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Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 92(3): 349-357, jul.-sep. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393830


Resumen Objetivo: Conocer el comportamiento epidemiológico y asociaciones de la FA en población mexicana. Material y métodos: Analizamos 8,686 pacientes de 38 cardiólogos inscritos en REMECAR, divididos por edad y sexo. Comorbilidades estudiadas: obesidad, ERC, HTA, DM, dislipidemia, EVC, EPOC, hipotiroidismo, IC y CI. Programa: IBM SPSS. Resultados: FA en 498 pacientes (5.7%), mayor prevalencia en hombres (6.1 vs. 5.3%), mayor edad en mujeres (74.3 ± 12.1 vs. 70.5 ± 12.3 años, p < 0.0001). En mujeres menores de 60 años la FA se asoció con IC (p = 0.041), en hombres con ERC (p = 0.43), DM (p = 0.009), EVC (p = 0.001), hipotiroidismo (p = 0.001) e IC (p = 0.001). En mujeres mayores de 60 años se asoció con ERC (p = 0.001), dislipidemia (p = 0.001), EVC (p = 0.001), EPOC (p = 0.001) e IC (p = 0.001), en hombres con ERC (p = 0.002), EVC (p = 0.001), EPOC (p = 0.002), hipotiroidismo (p = 0.002), IC (p = 0.001) y CI (p = 0.033). En mujeres la FA se asoció con 1.13 veces mayor probabilidad de obesidad, 1.13 de HTA, 2.8 de ERC, 2.9 de EPOC, 4.3 de EVC y 6.5 de IC, en hombres la FA se asoció con 1.05 veces mas probabilidad de HTA, 1.4 de DM, 2.1 de ERC, 2.4 de EPOC, 3 de hipotiroidismo, 4.7 de EVC y 6 de IC. Conclusiones: La FA es una arritmia muy frecuente, con mayor prevalencia en pacientes que acuden a consulta de cardiología, en hombres y mayor edad de presentación en las mujeres. A mayor edad, mayor prevalencia de FA y de comorbilidades, la IC es la condición más frecuente con la que se asoció la FA.

Abstract Objective: To know the epidemiological behavior and associations of AF in Mexican population. Material and methods: 8,686 patients from 38 cardiologists participating in REMECAR were analyzed. They were divided by gender and age, the comorbidities studied were obesity, chronic kidney disease (CKD), high blood pressure (HBP), diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), hypothyroidism, heart failure (HF) and ischemic heart disease (IHD). Program used: IBM SPSS Statistic. Results: AF was diagnosed in 498 patients (5.7%), with higher prevalence in men (6.1% vs. 5.3%) and older age in women (74.3 ± 12.1 vs. 70.5 + -12.3 years, p<0.0001). In those under 60 years, AF was associated in women with HF, in men with CKD, DM, stroke, hypothyroidism and HF. In women older than 60 years, AF was associated with CKD, dyslipidemia, stroke, chronic COPD and HF, in men with CKD, stroke, COPD, hypothyroidism, HF and IHD. AF in women increase the probability 1.13 for obesity, 1.13 for HBP, 2.8 for CKD, 2.9 for COPD, 4.3 for stroke and 6.5 for HF, in men increase the probability 1.05 for HBP, 1.4 for DM, 2.1 for CKD, 2.4 for COPD, 3.0 for hypothyroidism, 4.7 for stroke and 6.0 for HF. Conclusions: AF is a very common arrhythmia, with a higher prevalence in patients attending the cardiology consultation, in men and with an older age of presentation in women. The older the age, the higher the prevalence of AF and comorbidities, HF is the most frequent condition associated with AF.

Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(4): 530-536, July-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385261


Abstract Background: Although electrical and structural remodeling has been recognized to be important in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation, the mechanisms underlying remodeling process are unknown. There has been increasing interest in the involvement of inflammatory molecules and adipokines released from the epicardial fat tissue in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation. Objectives: In our study, we aimed to investigate the relationship of atrial fibrillation with increased epicardial adipose tissue, inflammatory molecules released from this tissue and omentin. Methods: Thirty-six patients who were followed up with a diagnosis of permanent AF at the cardiology outpatient clinic 33 individuals without atrial fibrillation (controls) were included in the study. Epicardial adipose tissue thickness of patients was measured by echocardiography. Serum omentin, IL 6, IL 1 beta, TNF alpha and CRP levels were measured. Man-Whitney U test was performed for comparisons and significance was established at 5% (p<0.05). Results: Epicardial adipose tissue thickness was significantly greater in the patient group (6mm [4-5.5]) than controls (4mm [3-5.5]) (p <0.001). No significant difference was found in the concentrations of omentin or inflammatory molecules between the groups. Conclusion: No relationship was found between atrial fibrillation and serum levels or omentin or inflammatory markers. A relationship between epicardial adipose tissue thickness measured by echocardiography and atrial fibrillation was determined.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pericardium/anatomy & histology , Atrial Fibrillation/physiopathology , Adipose Tissue , Echocardiography , Biomarkers , Adipokines/physiology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 119(2): 328-341, ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383740


