adverse reactions, including hyperammonemia, hypofibrinogenemia, and the low activation of antithrombin Ⅲ (ATⅢ). The plasma asparagine (ASN) concentration failed to meet the depletion criteria and the ASNase activity was 64.5 U/L.Therefore, the SI of ASNase was confirmed.Erwinase was used to replace PEG-ASNase, the lowest level of ATⅢ was 33%, and the lowest level of fibrinogen was 1.20 g/L.Hyperammonemia and decreased ASN were also observed, and the ASNase activity was 1 813.0 U/L.All the above suggested that when, SI occurred, the replacement by Erwinase was effective.The ASNase activity should be monitored in ALL patients who were treated with ASNase.Monitoring the treatment-related adverse reactions such as hyperammonia and coagulation disorders closely has important implications to the SI of ASNase when the detection of ASNase activity was unavailable.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-861635

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) diagnosed with secondary acute pancreatitis(AP). Methods: We collected data from a total of 11 patients with ALL and secondary acute pancreatitis who were treated in Tianjin Children's Hospital from February 2013 to February 2020. All patients followed the China Children's Leukemia Collaborative Group-Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia-2008 (CCLG- ALL 2008) combined regimen. We summarized the patient's risk stratification, primary clinical manifestations, treatment stage, cause of pancreatitis, and cumulative dosage of polyethylene glycol conjugated asparaginase (PEG-ASP). The results from examinations such as pancreatic enzyme index, imaging, blood routine, liver and kidney function, blood lipid and blood glucose, and coagulation function were also compared. Finally, the therapeutic effects and outcomes of the patients were compared; and subsequently their clinical characteristics were analyzed. Results: Among the 11 patients 7 were male, and 4 were female; aged between 1-14 years old, with a median age of 6 years. Ten patients had type B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and 1 had type T acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Pancreatitis was observed in 8 cases within 45 days after start of therapy, in one high-risk case after the second cycle of HR3' chemotherapy and in 2 cases after intensive chemotherapy. It was observed in 10 cases after PEG-ASP treatment, and in one T-ALL case concomitant with tumor lysis syndrome following cyclophosphamide-dexamethasone cytoduction treatment. It manifested primarily as abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting in 11 patients; 8 patients had hypocalcemia; 9 patients had low albumin levels; and 8 patients had abnormal coagulation function. No hypersensitivity was observed. Conclusions: Secondary AP occurs in children with ALL during the early stages of combined chemotherapy. Most of the complications are related to the asparaginase treatment. The severity of the disease is not significantly correlated with the risk stratification of the disease and the cumulative dose of asparaginase. Serum pancreatic enzyme (PE) testing and imaging tests can help assess the clinical status and guide the later prognosis and medication.

14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3242-3252, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921421

ABSTRACT

L-asparaginase hydrolyzes L-asparagine to produce L-aspartic acid and ammonia. It is widely distributed in microorganisms, plants and serum of some rodents, and has important applications in the pharmaceutical and food industries. However, the poor thermal stability, low catalytic efficiency and low yield hampered the further application of L-asparaginase. In this paper, rational design and 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) design strategies were used to increase the specific enzyme activity and protein expression of L-asparaginase derived from Rhizomucor miehei (RmAsnase). The results showed that among the six mutants constructed through homology modeling combined with sequence alignment, the specific enzyme activity of the mutant A344E was 1.5 times higher than the wild type. Subsequently, a food-safe strain Bacillus subtilis 168/pMA5-A344E was constructed, and the UTR strategy was used for the construction of recombinant strain B. subtilis 168/pMA5 UTR-A344E. The enzyme activity of B. subtilis 168/pMA5 UTR-A344E was 7.2 times higher than that of B. subtilis 168/pMA5-A344E. The recombinant strain B. subtilis 168/pMA5 UTR-A344E was scaled up in 5 L fermenter, and the final yield of L-asparaginase was 489.1 U/mL, showing great potential for industrial application.


