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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254016, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364529

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize bacteria from water and soil sample taken from the Lahore Canal at different sites i.e. Mall Road, Mohlanwal and Khera site. Isolated bacterial strains were identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical tests. Identification was confirmed by culturing bacteria on selective media. Antibiotic resistance test was also performed to observe the resistance of bacteria against different antibiotics. Blood agar test was performed for identification of different pathogenic bacteria. The result revealed that water and soil samples of Lahore Canal Lahore from different sites were contaminated with Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp., Bacillus spp., Enterococcus sp. and Staphylococcus spp. Due to presence of these pathogens, this water is not suitable for any domestic and irrigation use. Study also revealed that water of the Lahore Canal is harmful for human health as it is contaminated with bacteria that can cause severe disease e.g., Escherichia coli can cause gastroenteritis, Bacillus spp. can cause nausea and vomiting, Enterococcus may infect urinary tract, Salmonella sp. is responsible for Bacteremia, Staphylococcus spp. can cause mild fever and Vibrio sp. can be the reason of cholera. Thus it is rendered unfit for any kind of human use even other than drinking like swimming, bathing, washing etc., until and unless some remedial measures are employed to eradicate pathogenic microorganisms by WASA and LWMS according to standards of WHO. Similarly, it is quite harmful, when and where ever it is used for irrigation without proper treatment.


Resumo O presente estudo foi realizado para isolar e caracterizar bactérias de amostras de água e solo retiradas do Canal Lahore, em Lahore, em diferentes locais, ou seja, Mall Road, Mohlanwal e Khera. As cepas bacterianas isoladas foram identificadas com base em testes morfológicos e bioquímicos. A identificação foi confirmada por cultura de bactérias em testes de meios seletivos. O teste de resistência aos antibióticos também foi realizado para observar a resistência das bactérias a diferentes antibióticos. Foi realizado o teste de ágar sangue para identificar diferentes bactérias patogênicas. O resultado revelou que amostras de água e solo do Canal Lahore, Lahore, de diferentes localidades estavam contaminadas com Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp., Bacillus spp., Enterococcus sp. e Staphylococcus spp. Por causa da presença desses patógenos, essa água não é adequada para qualquer uso doméstico e de irrigação. O estudo revelou que a água do Canal Lahore é prejudicial à saúde humana, pois está contaminada com bactérias que podem causar doenças graves, por exemplo: Escherichia coli pode ocasionar gastroenterite; Bacillus spp. pode causar náuseas e vômitos; Enterococcus sp. pode infectar o trato urinário; Salmonella sp. é responsável pela bacteremia; Staphylococcus spp. pode causar febre leve; e Vibrio sp. pode ser a razão da cólera. Assim, torna-se imprópria para uso humano, como natação, banho, lavagem etc., até que algumas medidas corretivas sejam empregadas para erradicar microrganismos patogênicos por WASA e LWMS de acordo com os padrões da OMS. Da mesma forma, é bastante prejudicial, quando usada para irrigação sem tratamento adequado.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e248359, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345547

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) is one of the major rice diseases in Malaysia. This disease causes substantial yield loss as high as 70%. Development of rice varieties which inherited BLB resistant traits is a crucial approach to promote and sustain rice industry in Malaysia. Hence, this study aims were to enhance BLB disease resistant characters of high yielding commercial variety MR219 through backcross breeding approach with supporting tool of marker-assisted selection (MAS). Broad spectrum BLB resistance gene, Xa7 from donor parent IRBB7 were introgressed into the susceptible MR219 (recurrent parent) using two flanking markers ID7 and ID15. At BC3F4, we managed to generate 19 introgressed lines with homozygous Xa7 gene and showed resistant characteristics as donor parent when it was challenged with Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae through artificial inoculation. Recurrent parent MR219 and control variety, MR263 were found to be severely infected by the disease. The improved lines exhibited similar morphological and yield performance characters as to the elite variety, MR219. Two lines, PB-2-107 and PB-2-34 were chosen to be potential lines because of their outstanding performances compared to parent, MR219. This study demonstrates a success story of MAS application in development of improved disease resistance lines of rice against BLB disease.


Resumo A mancha bacteriana das folhas (BLB) é uma das principais doenças do arroz na Malásia. Essa doença causa perdas substanciais de rendimento de até 70%. O desenvolvimento de variedades de arroz que herdaram características de resistência ao BLB é uma abordagem crucial para promover e sustentar a indústria do arroz na Malásia. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi aumentar os caracteres BLB resistentes a doenças da variedade comercial MR219 de alto rendimento por meio de uma abordagem de cruzamento retrocruzamento com ferramenta de apoio de seleção assistida por marcador (MAS). O gene de resistência a BLB de amplo espectro, Xa7 do pai doador IRBB7, foi introgressado no MR219 suscetível (pai recorrente) usando dois marcadores flanqueadores ID7 e ID15. No BC3F4, conseguimos gerar 19 linhagens introgressadas com o gene Xa7 homozigoto e apresentamos características de resistência como genitor doador quando desafiado com Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae por inoculação artificial. O pai recorrente MR219 e a variedade controle, MR263, estavam gravemente infectados pela doença. As linhas melhoradas exibiram características morfológicas e de desempenho de rendimento semelhantes às da variedade elite, MR219. Duas linhas, PB-2-107 e PB-2-34, foram escolhidas como linhas potenciais por causa de seus desempenhos excelentes em comparação com a mãe, MR219. Este estudo demonstra uma história de sucesso de aplicação de MAS no desenvolvimento de linhas de arroz melhoradas com resistência a doenças contra a doença BLB.