Resumo A fibrilação atrial (FA) é a arritmia cardíaca sustentada mais comum na população geral, tendo uma alta carga de morbimortalidade, e isso também é válido para pacientes com câncer. A associação entre FA e câncer vai ainda mais longe, com alguns estudos sugerindo que a FA pode ser um marcador de câncer oculto. Há, no entanto, uma notável escassez de dados sobre os desafios específicos do manejo da FA em pacientes com câncer. O reconhecimento e o manejo imediatos da FA nesta população especial podem diminuir a morbidade relacionada à arritmia e ter um importante benefício prognóstico. Esta revisão se concentrará nos desafios atuais de diagnóstico e manejo da FA em pacientes com câncer, com ênfase especial nas estratégias e dispositivos de rastreamento da FA e na terapia de anticoagulação com anticoagulantes orais não antagonistas da vitamina K (NOACs) para prevenção tromboembólica nesses pacientes. Alguns insights sobre as perspectivas futuras para a prevenção, diagnóstico e tratamento da FA nesta população especial também serão abordados.

Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia in the general population, carrying a high morbimortality burden, and this also holds true in cancer patients. The association between AF and cancer goes even further, with some studies suggesting that AF can be a marker of occult cancer. There is, however, a remarkable paucity of data concerning specific challenges of AF management in cancer patients. AF prompt recognition and management in this special population can lessen the arrhythmia-related morbidity and have an important prognostic benefit. This review will focus on current AF diagnosis and management challenges in cancer patients, with special emphasis on AF screening strategies and devices, and anticoagulation therapy with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anti-coagulants (NOACs) for thromboembolic prevention in these patients. Some insights concerning future perspectives for AF prevention, diagnosis, and treatment in this special population will also be addressed.

Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(3): 373-381, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375643


Abstract Background: Current pacemakers allow for the continuous recording of the occurrence of arrhythmic events. One of the most frequent arrhythmias after implantation of a device is atrial fibrillation (AF), an important risk factor for embolic events. The frequency of this arrhythmia in pacemaker patients has not been widely studied. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence, incidence, and predictors of the occurrence of AF in patients with double-chamber pacemakers and without a history of atrial fibrillation prior to implantation. Methods: A dynamic, retrospective, and prospective cohort study was carried out with 186 patients undergoing biannual follow-up of the double-chamber pacemaker, without previous AF, in a single service, between 2016 and 2018. Clinical data were collected from the medical records and the telemetry of the device and the prevalence, incidence rate, relative risk by univariate analysis (by chi-square), and risk ratio were calculated by multivariate analysis (by Cox regression); values of p<0.05 were considered significant. Results: There was a prevalence of 25.3% FA, with an incidence of 5.64 cases / 100 persons-year. The median time for the development of arrhythmia was 27.5 months. Multivariate analysis identified 5 statistically significant predictors: male gender, OR: 2.54 [1.04-6.15]; coronary artery disease, OR: 2.98 [1.20-7.41]; hypothyroidism, OR: 3.63 [1.46-9.07]; prior heart surgery, OR: 2.67 [1.01-7]; and left atrial enlargement, OR: 2.72 [1.25-5.92]. Conclusions: The prevalence and incidence of AF in this population are high. Risk factors for AF were: male gender, coronary artery disease, hypothyroidism, prior heart surgery, and left atrial enlargement.

Humans , Male , Female , Pacemaker, Artificial , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Atrioventricular Node , Cohort Studies , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hypertension
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(6): 1099-1105, Maio 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383700