Subject(s)
Asparaginase/genetics , Bacillus subtilis/genetics , Industrial Microbiology , Protein Engineering , Rhizomucor/enzymology , Sequence Alignment
15.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 42(3): 275-282, July-Sept. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134044

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The long-term outcome of acute lymphoblastic leukemia has improved dramatically due to the development of more effective treatment strategies. L-asparaginase (ASNase) is one of the main drugs used and causes death of leukemic cells by systematically depleting the non-essential amino acid asparagine. Three main types of ASNase have been used so far: native ASNase derived from Escherichia coli, an enzyme isolated from Erwinia chrysanthemi and a pegylated form of the native E. coli ASNase, the ASNase PEG. Hypersensitivity reactions are the main complication related to this drug. Although clinical allergies may be important, a major concern is that antibodies produced in response to ASNase may cause rapid inactivation of ASNase, leading to a worse prognosis. This reaction is commonly referred to as "silent hypersensitivity" or "silent inactivation". We are able to analyze hypersensitivity and inactivation processes by the measurement of the ASNase activity. The ability to individualize the ASNase therapy in patients, adjusting the dose or switching patients with silent inactivation to an alternate ASNase preparation may help improve outcomes in those patients. This review article aims to describe the pathophysiology of the inactivation process, how to diagnose it and finally how to manage it.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asparaginase , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Hypersensitivity
16.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 42(1): 54-61, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090479

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the cancer with the highest incidence in childhood and adolescence, and pharmacotherapy is the primary form of treatment. Objective and methods A systematic review of the efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-asparaginase in acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy in children and adolescents was conducted to compare it with native Escherichia coli L-asparaginase. PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, Scopus, LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature) and EMBASE databases were selected. The following outcomes were analyzed: complete remission of the disease, event-free survival, overall survival, anti-asparaginase antibody level, hypersensitivity reactions, asparaginase and asparagine serum levels, number of postdiagnosis events, and overall mortality. Five randomized controlled trials were included. Analysis of the quality of evidence and risk of bias was performed using the Cochrane recommendation tool and the GRADE system. Results The assessment results suggest that the level of certainty on the technology addressed is relatively weak from a methodological point of view. Evidence is insufficient to assess the effects on health outcomes because of the limited number and power of studies and important flaws in their design or conduct in classifying PEG-asparaginase as a superior drug or not, in the pharmacotherapy of ALL in children and adolescents. PEG-asparaginase can be used as a substitute for native E. coli L-asparaginase, demonstrating similar efficacy and safety. Conclusion The study may help decision-makers in the public health system to offer a more in-depth judgment on the therapeutic alternatives used to treat this neoplasm in children and adolescents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Asparaginase , Escherichia coli , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Polyethylene Glycols , Systematic Review
17.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-212025

ABSTRACT

Background: The L-Asparaginase is a medically important drug. The L-Asparaginase enzyme, an anticancer agent produced by microorganisms is used for the treatment of patients suffering from lymphoma and leukemia. The L-Asparaginase is economical and its administration is easy when compared to other commercial drugs available in market. Many microbes have been reported to produce the L-Asparaginase.Methods: In the present work the sequence of L-Asparaginase enzyme protein was obtained from the Universal Protein Resource (UNIPROT) server. The sequence of L-Asparaginase was used to generate 3-D model of L-Asparaginase in SWISS MODEL server. The constructed L-Asparaginase model was verified using Ramachandran Plot in PROCHECK server.Results: The FASTA format of L-Asparaginase enzyme of Bacillus subtilis strain 168 was retrieved from UNIPROT server. The FASTA format of L-Asparaginase was submitted to SWISS MODEL and its three-dimensional structural model was developed based on relevant template model. The model structure of L-Asparaginase was validated in PROCHECK server using Ramachandran Plot. The Ramachandran Plot of L-Asparaginase model inferred the reliability of L-Asparaginase structure model developed in SWISS MODEL server.  Conclusions: In the present study computational tools were exploited to develop and validate a potent anticancer drug, L-Asparaginase. Further the modeled L-Asparaginase enzyme protein can be improved using advanced bioinformatics tools and the same improved enzyme can be produced by improving the L-Asparaginase producing microbial strains by site-directed mutagenesis in the corresponding gene.