Subject(s)
Oryza , Xanthomonas , Plant Diseases/genetics , Disease Resistance/genetics , Plant Breeding
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249664, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345558

ABSTRACT

Abstract The impact of antibiotics on growth, cocoon production was assessed in addition to isolation and characterization of bacteria associated with silkworm gut of infected larvae. Larval rearing was maintained at recommended conditions of temperature and humidity. Silkworm larvae showing abnormal symptoms were collected from the control group and dissected for gut collection. Bacteria were isolated from the gut content by spreading on agar plates and incubated at 37 °C for 48 hrs. Bacterial identification and phylogenetic analysis were carried out by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolated bacteria were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test (disc diffusion methods) by using Penicillin (10 µg/mL), Tetracycline (30 µg/mL), Amoxicillin (25 µg/mL), Ampicillin (10 µg/mL), and Erythromycin (15 µg/mL). All isolated strains showed positive results for the catalase test. We isolated and identified bacterial strains (n = 06) from the gut of healthy and diseased silkworm larvae. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, isolated bacteria showed close relation with Serratia, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas spp. Notably, 83.3% of strains were resistant to Penicillin, Tetracycline, Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, and Erythromycin but 16.6% showed antibiotic susceptibility to the above-mentioned commonly used antibiotics. Silkworm larvae fed on penicillin-treated leaves showed significant improvement in larval weight, larval length, and cocoon production. Significantly higher larval weight (6.88g), larval length (5.84cm), and cocoon weight (1.33g) were recorded for larvae fed on leaves treated with penicillin as compared to other antibiotics. Isolated bacterial strains showed close relation with Serratia spp., Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp.


Resumo O impacto dos antibióticos no crescimento e na produção do casulo foi avaliado, além do isolamento e caracterização das bactérias associadas ao intestino de larvas infectadas do bicho-da-seda. A criação das larvas foi mantida nas condições recomendadas de temperatura e umidade. As larvas do bicho-da-seda com sintomas anormais foram coletadas do grupo controle e dissecadas para coleta do intestino. As bactérias foram isoladas do conteúdo intestinal por espalhamento em placas de ágar e incubadas a 37° C durante 48 horas. A identificação bacteriana e a análise filogenética foram realizadas pelo sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA. As bactérias isoladas foram submetidas a teste de sensibilidade antimicrobiana (métodos de difusão em disco) com penicilina (10 µg / mL), tetraciclina (30 µg / mL), amoxicilina (25 µg / mL), ampicilina (10 µg / mL) e eritromicina (15 µg / mL). Todas as cepas isoladas apresentaram resultados positivos para o teste da catalase. Isolamos e identificamos cepas bacterianas (n = 06) do intestino de larvas de bicho-da-seda saudáveis e doentes. Com base na sequência do gene 16S rRNA, as bactérias isoladas mostraram estreita relação com Serratia, Bacillus e Pseudomonas spp. Notavelmente, 83,3% das cepas eram resistentes a penicilina, tetraciclina, amoxicilina, ampicilina e eritromicina, mas 16,6% mostraram suscetibilidade aos antibióticos comumente usados mencionados acima. As larvas do bicho-da-seda alimentadas com folhas tratadas com penicilina apresentaram melhora significativa no peso larval, comprimento larval e produção de casulo. Peso larval significativamente maior (6,88g), comprimento larval (5,84cm) e peso do casulo (1,33g) foram registrados para larvas alimentadas com folhas tratadas com penicilina, em comparação com outros antibióticos. Cepas bacterianas isoladas mostraram estreita relação com Serratia spp., Bacillus spp. e Pseudomonas spp.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phylogeny , Bacteria/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Larva
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253065, 2024. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350311

ABSTRACT

Abstract Routine blood culture is used for the detection of bloodstream infections by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and by common pathogenic yeasts. A retrospective study was conducted in a public hospital in Maceió-AL, by collecting data of all medical records with positive blood cultures. Out of the 2,107 blood cultures performed, 17% were positive with Staphylococcus coagulase negative (51.14%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (11.21%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.32%). Gram-positive bacteria predominated among positive blood cultures, highlighting the group of Staphylococcus coagulase-negative. While Gram-negative bacteria had a higher number of species among positive blood cultures.


Resumo A cultura sanguínea de rotina é usada para a detecção de infecções na corrente sanguínea por bactérias aeróbias e anaeróbias e por leveduras patogênicas comuns. Estudo retrospectivo realizado em hospital público de Maceió-AL, por meio da coleta de dados de todos os prontuários com culturas sanguíneas positivas. Das 2.107 culturas sanguíneas realizadas, 17% foram positivas com Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (51,14%), seguido por Staphylococcus aureus (11,21%) e Klebsiella pneumoniae (6,32%). As bactérias Gram-positiva predominaram entre as culturas de sangue positivas, destacando-se o grupo das Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo. Enquanto as bactérias Gram-negativas apresentaram um número maior de espécies entre as culturas de sangue positivas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sepsis , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251747, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355878

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fish is the main source of animal protein for human diet. The aim of this study was to find out prevalence of pathogenic bacteria of two selected economically important fish of Pakistan namely Mahseer (Tor putitora) and Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Live fish samples from hatcheries and dead fish samples from different markets of study area were randomly collected. The fish samples were analyzed for isolation, identification and prevalence of bacteria. The isolated bacteria from study fish were identified through biochemical test and about 10 species of pathogenic bacteria were identified including the pathogenic bacteria to human and fish namely, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus iniae, Serratia spp. Citrobacter spp. Stenotrophomonas spp. Bacillus spp. and Salmonella spp. The bacterial percentage frequency of occurrence in Silver carp and Mahseer fish showed Pseudomonas aeruginosa 21.42%, Staphylococcus epidermidis 17.85%, Escherichia coli 11.90%, Staphylococcus aureus 9.52%, Citrobacter spp. 9.52%, Serratia spp. 8.33%, Streptococcus iniae 7.14%, Stenotrophomonas spp. 5.95%, Bacillus spp. 4.76% and Salmonella spp. 3.57%. The study revealed that Fish samples of Mahseer and Silver carp that were collected from markets have found more isolates (10 bacterial species) than did the fresh fish pond samples (03 bacterial species) of hatcheries. The occurrence of pathogenic bacteria in study fish showed risk factor for public health consumers.