Resumo Fundamento A ecocardiografia tridimensional (ECO 3D) permite a geração de uma curva volume-tempo representativa das alterações no volume ventricular esquerdo (VE) ao longo de todo o ciclo cardíaco. Objetivo O presente estudo tem como objetivo demonstrar as adaptações hemodinâmicas presentes na cardiomiopatia chagásica (CC) por meio das medidas de volume e fluxo obtidas pela curva volume-tempo por ECO 3D. Métodos Vinte pacientes com CC e 15 indivíduos saudáveis foram incluídos prospectivamente em um estudo de desenho transversal. Realizou-se ECO 3D em todos os indivíduos e as curvas volume-tempo do VE foram geradas. O fluxo foi obtido pela primeira derivada da curva volume-tempo por meio do software MATLAB. A significância estatística foi definida com p<0,05. Resultados Embora os pacientes com CC tivessem menor fração de ejeção do VE em comparação com o grupo controle (29,8±7,5 vs. 57,7±6,1, p<0,001), o volume (61,5±25,2 vs. 53,8±21,0, p=0,364) e o fluxo de ejeção máximo durante a sístole (-360,3±147,5 vs. -305,6±126,0, p = 0,231) mostraram-se semelhantes entre os grupos. Da mesma forma, o fluxo máximo na fase de enchimento inicial e durante a contração atrial mostrou-se semelhante entre os grupos. Um aumento na pré-carga expressa pelo volume diastólico final do VE (204,8±79,4 vs. 93,0±32,6), p<0,001) pode manter o fluxo e o volume ejetado semelhantes aos dos controles. Conclusão Com uma ferramenta não invasiva, demonstramos que o aumento no volume diastólico final do VE pode ser o principal mecanismo de adaptação que mantém o fluxo e o volume ejetado no cenário de disfunção sistólica ventricular esquerda severa.

Abstract Background Three-dimensional echocardiography (3D ECHO) allows the generation of a volume-time curve representative of changes in the left ventricular (LV) volume throughout the entire cardiac cycle. Objective This study aims to demonstrate the hemodynamic adaptations present in Chagas cardiomyopathy (CC) by means of the volume and flow measurements obtained by the volume-time curve by 3D ECHO. Methods Twenty patients with CC and 15 healthy subjects were prospectively enrolled in a cross-sectional design study. 3D ECHO was performed in all subjects and the volume over time curves of the LV was generated. The flow was obtained by the first derivative of the volume-time curve using the software MATLAB. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results Although CC patients had lower LV ejection fraction compared to the control group (29.8±7.5 vs. 57.7±6.1, p<0.001), stroke volume (61.5±25.2 vs. 53.8±21.0, p=0.364) and maximum ejection flow during systole (-360.3±147.5 vs. -305.6±126.0, p=0.231) were similar between the groups. Likewise, the maximum flow in the early diastolic filling phase and during atrial contraction was similar between groups. An increase in preload expressed by LV end diastolic volume (204.8±79.4 vs. 93.0±32.6), p<0.001) may maintain the flow and stroke volumes similar to the controls. Conclusion Using a non-invasive tool, we demonstrated that an increase in LV end-diastolic volume may be the main adaptation mechanism that maintains the flow and stroke volumes in the setting of severe LV systolic dysfunction.

Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(5,supl.1): 72-79, May 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393929


Abstract In 2019, the American Heart Association did not recommend the emergent use of anticoagulation to prevent recurrence or progression of acute ischemic stroke. However, its indication in patients with extracranial artery intraluminal thrombus with artery-to-artery cerebral embolization must be analyzed. In this article, we will also discuss other indications of anticoagulation. This treatment could be indicated in patients with ischemic stroke caused by embolization from cervical artery dissection, catastrophic antiphospholipid antibodies syndrome (APS) and some cases of Covid 19. For secondary prevention, anticoagulation is recommended for Cardioembolic stroke such as nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and other cardiopathies, some patients with cervical artery dissection, stroke associated with cancer, and thrombophilia such as APS. The timing to restart anticoagulation after a large ischemic stroke or after a cerebral hemorrhagic transformation always represent a challenge. Even in patients with high risk of thromboembolism it should be delayed at least two weeks, ideal after four weeks.

Resumo Anticoagulação na fase aguda do acidente vascular isquêmico (AVCI) ainda é um tema bastante controverso. Em 2019, a American Heart Association (AHA) não recomendou o uso precoce da anticoagulação para evitar a progressão ou recorrência de AVCIs de grandes artérias. Mas sugere que a anticoagulação em pacientes com AVCI por embolização a partir de trombos intraluminais aderidos a parede de vasos extracranianos fosse analisada. Tanto a antiagregação como anticoagulação são opções terapêuticas nos casos de AVCI por dissecção arterial cervical. Mas em pacientes com AVCI por mecanismo de embolização, a anticoagulação poderia ser indicada. Pacientes com AVCI e sindrome catastrófica por anticorpos antifosfolípides devem ser anticoagulados além de receber tratamento específico. Outra indicação seriam casos de trombofilia como Covid 19. Nesse artigo de revisão será discutida a prevenção secundária de AVCI em situações específicas (AVCI cardioembólico em pacientes com fibrilação atrial não valvular ou outras cardiopatias, AVCI em casos oncológicos, além de outras trombofilias), além do período ideal para se introduzir ou reiniciar a anticoagulação após transformação hemorrágica.