18.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2020. 157 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291880

ABSTRACT

A L-Asparaginase (L-ASNase) de Erwinia chrysathemi (ErA) é uma enzima amplamente utilizada para o tratamento da leucemia linfoblástica aguda (LLA). Embora o seu uso como segunda linha de tratamento para a LLA tenha proporcionado consideráveis benefícios clínicos, reações de hipersensibilidade e rápida depuração plasmática ainda são problemas recorrentes. Ademais, extensivos e custosos processos de produção da ErA são necessários para a obtenção da enzima pura. Com base nesses problemas, o presente trabalho propõe (1) o estudo de viabilidade de expressão da ErA em um sistema de síntese proteica livre de células (SPLC) e (2) a conjugação da proteína em bacteriófagos como ferramenta alternativa para o isolamento e monitoramento da depuração plasmática da ErA. Foram utilizados extratos celulares de Escherichia coli suplementados com solução energética contendo creatina fosfato (CP) como fonte de energia para síntese in vitro de ErA. Para conjugação da ErA a bacteriófagos, o sistema SpyTag/SpyCatcher foi implementado: SpyCatcher foi fusionado à porção N-terminal da ErA e bacteriófagos filamentosos da linhagem M13 e fd foram modificados de modo a expressar SpyTag nas proteínas de capsídeo pIII e pVIII, respectivamente. Em relação ao primeiro objetivo, o sistema de SPLC foi capaz de expressar a ErA com atividade. A proteína foi expressa na fração solúvel e apresentou atividade enzimática significativamente superior em relação à reação controle (7,07 ± 0,68 U/mL vs. 1,83 ± 0,14 U/mL). Tempo necessário para obtenção do extrato celular foi reduzido de 45 para 26 hrs, e sete componentes da solução energética foram removidos da composição original sem implicações negativas na eficiência de expressão da ErA, simplificando desta forma o processo de SPLC. Em relação ao segundo objetivo, ErA fusionada à SpyCatcher (SpyCatcher_ErA) foi conjugada com êxito em bacteriófagos capazes de expressar SpyTag fusionadas na porção N-terminal das proteínas pIII (SpyTag_pIII) e pVIII (SpyTag_pVIII). A porcentagem de formação dos conjugados entre SpyCatcher_ErA e SpyTag_pIII ((ErA)5-pIII) foi de 6% enquanto formação dos conjugados entre SpyCatcher_ErA e SpyTag_pVIII ((ErA)50-pVIII) foi de 46%, valores estes confirmados por atividade enzimática. Solução contendo conjugados foram injetados em camundongos e sequenciados/titulados com êxito. Não houve diferença de depuração plasmática entre (ErA)5-pIII e bacteriófago controle, mas houve maior taxa de eliminação de (ErA)50-pVIII em relação ao mesmo bacteriófago não conjugado à SpyCatcher_ErA. Os resultados aqui apresentados confirmam ser possível expressar ErA com atividade biológica em sistemas de SPLC. Além disso, o sistema de conjugação da ErA a bacteriófagos aqui desenvolvido foi capaz de monitorar a concentração de ErA presente na circulação em função do tempo, tornando-se uma potencial plataforma de desenvolvimento de novas proteoformas da ErA com características clínicas melhoradas


L-Asparaginase (L-ASNase) from Erwinia chrysanthemi (ErA) is a widely used enzyme for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Although its use as a second-line treatment has provided significant clinical benefits, hypersensitivity reactions and a fast clearance rate are recurring L-ASNase-related problems. In addition, extensive and costly production processes are required for the manufacturing of pure ErA. Based on these drawbacks, this current work proposes (1) the study of the use of a cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) system as a viable platform for the synthesis of ErA and (2) the conjugation of the protein on bacteriophages as an alternative tool for the isolation and monitoring of ErA clearance. Escherichia coli-derived cell extracts supplemented with a creatine phosphate-based energy solution were used to synthesize ErA in vitro. To conjugate ErA on bacteriophages, the SpyTag/SpyCatcher system was implemented: SpyCatcher was fused to the N-terminus of the ErA while filamentous phage strains M13 and fd were engineered in order to display SpyTag on their pIII and pVIII capsid proteins, respectively. Regarding the first goal, the CFPS system was able to express an active ErA. The protein was expressed in the soluble fraction and there presented a significant higher enzymatic activity compared to the control reaction (7.07 ± 0.68 U/mL vs. 1.83 ± 0.14 U/mL). Time required to obtain the cell extract was reduced from 45 to 26 hours, and seven energy solution reagents were removed from the original solution without compromising the efficiency of ErA expression, thus simplifying the CFPS process. With respect to the second goal, ErA fused to SpyCatcher (SpyCatcher_ErA) was sucessfully conjugated on bacteriophages capable of displaying SpyTag fused to the Nterminus of the pIII (SpyTag_pIII) or pVIII (SpyTag_pVIII) proteins. Percentage of conjugate formation between SpyCatcher_ErA and SpyTag_pIII (ErA)5-pIII was 6% whereas conjugate formation between SpyCatcher_ErA and SpyTag_pVIII (ErA)50-pVIII was 46%, values that were confirmed by enzymatic activity. Sample containing conjugates were injected into mice and sucessfully sequenced/titrated. No clearance differences were observed between (ErA)5- pIII and a control bacteriophage, but a higher clearance rate was observed for (ErA)50-pVIII compared to SpyTag_VIII non conjugated to SpyCatcher_ErA. The results here presented confirm the expression of a biologically active ErA from a CFPS system. Besides, the development of a conjugation system capable of linking ErA to bacteriophages could be used as a means to monitor the ErA concentration in the blood as a function of time and also as a potential platform to be used in the development of novel ErA proteoforms with improved clinical properties