Resumo O peixe é a principal fonte de proteína animal para a alimentação humana. O objetivo deste estudo foi descobrir a prevalência de bactérias patogênicas de dois peixes economicamente importantes selecionados do Paquistão, nomeadamente Mahseer (Tor putitora) e carpa prateada (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Amostras de peixes vivos de incubatórios e amostras de peixes mortos de diferentes mercados da área de estudo foram coletadas aleatoriamente. As amostras de peixes foram analisadas quanto ao isolamento, identificação e prevalência de bactérias. As bactérias isoladas dos peixes do estudo foram identificadas através de testes bioquímicos e cerca de 10 espécies de bactérias patogênicas foram identificadas incluindo as bactérias patogênicas para humanos e peixes, nomeadamente, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus iniae, Serratia spp. Citrobacter spp. Stenotrophomonas spp. Bacillus spp. e Salmonella spp. A porcentagem de freqüência de ocorrência bacteriana em carpa prateada e peixes Mahseer mostrou Pseudomonas aeruginosa 21,42%, Staphylococcus epidermidis 17,85%, Escherichia coli 11,90%, Staphylococcus aureus 9,52%, Citrobacter spp. 9,52%, Serratia spp. 8,33%, Streptococcus iniae 7,14%, Stenotrophomonas spp. 5,95%, Bacillus spp. 4,76% e Salmonella spp. 3,57%. O estudo revelou que as amostras de peixes de Mahseer e carpa prateada coletadas nos mercados encontraram mais isolados (10 espécies bacterianas) do que as amostras de peixes frescos (03 espécies bacterianas) de incubatórios. A ocorrência de bactérias patogênicas nos peixes do estudo apresentou fator de risco para consumidores de saúde pública.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Carps , Pakistan , Bacteria , Ponds , Incidence
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250550, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345536

ABSTRACT

Abstract Vanillin is the major component which is responsible for flavor and aroma of vanilla extract and is produced by 3 ways: natural extraction from vanilla plant, chemical synthesis and from microbial transformation. Current research was aimed to study bacterial production of vanillin from native natural sources including sewage and soil from industrial areas. The main objective was vanillin bio-production by isolating bacteria from these native sources. Also to adapt methodologies to improve vanillin production by optimized fermentation media and growth conditions. 47 soil and 13 sewage samples were collected from different industrial regions of Lahore, Gujranwala, Faisalabad and Kasur. 67.7% bacterial isolates produced vanillin and 32.3% were non-producers. From these 279 producers, 4 bacterial isolates selected as significant producers were; A3, A4, A7 and A10. These isolates were identified by ribotyping as A3 Pseudomonas fluorescence (KF408302), A4 Enterococcus faecium (KT356807), A7 Alcaligenes faecalis (MW422815) and A10 Bacillus subtilis (KT962919). Vanillin producers were further tested for improved production of vanillin and were grown in different fermentation media under optimized growth conditions for enhanced production of vanillin. The fermentation media (FM) were; clove oil based, rice bran waste (residues oil) based, wheat bran based and modified isoeugenol based. In FM5, FM21, FM22, FM23, FM24, FM30, FM31, FM32, FM34, FM35, FM36, and FM37, the selected 4 bacterial strains produced significant amounts of vanillin. A10 B. subtilis produced maximum amount of vanillin. This strain produced 17.3 g/L vanillin in FM36. Cost of this fermentation medium 36 was 131.5 rupees/L. This fermentation medium was modified isoeugenol based medium with 1% of isoeugenol and 2.5 g/L soybean meal. ech gene was amplified in A3 P. fluorescence using ech specific primers. As vanillin use as flavor has increased tremendously, the bioproduction of vanillin must be focused.


Resumo A vanilina é o principal componente responsável pelo sabor e aroma do extrato de baunilha e é produzida de três formas: extração natural da planta da baunilha, síntese química e transformação microbiana. A pesquisa atual teve como objetivo estudar a produção bacteriana de vanilina a partir de fontes naturais nativas, incluindo esgoto e solo de áreas industriais. O objetivo principal era a bioprodução de vanilina por meio do isolamento de bactérias dessas fontes nativas. Também para adaptar metodologias para melhorar a produção de vanilina por meio de fermentação otimizada e condições de crescimento. Foram coletadas 47 amostras de solo e 13 de esgoto de diferentes regiões industriais de Lahore, Gujranwala, Faisalabad e Kasur; 67,7% dos isolados bacterianos produziram vanilina e 32,3% eram não produtores. Desses 279 produtores, 4 isolados bacterianos selecionados como produtores significativos foram: A3, A4, A7 e A10. Esses isolados foram identificados por ribotipagem como fluorescência A3 Pseudomonas (KF408302), A4 Enterococcus faecium (KT356807), A7 Alcaligenes faecalis (MW422815) e A10 Bacillus subtilis (KT962919). Os produtores de vanilina foram posteriormente testados para produção aprimorada de vanilina e foram cultivados em diferentes meios de fermentação sob condições de crescimento otimizadas para produção aprimorada de vanilina. Os meios de fermentação (FM) foram: à base de óleo de cravo, à base de resíduos de farelo de arroz (resíduos de óleo), à base de farelo de trigo e à base de isoeugenol modificado. Em FM5, FM21, FM22, FM23, FM24, FM30, FM31, FM32, FM34, FM35, FM36 e FM37, as 4 cepas bacterianas selecionadas produziram quantidades significativas de vanilina. A10 B. subtilis produziu quantidade máxima de vanilina. Essa cepa produziu 17,3 g / L de vanilina em FM36. O custo desse meio de fermentação 36 foi de 131,5 rúpias / L. Esse meio de fermentação foi um meio à base de isoeugenol modificado com 1% de isoeugenol e 2,5 g / L de farelo de soja. O gene ech foi amplificado em A3 P. fluorescence usando primers específicos para ech. Como o uso da vanilina como sabor aumentou tremendamente, a bioprodução da vanilina deve ser focada.