Arq. bras. cardiol ; 119(1): 48-56, abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383717


Resumo Fundamento A oclusão do apêndice atrial esquerdo (AAE) tem se mostrado uma alternativa à terapia de anticoagulação oral (ACO) para prevenção de acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) em pacientes com fibrilação atrial não valvar (FANV). Objetivos Descrever os primeiros resultados de uma experiência inicial multicêntrica no Brasil e investigar a viabilidade, a segurança e a eficácia da oclusão do AAE com o novo dispositivo LAmbre. Métodos Coletamos dados do procedimento e do acompanhamento de 51 pacientes consecutivos com FANV, restrições para ACO em longo prazo e com anatomia adequada, submetidos à oclusão do AAE com o dispositivo LAmbre em 18 centros no Brasil. Indicações para o procedimento foram: sangramento importante em pacientes recebendo ACO (47,1%), AVC ou trombo persistente no AAE apesar de ACO adequada (27.5%), sangramento e AVC (17.6%), outras contraindicações clínicas apara ACO (5,9%), e escolha do paciente devido à prática esportiva (1,9%). Resultados Foram estudados 25 homens (49%) e 26 mulheres (51%), com idade média de 76±7,7 anos, escore CHA2DS2-VASc médio de 4,6± 1,7 e escore HAS-BLED médio de 3.4± 1,1. A taxa de sucesso do procedimento foi de 100%. As complicações imediatas relacionadas ao procedimento foram derrame pericárdico em dois pacientes, e embolização do dispositivo em um caso. Não foram observados shunts residuais > 5mm. Shunts < 5mm foram detectados em quatro pacientes por Doppler colorido ao final do procedimento. Após um período médio de acompanhamento de 18 meses ± 12 meses, não foram observados óbito, AVC ou complicações maiores. Conclusão A oclusão do AAE com o dispositivo LAmbre foi segura e eficaz nesta pequena série de casos. Apesar desses resultados iniciais encorajadores, dado o pequeno número de casos, serão necessários mais estudos com um maior período de acompanhamento.

Abstract Background Left atrial appendage (LAA) closure has been an alternative to oral anticoagulation (OAC) for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Objectives To report the first results of an initial multicenter experience in Brazil and to investigate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of LAA closure with the new LAmbre device. Methods We collected procedural and follow-up data of 51 consecutive patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, restrictions for long-term OAC and suitable anatomy that underwent LAA closure with the LAmbre device in 18 centers in Brazil. Procedural indications were significant bleeding under OAC (47.1%), stroke or persistent LAA thrombus despite OAC (27.5%), bleeding plus stroke (17.6%), other clinical contraindications for OAC (5.9%), and patient's choice due to sports practice (1.9%). Results Twenty-five men (49%) and 26 women (51%), with a mean age of 76±7.7 years, mean CHA2DS2-VASc score of 4.6± 1.7 and mean HAS-BLED score of 3.4± 1.1 were studied. Procedural success rate was 100%. Procedure-related immediate complications were pericardial effusion in two patients, and immediate device embolization in one case. No large residual shunts (> 5 mm) were observed, and small shunts (<5mm) were detected in four patients by color Doppler at the end of the procedure. After a mean follow-up of 18 ± 12 months, there were no deaths, strokes nor any other major complications. Conclusion LAA occlusion with the LAmbre device was safe and effective in this small case series. Despite these encouraging initial results, the small number of cases warrants further studies with longer-term follow-up.

Arq. bras. cardiol ; 119(1): 87-94, abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383725


Resumo Fundamento A ablação por cateter é uma terapia bem estabelecida para controle do ritmo cardíaco em pacientes refratários ou intolerantes a drogas antiarrítmicas (DAA). Porém, a eficácia desse procedimento comparada à de DAA como estratégia de primeira linha no controle do ritmo cardíaco na fibrilação atrial é menos conhecida. Objetivos Conduzir uma revisão sistemática e metanálise da ablação por cateter vs. DAA em pacientes sem nenhum tratamento prévio para controle do ritmo. Métodos Buscamos, nos bancos de dados do PubMed, EMBASE, e Cochrane, ensaios randomizados controlados que compararam ablação por cateter com DAA para controle do ritmo cardíaco em pacientes com FA sintomática e descreveram os seguintes desfechos: (1) recorrência de taquiarritmia atrial (TA); (2) FA sintomática; (3) internações hospitalares; e (4) bradicardia sintomática. A heterogeneidade foi avaliada por estatística I2. Valores de p menores que 0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados Incluímos cinco ensaios com 994 pacientes, dos quais 502 (50,5%) foram submetidos à ablação por cateter. O período médio de acompanhamento foi de um a cinco anos. Recorrências de TA (OR 0,36; IC95% 0,25-0,52; p<0,001) e de FA sintomática (OR 0,32; IC95% 0,18-0,57; p<0,001), e internações hospitalares (OR 0,25; IC95% 0,15-0,42; p<0,001) foram menos frequentes nos pacientes tratados com ablação por cateter que naqueles tratados com DAA. Bradicardia sintomática não foi diferente entre os grupos (OR 0,55; IC95% 0,18-1,65; p=0,28). Derrame ou tamponamento pericárdico significativo ocorreu em oito dos 464 (1,7%) pacientes no grupo submetido à ablação. Conclusão Esses achados sugerem maior eficácia da ablação por cateter que das DAA como estratégia inicial de controle do ritmo cardíaco em pacientes com DA sintomática.