Subject(s)
Asparaginase/analysis , Biological Products/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Efficiency , Enzymes , Erwinia/classification , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/classification , Cells , Dickeya chrysanthemi/classification , Capsid Proteins , Growth and Development , Escherichia coli/classification , /methods
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-825139

ABSTRACT

@#The stability and pharmacokinetic properties of hyaluronic acid-modified asparaginase (Asp) self-assembled bionic nanocapsules (ASNCs) were preliminarily investigated. ASNCs were prepared by molecular self-assembly method to investigate their morphology, particle size, zeta potential and antitrypsin stability. After intravenous injection of free Asp and ASNCs, rat plasma samples at different times were taken to determine Asp activity. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS pharmacokinetic software. The particle size of ASNCs was (99.17 ± 0.21) nm and the potential was -(13.13 ± 0.60) mV. In trypsin solution, ASNCs showed more excellent stability. The area under the activity-time curve (AUC0-48 h) of ASNCs was about 2 times higher than that of Asp; the mean residence time (MRT0-48 h) was about 1.7 times higher than that of Asp, and the bioavailability was 195% of Asp. The results showed that ASNCs could improve the stability and bioavailability of Asp against trypsin and prolong the circulation time of Asp in vivo.

20.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 42: 6-15, Nov. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087345

ABSTRACT

Background: The increasing rate of breast cancer globally requires extraordinary efforts to discover new effective sources of chemotherapy with fewer side effects. Glutaminase-free L-asparaginase is a vital chemotherapeutic agent for various tumor malignancies. Microorganisms from extreme sources, such as marine bacteria, might have high L-asparaginase productivity and efficiency with exceptional antitumor action toward breast cancer cell lines. Results: L-Asparaginase-producing bacteria, Bacillus velezensis isolated from marine sediments, were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. L-Asparaginase production by immobilized cells was 61.04% higher than that by free cells fermentation. The significant productivity of enzyme occurred at 72 h, pH 6.5, 37°C, 100 rpm. Optimum carbon and nitrogen sources for enzyme production were glucose and NH4Cl, respectively. L-Asparaginase was free from glutaminase activity, which was crucial medically in terms of their severe side effects. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme is 39.7 KDa by SDS-PAGE analysis and was ideally active at pH 7.5 and 37°C. Notwithstanding, the highest stability of the enzyme was found at pH 8.5 and 70°C for 1 h. The enzyme kinetic parameters displayed Vmax at 41.49 µmol/mL/min and a Km of 3.6 × 10−5 M, which serve as a proof of the affinity to its substrate. The anticancer activity of the enzyme against breast adenocarcinoma cell lines demonstrated significant activity toward MDA-MB-231 cells when compared with MCF-7 cells with IC50 values of 12.6 ± 1.2 µg/mL and 17.3 ± 2.8 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: This study provides the first potential of glutaminase-free L-asparaginase production from the marine bacterium Bacillus velezensis as a prospect anticancer pharmaceutical agent for two different breast cancer cell lines.


Subject(s)
Asparaginase/metabolism , Bacillus/enzymology , Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , Glutaminase/metabolism , Asparaginase/biosynthesis , Temperature , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Kinetics , Cells, Immobilized , Enzyme Assays , Fermentation , MCF-7 Cells , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
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