Subject(s)
Benzaldehydes/metabolism , Flavoring Agents/metabolism , Bacillus subtilis/metabolism , Industrial Microbiology , Pseudomonas fluorescens/metabolism , Enterococcus faecium/metabolism , Culture Media , Alcaligenes faecalis/metabolism , Fermentation
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247016, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339416

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pheretima posthuma (Vaillant, 1868), a native earthworm of Pakistan and Southeast Asia, has wide utilization in vermicomposting and bioremediation process. In this study, P. posthuma coelomic fluid (PCF) and body paste (PBP) was evaluated as antibacterial agent against ampicillin (AMP) resistant five Gram positive and four Gram negative clinical isolates. The antibacterial effect of different doses (i.e. 25-100 µg/ml) of PCF and PBP along with AMP and azithromycin (AZM) (negative and positive controls, respectively) were observed through disc diffusion and micro-dilution methods. All nine clinical isolates were noticed as AMP resistant and AZM sensitive. Antibacterial effects of PCF and PBP were dose dependent and zone of inhibitions (ZI) against all clinical isolates were between 23.4 ± 0.92 to 0 ± 00 mm. The sensitivity profile of PCF and PBP against clinical isolates was noticed as 44.44 and 55.56%, respectively. Both PCF and PBP showed bacteriostatic (BTS) action against S. aureus, S. pyogenes, K. pneumonia, N. gonorrhoeae. Moreover, the cumulative BTS potential of PCF and PBP against all isolates was 66.67 and 55.56%, respectively. The MICs of PCF and PBP were ranged from 50-200 µg/ml against selected isolates. The bacterial growth curves indicated that PCF and PBP inhibited the growth of all isolates at their specific MIC concentrations. However, PBP has better antibacterial potential compared to PCF against selected isolates. Therefore, it is concluded that both PCF and PBP of P. posthuma possess antibacterial and BTS potential against ampicillin resistant clinical isolates. This organism might be considered as a second choice of antibacterial agents and can further be utilized in pharmaceutical industries for novel drug manufacturing by prospecting bioactive potential agents.


Resumo Pheretima posthuma (Vaillant, 1868), uma minhoca nativa do Paquistão e sudeste da Ásia, tem ampla utilização em processos de vermicompostagem e biorremediação. Neste estudo, o fluido celômico de P. posthuma (PCF) e a pasta corporal (PBP) foram avaliados como agente antibacteriano contra cinco isolados clínicos Gram-positivos e quatro Gram-negativos resistentes à ampicilina (AMP). O efeito antibacteriano de diferentes doses (ou seja, 25-100 µg / ml) de PCF e PBP juntamente com AMP e azitromicina (AZM) (controles negativo e positivo, respectivamente) foi observado por meio de métodos de difusão em disco e microdiluição. Todos os nove isolados clínicos foram notados como resistentes a AMP e sensíveis a AZM. Os efeitos antibacterianos de PCF e PBP foram dependentes da dose e a zona de inibição (ZI) contra todos os isolados clínicos foi entre 23,4 ± 0,92 a 0 ± 00 mm. O perfil de sensibilidade do PCF e PBP contra isolados clínicos foi observado como 44,44% e 55,56%, respectivamente. Tanto o PCF quanto o PBP mostraram ação bacteriostática (BTS) contra S. aureus, S. pyogenes, K. pneumonia, N. gonorrhoeae. Além disso, o potencial BTS cumulativo de PCF e PBP contra todos os isolados foi de 66,67% e 55,56%, respectivamente. Os MICs de PCF e PBP variaram de 50-200 µg / ml contra isolados selecionados. As curvas de crescimento bacteriano indicaram que o PCF e o PBP inibiram o crescimento de todos os isolados em suas concentrações específicas de MIC. No entanto, PBP tem melhor potencial antibacteriano em comparação com PCF contra isolados selecionados. Portanto, conclui-se que tanto o PCF quanto o PBP de P. posthuma possuem potencial antibacteriano e BTS contra isolados clínicos resistentes à ampicilina. Esse organismo pode ser considerado como uma segunda escolha de agentes antibacterianos e pode ainda ser utilizado nas indústrias farmacêuticas para a fabricação de novos medicamentos por meio da prospecção de agentes com potencial bioativo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oligochaeta , Staphylococcus aureus , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Ampicillin/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
8.
ABCS health sci ; 47: e022202, 06 abr. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363542