Abstract Background Catheter ablation is a well-established therapy for rhythm control in patients who are refractory or intolerant to anti-arrhythmic drugs (AAD). Less is known about the efficacy of catheter ablation compared with AAD as a first-line strategy for rhythm control in atrial fibrillation (AF). Objectives We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of catheter ablation vs. AAD in patients naïve to prior rhythm control therapies. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched for randomized controlled trials that compared catheter ablation to AAD for initial rhythm control in symptomatic AF and reported the outcomes of (1) recurrent atrial tachyarrhythmias (ATs); (2) symptomatic AF; (3) hospitalizations; and (4) symptomatic bradycardia. Heterogeneity was examined with I2statistics. P values of < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results We included five trials with 994 patients, of whom 502 (50.5%) underwent catheter ablation. Mean follow-up ranged from one to five years. Recurrences of AT (OR 0.36; 95% CI 0.25-0.52; p<0.001) and symptomatic AF (OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.18-0.57; p<0.001), and hospitalizations (OR 0.25; 95% CI 0.15-0.42; p<0.001) were significantly less frequent in patients treated with catheter ablation compared with AAD. Symptomatic bradycardia was not significantly different between groups (OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.18-1.65; p=0.28). Significant pericardial effusions or tamponade occurred in eight of 464 (1.7%) patients in the catheter ablation group. Conclusion These findings suggest that catheter ablation has superior efficacy to AAD as an initial rhythm control strategy in patients with symptomatic AF.

Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(4): 712-718, Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374340


Resumo Fundamento A coexistência de hiponatremia e fibrilação atrial (FA) aumenta a morbidade e mortalidade em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC). No entanto, não está estabelecido se a hiponatremia está relacionada à FA ou não. Objetivo O objetivo do nosso estudo foi buscar a possível associação de hiponatremia com FA em pacientes que apresentam IC com fração de ejeção reduzida (ICFrE). Métodos Este estudo observacional, transversal e unicêntrico incluiu 280 pacientes ambulatoriais consecutivos com diagnóstico de ICFr com 40% ou menos. Com base nas concentrações de sódio ≤135 mEq/L ou superior, os pacientes foram classificados em hiponatremia (n=66) e normonatremia (n=214). Um valor de p<0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados A média de idade foi de 67,6±10,5 anos, 202 (72,2%) eram do sexo masculino, o nível médio de sódio no sangue foi de 138±3,6 mEq/L e a fração de ejeção média foi de 30±4%. Ao todo, 195 (69,6%) pacientes foram diagnosticados com doença arterial coronariana. A FA foi detectada em 124 (44.3%) pacientes. A taxa de FA foi maior em pacientes com hiponatremia em comparação com aqueles com normonatremia (n=39 [59,1%] vs. n=85 [39,7%), p=0,020). Na análise de regressão logística, a hiponatremia não foi relacionada à FA (OR=1.022, IC 95%=0,785-1.330, p=0,871). Idade aumentada (OR=1.046, IC 95%=1.016-1.177, p=0,003), presença de DAC (OR=2.058, IC 95%=1,122-3.777, p=0,020), frequência cardíaca em repouso (OR=1.041, IC 95%=1.023-1.060, p<0,001) e diâmetro do átrio esquerdo (OR=1.049, IC 95%=1.011-1.616, p=0,002) foram considerados preditores de FA. Conclusão A FA foi uma taxa mais elevada em pacientes ambulatoriais com ICFr e hiponatremia. No entanto, não há associação entre os níveis de sódio e FA em pacientes com ICFrEF.

Abstract Background The coexistence of hyponatremia and atrial fibrillation (AF) increases morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF). However, it is not established whether hyponatremia is related to AF or not. Objective Our study aims to seek a potential association of hyponatremia with AF in patients with reduced ejection fraction heart failure (HFrEF). Methods This observational cross-sectional single-center study included 280 consecutive outpatients diagnosed with HFrEF with 40% or less. Based on sodium concentrations ≤135 mEq/L or higher, the patients were classified into hyponatremia (n=66) and normonatremia (n=214). A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results Mean age was 67.6±10.5 years, 202 of them (72.2%) were male, mean blood sodium level was 138±3.6 mEq/L, and mean ejection fraction was 30±4%. Of those, 195 (69.6%) patients were diagnosed with coronary artery disease. AF was detected in 124 (44.3%) patients. AF rate was higher in patients with hyponatremia compared to those with normonatremia (n=39 [59.1%] vs. n=85 [39.7%), p= 0.020). In the logistic regression analysis, hyponatremia was not related to AF (OR=1.022, 95% CI=0.785-1.330, p=0.871). Advanced age (OR=1.046, 95% CI=1.016-1.177, p=0.003), presence of CAD (OR=2.058, 95% CI=1.122-3.777, p=0.020), resting heart rate (OR=1.041, 95% CI=1.023-1.060, p<0.001), and left atrium diameter (OR=1.049, 95% CI=1.011-1.616, p=0.002) were found to be predictors of AF. Conclusion AF was higher in outpatients with HFrEF and hyponatremia. However, there is no association between sodium levels and AF in patients with HFrEF.

Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(4): 737-742, Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374341


Resumo Fundamento O tecido adiposo epicárdico (TAE) tem sido associado à fibrilação atrial (FA), mas seus mecanismos fisiopatológicos permanecem obscuros. Objetivos Medir a correlação entre TAE e fibrose do átrio esquerdo (AE), e avaliar sua capacidade de prever recidiva após o isolamento da veia pulmonar (IVP). Métodos Pacientes com FA inscritos para um primeiro procedimento de IVP foram submetidos à tomografia computadorizada (TC) cardíaca e ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) em menos de 48 horas. Quantificou-se o TAECE em imagens de TC realçadas com contraste no nível do tronco da coronária esquerda. Quantificou-se a fibrose do AE em RMC tridimensional com realce tardio isotrópico de 1,5 mm. Após o isolamento da veia pulmonar (IVP), os pacientes foram submetidos a seguimento para checar a recidiva da FA. A significância estatística foi definida com p<0,05. Resultados A maioria dos 68 pacientes (46 homens, idade 61±12 anos) tinha FA paroxística (71%, n=48). Os pacientes apresentavam volume TAECE mediano de 2,4 cm3/m2 (intervalo interquartil [IIQ] 1,6-3,2 cm3/m2) e um volume médio de fibrose do AE de 8,9 g (IIQ 5-15 g). A correlação entre TAECE e fibrose do AE foi estatisticamente significativa, mas fraca (coeficiente de correlação de postos de Spearman = 0,40, p=0,001). Durante um seguimento médio de 22 meses (IIQ 12-31), 31 pacientes (46%) tiveram recidiva da FA. A análise multivariada produziu dois preditores independentes de recidiva da FA: TAECE (FC 2,05, IC de 95% 1,51-2,79, p<0,001) e FA não paroxística (FC 2,36, IC de 95% 1,08-5,16, p=0,031). Conclusão A correlação fraca entre TAE e AE sugere que a fibrose do AE não é o principal mecanismo que liga o TAE e a FA. O TAE mostrou-se mais fortemente associado à recidiva da FA do que à fibrose do AE, corroborando a existência de outros mediadores mais importantes do TAE e da FA.

Abstract Background Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) has been associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), but its pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. Objectives To measure the correlation between EAT and left atrium (LA) fibrosis, and to assess their ability to predict relapse after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). Methods Patients with AF enrolled for a first PVI procedure underwent both cardiac computerized tomography (CT) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging within less than 48 hours. EATLMwas quantified on contrast-enhanced CT images at the level of the left main. LA fibrosis was quantified on isotropic 1.5 mm 3D delayed enhancement CMR. After pulmonary vein isolation (PVI), patients were followed up for AF relapse. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results Most of the 68 patients (46 men, age 61±12 years) had paroxysmal AF (71%, n=48). Patients had a median EATLMvolume of 2.4 cm3/m2(interquartile range [IQR] 1.6-3.2 cm3/m2), and a median amount of LA fibrosis of 8.9 g (IQR 5-15 g). The correlation between EATLMand LA fibrosis was statistically significant but weak (Spearman's R=0.40, p=0.001). During a median follow-up of 22 months (IQR 12-31), 31 patients (46%) had AF relapse. Multivariate analysis yielded two independent predictors of AF relapse: EATLM(HR 2.05, 95% CI 1.51-2.79, p<0.001), and non-paroxysmal AF (HR 2.36, 95% CI 1.08-5.16, p=0.031). Conclusion The weak correlation between EAT and LA suggests that LA fibrosis is not the main mechanism linking EAT and AF. EAT was more strongly associated with AF relapse than LA fibrosis, supporting the existence of other more important mediators of EAT and AF.

Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 29(2): 150-154, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376872


Resumen Introducción: La fibrilación auricular es la taquiarritmia sostenida más frecuente del ser humano y su manejo requiere un abordaje holístico para que los resultados sean óptimos. Objetivo: Describir las características sociodemográficas y clínicas de los pacientes hospitalizados o intervenidos, con diagnóstico de fibrilación auricular, atendidos en una clínica de cuarto nivel de complejidad en Colombia. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional, retrospectivo, a partir de registros de pacientes hospitalizados o intervenidos con diagnóstico de fibrilación auricular. Se tomó como referencia el diagnóstico de fibrilación auricular (CIE 10 I48X), durante los años 2017 y 2018. Se realizó análisis univariado y bivariado con Excel, SPSS y Epidat. Resultados: El promedio de edad de los pacientes hospitalizados fue de 69.81 años, con ligera predominancia del sexo masculino. La estancia hospitalaria fue de 6.62 en 2017 y de 5.29 días en 2018. Se encontró correlación entre los días de estancia hospitalaria y la edad de los pacientes. La comorbilidad más frecuentes en los pacientes hospitalizados fue hipertensión arterial, cardiopatía isquémica y enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica. El 18.04% no tuvieron comorbilidad. Las muertes intrahospitalarias estuvieron asociadas, con mayor frecuencia, a insuficiencia cardíaca. La cardioversión eléctrica fue el procedimiento electrofisiológico más usado, seguida del aislamiento de venas pulmonares. El porcentaje de complicaciones fue menor en 2018 que en 2017. Conclusiones: Existe menor proporción de comorbilidad cuando se compara esta serie con otros reportes. Los días de estancia hospitalaria fueron superiores a los encontrados en la literatura mundial.

Abstract Introduction: Atrial fibrillation is the most frequent sustained tachyarrhythmia in humans and its management requires an integral approach in order to get optimal results. Objective: To describe the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized or on surgical procedures with a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation, managed in a Fourth level of Complexity clinic in Colombia. Method: An observational, retrospective study was conducted from records of patients hospitalized or operated with a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. The diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (ICD-10 I48X) was taken as a reference, during the years 2017 and 2018. Univariate and bivariate analysis was performed with Excel, SPSS and Epidat. Results: The average age of hospitalized patients was 69.81 years, with a slight predominance of males. The hospital stay was 6.62 and 5.29 days, during 2017 and 2018 respectively. Correlation was found between the days of hospital stay and the age of the patients. The most frequent comorbidities in hospitalized patients were arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 18.04 % of patients had no comorbidities. In-hospital deaths were more frequently associated with heart failure. Electrical cardioversion was the most frequent electrophysiological procedure followed by the isolation of pulmonary veins. The percentage of complications was lower in 2018 compared to 2017. Conclusions: There are a lower proportion of comorbidities when this series is compared with other reports. The days of hospital stay were superior to those found in the world literature.

Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 29(2): 170-176, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376875


Resumen Introducción: La fibrilación auricular es la arritmia cardíaca más frecuente, es una de las causas más importantes de eventos cerebrovasculares de origen embólico y se asocia con el desarrollo de insuficiencia cardíaca y muerte súbita. En Colombia, constituye una enfermedad con altos costos para el sistema de salud; sin embargo, su prevalencia es desconocida. Objetivo: Describir la prevalencia de fibrilación auricular reportada a los sistemas oficiales de información en Colombia. Método: Mediante la extracción, el tabulado y el análisis de datos de la herramienta SISPRO, del Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social de Colombia, se calculó la prevalencia de fibrilación auricular estandarizada por edad, global y para las diferentes regiones geográficas del país, entre los años 2013 y 2017. Resultados: Se identificaron 143,656 casos reportados con el código I48X, que corresponde a fibrilación auricular en la CIE-10. La prevalencia de fibrilación auricular se incrementó desde 41 hasta 87 por cada 100,000 habitantes entre 2013 y 2017 (p < 0.001). En Colombia, la fibrilación auricular es más frecuente en las mujeres, con mayor prevalencia en mayores de 60 años (606/100,000 en 2017); hay zonas con prevalencia superior a 150/100,000 en los departamentos de Antioquia, Caldas, Santander y Bogotá D.C. Conclusiones: Este estudio sugiere que la fibrilación auricular tiene una tendencia ascendente en Colombia, es más frecuente en las mujeres y más prevalente en los centros urbanos, posiblemente debido a una mayor proporción de pacientes mayores y al mejor acceso a los sistemas de salud.