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Tigecycline is an antimicrobial agent, approved for the treatment of complicated skin and soft tissue infections, hospital-acquired and community-acquired pneumonia, intra-abdominal infections and anaerobic or atypical infections. OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of tigecycline in a teaching hospital and to compare data from patients who had their prescriptions audited by the hospital infection committee with those who did not have audited prescriptions. METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort study conducted at a teaching hospital from April 2012 to March 2014 including patients who received tigecycline. Demographic variables, comorbidities, microbiological findings, prescribed antibiotics and technical opinions issued by the Hospital Infection Control Service were collected. RESULTS: 71 patients were included, aged between 13 and 92 years, 63.4% were male and 56.3% were non-white. Tigecycline was the first antimicrobial choice in 19.7% (14/71) of the cases, while the use associated with other antibiotics was observed in 66.2% (45/71) of the prescriptions. mainly with meropenem (28.9%). Empirical use was performed in 69.0% of cases, after culture and the antibiogram in 31.0% and off label use in 81.7%. The microorganisms frequently identified by the culture tests were Enterococcus faecalis (17.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.7%) and Klebsiella penumoniae (11.8%). CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that empirical and off label use is common in clinical practice and few prescriptions were guided by the results of the culture and the antibiogram, demonstrating the need for prescribers to evaluate the benefits/ risks of using this antibiotic, risk of resistance, adverse effects and drug interactions, in addition to cost.


INTRODUÇÃO: A tigeciclina é agente antimicrobiano, aprovada para o tratamento de infecções complicadas na pele e tecidos moles, pneumonia hospitalar e adquirida na comunidade, infecções intra-abdominal e infecções anaeróbias ou atípicas. OBJETIVO: Descrever o uso da tigeciclina em hospital de ensino e comparar dados de pacientes que tiveram suas prescrições auditadas pela comissão de infecção hospitalar com os que não tiveram prescrições auditadas. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo observacional realizado em hospital de ensino de abril de 2012 a março de 2014 incluindo pacientes que receberam tigeciclina. Foram coletadas variáveis ​​demográficas, comorbidades, achados microbiológicos, antibióticos prescritos e pareceres técnicos emitidos pelo Serviço de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 71 pacientes, com idade entre 13 e 92 anos, 63,4% eram do sexo masculino e 56,3% eram não brancos. A tigeciclina foi primeira escolha antimicrobiana em 19,7% (14/71) dos casos, enquanto o uso associado a outros antibióticos foi observado em 66,2% (45/71) das prescrições. principalmente com meropenem (28,9%). O uso empírico foi realizado em 69,0% dos casos, após cultura e o antibiograma em 31,0% e o uso off label em 81,7%. Os microrganismos frequentemente identificados pelos testes de cultura foram Enterococcus faecalis (17,6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14,7%) e Klebsiella penumoniae (11,8%). CONCLUSÃO: O estudo demonstrou que o uso empírico e off label é comum na prática clínica e poucas prescrições foram orientadas pelos resultados da cultura e do antibiograma, demonstrando necessidade de prescritores avaliarem os benefícios/riscos do uso desse antibiótico, risco de resistência, efeitos adversos e interações medicamentosas, além do custo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tigecycline , Hospitals, University , Cross Infection , Off-Label Use , Anti-Infective Agents
9.
Univ. salud ; 24(1): 85-94, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361189

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La resistencia a los antimicrobianos (RAM) es un problema de salud pública que manifiesta la disminuida eficacia de estos agentes en la prevención y tratamiento de una proporción cada vez más amplia de patologías. Los actinomicetos son un grupo bacteriano importante de productores de metabolitos activos contra patógenos. Objetivo: Aislar actinomicetos del bosque tropical de Nariño, con potencial producción de metabolitos inhibitorios contra bacterias multidrogo-resistentes. Materiales y métodos: Se tomaron muestras de suelo de Bosque Tropical Húmedo de la Reserva Natural del Río Ñambí, se analizaron microbiológica y molecularmente. Se estimuló la producción in vitro de metabolitos secundarios y evaluó el efecto inhibitorio de estos extractos contra las bacterias multidrogo-resistentes Escherichia coli y Staphylococcus aureus. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 11 aislados presuntivos, se confirmó que cuatro de ellos correspondieron al género Streptomyces sp. Las pruebas de inhibición contra bacterias multidrogo-resistentes E. coli y S. aureus, permitieron verificar que el aislado P3772 fue el más eficiente en la inhibición de los patógenos. Conclusiones: Todos los actinomicetos evaluados presentan actividad antibacteriana contra al menos una de las bacterias patógenas estudiadas; destacando el aislado P3772, que inhibe a E. coli y S. aureus. Se espera caracterizar los compuestos vinculados a la actividad antibacteriana.


Abstract Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance (AR) is a public health problem that reveals the diminished efficacy of these agents in the prevention and treatment of an increasingly larger number of pathologies. Actinomycetes are an important bacterial producer group of metabolites that are active against pathogens. Objective: To isolate actinomycetes from the tropical forest of Nariño (Colombia), which have the potential to produce inhibitory metabolites against multi-drug resistant bacteria. Materials and methods: Soil samples were taken from the Humid Tropical Forest of the Río Ńambí Natural Reserve and analyzed through microbiological and molecular assays. In vitro production of secondary metabolites was first stimulated, followed by the assessment of the inhibitory effect of these extracts against multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Results: 11 presumptive isolates were obtained, confirming that four of them corresponded to the Streptomyces sp. genus. The bacterial isolate P3772 was identified as the one with the highest inhibitory effect against multi-drug resistant E. coli and S. aureus. Conclusions: All the actinomycetes evaluated presented antibacterial activity. The isolate P3772 stands out, which inhibited both E. coli and S. aureus. The compounds associated with this antibacterial activity will be characterized in future studies.

10.
Odontol. sanmarquina (Impr.) ; 25(1): e22079, ene.-mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish, English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358544

ABSTRACT

La profilaxis antibiótica involucra el uso de fármacos en una etapa preoperatoria de atención odontológica, con la finalidad específica de contribuir a la prevención de infecciones sistémicas como la endocarditis infecciosa (EI) asociada a bacteriemias transitorias por procedimientos odontológicos que implican sangrado en pacientes con alto riesgo de complicación por su condición sistémica cardiaca o no cardiaca. Esta complicación potencial inflama el revestimiento interno de las válvulas cardiacas, por proliferación de microorganismos específicos, y aunque es infrecuente es responsable de una elevada tasa de morbilidad y mortalidad. En el año 2007, la Asociación Estadounidense del Corazón (AHA), publica la última actualización vigente en la literatura sobre las recomendaciones y directrices aplicadas para el uso de profilaxis antibiótica. El objetivo de esta revisión pretende desarrollar una síntesis de evidencia existente seguida de un balance honesto de los riesgos y beneficios de forma individual sobre el uso de este protocolo. Se realizó una búsqueda digital integral en idioma español e inglés sobre los protocolos de profilaxis antibiótica en pacientes con riesgo de infección. Se incluyeron bases de datos como: MEDLINE, PUBMED y SciELO, adicionalmente se tomaron como referentes de partida las recomendaciones de la AHA. Se concluye con gran énfasis y soporte de la literatura actual, que los beneficios del uso de profilaxis antibiótica en un momento preoperatorio superan los posibles riesgos de resistencia bacteriana y anafilaxia, por lo que son totalmente justificables y requeridos para los pacientes adultos y niños inmunológicamente comprometidos.


Antibiotic prophylaxis involves the use of drugs at a preoperative stage of dental care, with a specific aim of contributing to the prevention of systemic infections such as infectious endocarditis (IE) associated with transient bacteremia due to dental procedures that involve bleeding in patients at high risk of complication due to their non-cardiac or cardiac systemic condition. This potential complication inflames the inner lining of the heart valves, due to the proliferation of specific microorganisms, and although it is uncommon, it is responsible for a high rate of morbidity and mortality. In 2007, the American Heart Association (AHA) published the last current update in the literature on the recommendations and guidelines applied for the use of antibiotic prophylaxis. The aim of this review is to develop a synthesis of existing evidence followed by an honest assessment of the risks and benefits individually on the use of this protocol. A comprehensive digital search was conducted in both Spanish and English on antibiotic prophylaxis protocols in patients at risk of infection. Databases such as MEDLINE, PUBMED, and SciELO were included, in addition the AHA recommendations were taken as baseline references. It is concluded with great emphasis and support from the current literature, that the benefits of the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in a preoperative moment overcome the possible risks of bacterial resistance and anaphylaxis, so they are fully justifiable and required for immunologically compromised adult and children patients.

11.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 36: e002, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1355930

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to analyze possible associations between antibiotic dental prescriptions in the public health service, health service characteristics, and social characteristics of the municipalities. Using the register of dispensing in the public health service of a state in the Southeast region of Brazil, in 2017 we analyzed patterns of antibiotic prescriptions by dentists. Data were obtained from the Integrated Pharmaceutical Services Management System (SIGAF, in Portuguese). The outcome variable was the number of Daily Defined Doses (DDD) per 1,000 residents/year in each municipality. CART (Classification and Regression Tree) technique was used to determine the influence of the following variables: populational social characteristics (Human Development Index, Gini Index, the proportion of rural population and proportion of families benefiting from the Bolsa Família Program) and oral health services characteristics (access to individual dental care, number of dentists and oral health teams per 1,000 residents, and percentage of preventive and restorative individual dental procedures. Data analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 21.0. Antibiotics were the medications most prescribed by dentists in the public health service, with penicillin being the most frequently prescribed class. The average DDD/1,000 residents/year for the 421 municipalities surveyed was 96.54 (range 0.008 and 619.660). Select factors were associated with antibiotic prescriptions including access to individual dental care (Adjusted p-value ≤0.001), a number of oral health teams/1,000 inhabitants (Adjusted p-value=0.001), and Gini Index (Adjusted p-value = 0.046). Access to oral health services and inequality were associated with the use of antibiotics.

12.
J. appl. oral sci ; 30: e20210483, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365009

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: To evaluate the mechanical, physicochemical, and antimicrobial properties of four different formulations containing micro- or nanoparticles of sodium trimetaphosphate (mTMP and nTMP, respectively). Methodology: Four experimental groups were used in this investigation: two mTMP groups and two nTMP groups, each containing zirconium oxide (ZrO2), and solution containing either chitosan or titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs). Setting time, compression resistance, and radiopacity were estimated. The agar diffusion test was used to assess the antimicrobial activity of the formulations against five different microbial strains: Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, Actinomyces israelii, Candida albicans, and Enterococcus faecalis. Parametric and nonparametric tests were performed after evaluating homoscedasticity data (p<0.05). Results: From the properties evaluated, nTMP cements required less setting time and showed greater resistance to compression. Cements containing TiO2 showed greater radiopacity for both nTMP and mTMP. All four cement formulations showed antimicrobial activity against S. mutans and L. casei Conclusion: Formulations containing nTMP have shorter setting times and higher compressive strength, and those with TiO2 nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activities. Clinical relevance: The cement containing nTMP, ZrO2, and TiO2 could be an alternative material for protecting the pulp complex.