Abstract Introduction: Atrial fibrillation is the most frequent cardiac arrhythmia. It is responsible for an important proportion of embolic strokes and is associated with the development of congestive heart failure and sudden cardiac death. In Colombia, atrial fibrillation is highly costly for the healthcare system; however, its true prevalence is unknown. Objective: To describe the prevalence of atrial fibrillation reported to the official information systems in Colombia. Method: We calculated the prevalence of atrial fibrillation through the extraction, tabulation and analysis of data contained in the Integral Information System for Social Protection tool, which was created by the Ministry of Health and Social Protection in Colombia. Global and age-standardized prevalence rates were obtained for the period between years 2013 and 2017. Results: A total of 143,656 cases were identified. These were reported through the ICD-10 code I48X, corresponding to atrial fibrillation. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation increased from 41 to 87 cases per 100,000 inhabitants between years 2013 and 2017 (p < 0.001). In Colombia, atrial fibrillation is more frequent among women, and individuals over the age of 60 (606/100,000 in 2017). The departments of Antioquia, Caldas, Santander and Bogotá D.C had zones with prevalence greater than 150/100,000. Conclusions: This study suggests that atrial fibrillation displays an upward trend in Colombia. Its prevalence is higher in women and urban centers. The latter may be due to the higher proportion of older patients and better access to healthcare in these subgroups.

Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 29(2): 235-239, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376884


Resumen Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 68 años con aleteo auricular perimitral recurrente a terapia antiarrítmica en el seguimiento de ablación de venas pulmonares por fibrilación auricular. En este caso no se logra el control de la arritmia a pesar de una aproximación usual; se aplica radiofrecuencia endoepicárdica del istmo mitral. En vista de lo anterior, se decide realizar alcoholización de la vena de Marshall; una técnica rápida, útil y efectiva en el control de esta arritmia. A continuación, se describe el paso a paso con el objetivo de familiarizar a los cardiólogos intervencionistas con esta técnica. A la fecha, el paciente se encuentra en ritmo sinusal y sin recurrencia de la arritmia en el seguimiento.

Abstract The case of a 68-year-old patient with recurrent perimitral atrial flutter to anti-arrhythmic therapy in the follow-up of pulmonary vein ablation due to atrial fibrillation is presented. In our case, arrhythmia control is not achieved despite a usual approach; Endo-epicardial radiofrequency application at the mitral isthmus level. Given the above, it was decided to alcoholize Marshall’s vein; a fast, useful and effective technique in the control of this arrhythmia. Here is a step-by-step guide to familiarize interventional cardiologists with this technique. The patient is in sinus rhythm and without recurrence of the arrhythmia at follow-up.

Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 29(2): 244-247, ene.-abr. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376886


Resumen La fibrilación auricular es la arritmia más prevalente en la práctica clínica, y se asocia con una morbimortalidad significativa, la cual, en parte, se explica por el riesgo de fenómenos embólicos. En la actualidad, el uso de anticoagulantes es el estándar de manejo en aquellos pacientes con riesgo embólico significativo (dado por un puntaje ≥ 2 en la escala CHA2DS2Vasc). Sin embargo, algunos pacientes tienen contraindicaciones que impiden recibir este tipo de tratamiento a largo plazo, en cuyo caso se considera el cierre percutáneo de la orejuela como medida para la disminución del riesgo de embolia. Al requerir una punción transeptal, la presencia de dispositivos de cierre de defectos del septo interauricular dificulta el procedimiento de manera significativa. Se presenta el caso de una paciente con contraindicación absoluta para recibir anticoagulantes debido a sangrado gastrointestinal y antecedente de cierre percutáneo de comunicación interauricular sometida a cierre percutáneo de orejuela como alternativa terapéutica a la anticoagulación.

Abstract Atrial fibrillation is the most prevalent arrythmia in clinical practice, associated with a significant morbimortality explained, in part, by the high risk of embolic phenomena. The use of anticoagulation is the standard of care in those patients with increased embolic risk (given by a score ≥ 2 in the CHA2DS2Vasc scale). However, some patients have contraindications to receiving this treatment long-term, in which case percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion can be considered as a means of decreasing their embolic risk. Because the procedure requires transeptal puncture, the presence of devices for atrial septal defect closure can difficult the technique. We present the case of a patient with absolute contraindication to anticoagulation therapy given gastrointestinal bleeding, with history of percutaneous closure of interauricular communication, who was treated with percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion as an alternative to oral anticoagulants.