13.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 233-235, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913150

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is the most common type of infection in end-stage liver disease, and the diagnosis and treatment of SBP are facing great difficulties and challenges. In recent years, great achievements have been made in molecular diagnostic techniques, but they have not been widely used in clinical practice. Based on the current status of the diagnosis of SBP, this article reviews the advances in molecular microbiological methods in the diagnosis of SBP. Bacterial qualitative analysis alone cannot clarify the association between bacterial DNA and clinical manifestations, and the combination of bacterial quantitative analysis and bacterial type can more accurately describe the biological characteristics of SBP, which may help with the diagnosis of SBP and its special types and the application of antimicrobial agents.

14.
International Eye Science ; (12): 265-269, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913035

ABSTRACT

@#AIM: To compare the clinical efficacy and safety of gatifloxacin eye drops and levofloxacin eye drops in the treatment of acute bacterial conjunctivitis using Meta-analysis.<p>METHODS: According to the Cochrane systematic evaluation method, “gatifloxacin” “levofloxacin” and “acute bacterial conjunctivitis” were used as keywords for literature search in Embase, Cochrane library, Pubmed, Medline, CNKI, Wanfang, VIP and CBMdisc from the establishment of the database to March 1, 2021. Randomized controlled trials(RCTs)gatifloxacin eye drops and levofloxacin eye drops in the treatment of acute bacterial conjunctivitis were included. Cochrane bias risk assessment tool was used to evaluate the quality of the included studies. RevMan5.3 software was used for combined analysis. Egger's test in Stata12 was used to assess publication bias, and the level of evidence was evaluated according to the GRADE system.<p>RESULTS: A total of 10 RCTs were included in this study with 1 149 patients. The control group was treated with levofloxacin and the experimental group was treated with gatifloxacin. The results of Meta-analysis showed that the clinical effective rate of acute bacterial conjunctivitis in gatifloxacin group was higher than that in levofloxacin group(<i>OR</i>=3.75, 95%<i>CI</i>: 2.52-5.58, <i>P</i><0.00001). Egger's test suggested there was publication bias among studies. And GRADE rating results indicated, the level of evidence was VERY LOW. The incidence of adverse drug reactions in the gatifloxacin group was lower than that in levofloxacin group(<i>OR</i>=0.37, 95%<i>CI</i>: 0.19-0.71, <i>P</i>=0.003). No publication bias was observed in Egger's test and GRADE showed the level of evidence was LOW.<p>CONCLUSION: Gatifloxacin eye drops is more effective than levofloxacin eye drops in the treatment of acute bacterial conjunctivitis, and has lower adverse effect rates. And due to the low levels of evidence included, more multicenter, randomized double-blind clinical trials are needed to improve the strength of evidence for the clinical efficacy of gatifloxacin eye drops in the treatment of acute bacterial conjunctivitis.

15.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e240184, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278492

ABSTRACT

Abstract Soil quality is usually determined by its physical-chemical characteristics without taking into account the bacterial communities that play a fundamental role in the chemical decomposition of plant nutrients. In this context, the objective of the study was to evaluate bacterial diversity in high Andean grassland soils disturbed with Lepidium meyenii cultivation under different gradients of use (first, second and third use) and crop development (pre-sowing, hypocotyl development and post-harvest). The sampling was carried out in the Bombón plateau in the central Andes of Peru, during the rainy and low water seasons, by the systematic method based on a specific pattern assigned in a geometric rectangular shape at a depth of 0 - 20 cm. The characterization of the bacterial communities was carried out through the metagenomic sequencing of the 16S rRNA. 376 families of bacteria were reported, of which it was determined that there was a significant change in bacterial composition and distribution in relation to use pressure. There were no major changes due to the development of Lepidium meyenii. The families most sensitive to use pressure and soil poverty indicators were Verrucomicrobiaceae, Acidobacteraceae and Aakkermansiaceae.


Resumo A qualidade do solo é normalmente determinada pelas suas características físico-químicas sem ter em conta as comunidades bacterianas que desempenham um papel fundamental na decomposição química dos nutrientes das plantas. Neste contexto, o objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a diversidade bacteriana em solos de prados andinos elevados perturbados pelo cultivo de Lepidium meyenii sob diferentes gradientes de utilização (primeira, segunda e terceira utilizações) e desenvolvimento das culturas (pré-semeadura, desenvolvimento do hipocótilo e pós-colheita). A amostragem foi realizada no planalto de Bombón, nos Andes centrais do Peru, durante as estações das chuvas e das águas baixas, pelo método sistemático baseado num padrão específico atribuído em forma geométrica retangular a uma profundidade de 0 - 20 cm. A caracterização das comunidades bacterianas foi realizada através da sequenciação metagenômica do rRNA 16S. Foram relatadas 376 famílias de bactérias, das quais se verificou uma alteração significativa na composição e distribuição bacteriana em relação à pressão de utilização. Não se registaram grandes alterações devido ao desenvolvimento do Lepidium meyenii. As famílias mais sensíveis à utilização de indicadores de pressão e pobreza do solo foram as Verrucomicrobiaceae, Acidobacteraceae e Aakkermansiaceae.


Subject(s)
Lepidium/genetics , Peru , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Bacteria/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Grassland , Metagenomics
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 940-953, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153447

ABSTRACT

Abstract Nowadays food borne illness is most common in people due to their epidemic nature. These diseases affect the human digestive system through bacteria, viruses and parasites. The agents of illness are transmitted in our body through various types of food items, water and uncooked. Pathogens show drastic changes in immunosuppressant people. This review gives general insights to harmful microbial life. Pakistan is a developed country and because of its improper food management, a lot of gastrointestinal problems are noted in many patients. Bacteria are most common agents to spread diarrhoea, villi infection, constipation and dysenteric disease in human and induce the rejection of organ transplant. Enhancement of their lifestyle, properly cooked food should be used and to overcome the outbreak of the diseases.


Resumo Hoje em dia, as doenças transmitidas por alimentos são mais comuns em pessoas devido à sua natureza epidêmica. Essas doenças afetam o sistema digestivo humano por meio de bactérias, vírus e parasitas. Os agentes das doenças são transmitidos em nosso corpo por meio de diversos tipos de alimentos, água e crus. Os patógenos mostram mudanças drásticas em pessoas imunossupressoras. Esta revisão fornece uma visão geral da vida microbiana prejudicial. O Paquistão é um país desenvolvido e, devido ao seu manejo alimentar inadequado, muitos problemas gastrointestinais são observados em muitos pacientes. As bactérias são os agentes mais comuns para espalhar diarreia, infecção de vilosidades, obstipação e doença disentérica em humanos e induzem a rejeição de transplantes de órgãos. Melhoria de seu estilo de vida, alimentos devidamente cozidos devem ser utilizados e para superar o aparecimento de doenças.


Subject(s)
Humans , Foodborne Diseases/epidemiology , Pakistan , Bacteria , Diarrhea
17.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e213690, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1281104

ABSTRACT

Aim: to develop a model for regenerative endodontics using newly-weaned Wistar rats immature molars with pulp necrosis to histologically describe the evolution of apical tissues following treatment with a bi-antibiotic paste, induced bloodclot formation and MTA. Methods: Ten 25-day-old female Wistar rats were divided into an initial control group (Ci) and two experimental groups in which pulp necrosis was experimentally induced on the left mandibular first molar by exposing the pulp chamber and leaving it open to the oral environment. One of the experimental groups was left untreated (E1) while the other was submitted to a protocol of regenerative endodontics 10 days thereafter (E2). Fifteen days after placement of a bi-antibiotic paste, bleeding was induced into the root canal space and MTA was placed upon. Animals were euthanized 30 days later. Right mandibular first molars served as an 80-day-old final control group (Cf). Each hemimandible was histologically processed to analyse parameters associated with root development. Statistical analysis was carried by means of ANOVA; p values below 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: baseline (i.e. 25-days old) mean root length and apical diameter of the distal root canal were 1.84±0.25 and 0.38±0.02mm respectively. Following the regenerative endodontic protocol, cells lining the walls of the root canal and significant increase to both length (2.37±0.22mm) and diameter (0.32±0.03 mm) were observed. Conclusions: newly-weaned Wistar rats serve as a suitable model to evaluate regenerative endodontic protocols. However, further research is needed in order to disclose the nature of the cells and/or cell mediators involved


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Root Canal Therapy , Dental Pulp Necrosis , Regenerative Endodontics , Anti-Bacterial Agents
18.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 92(2): e306, dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1278306

ABSTRACT

Los estafilococos coagulasa negativos son microorganismos frecuentemente aislados cuya significancia clínica puede ser difícil de establecer por su carácter de comensales habituales de la piel. En la población neonatal estos patógenos han ido adquiriendo mayor protagonismo debido a la sobrevida de pacientes mas prematuros que en el pasado, así como sus necesidades de tratamiento, que determinan mayores tiempos de estadía hospitalaria. Estos elementos representan factores de riesgo también para el desarrollo de endocarditis en estos pacientes, particularmente debido a la utilización de catéteres intravasculares centrales por tiempo prolongado. En este caso clínico se presenta un paciente pretérmino severo que presentó una endocarditis a estafilococo coagulasa negativo a partir del cual discutiremos las características de las infecciones por estos microorganismos, las características de la endocarditis infecciosa en el recién nacido pretérmino y la utilización de antibióticos en estos pacientes, así como algunos elementos asociados a la vigilancia activa en el uso de antibióticos.


Coagulase negative staphylococcus (CoNS) are commonly isolated microorganisms whose clinical importance may be difficult to establish due to their role as part of our usual skin microbiota. These pathogens have gained relevance in neonatal population due to an improvement in neonatal care that determine longer survival rates and hospitals stays. Neonatal endocarditis is also affected by these microorganisms and particularly by the use of central intra vascular lines for long periods of time. In this clinical case we introduce a severe preterm patient who developed a CoNS endocarditis and discuss the characteristics of CoNS infections and endocarditis in preterm newborns as well as some antibiotic vigilance principles.


Os estafilococos coagulase negativos são microrganismos frequentemente isolados, cujo significado clínico pode ser difícil de estabelecer devido ao seu caráter de comensais cutâneos comuns. Na população neonatal, esses patógenos vêm adquirindo maior destaque devido à sobrevida de pacientes mais prematuros do que no passado, bem como suas necessidades de tratamento, as quais determinam tempos de internação mais longos. Esses elementos também representam fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de endocardite nesses pacientes, principalmente pelo uso prolongado de cateter intravascular central. Neste caso clínico apresentaremos um paciente pré-termo grave que apresentou endocardite estafilocócica coagulase-negativa a partir do qual discutiremos as características das infecções por esses microrganismos, as características da endocardite infecciosa no recém-nascido pré-termo e o uso de antibióticos nesses pacientes bem como alguns elementos associados à vigilância ativa no uso de antibióticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcus epidermidis/virology , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Endocarditis/diagnosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Coagulase , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Endocarditis/etiology , Infant, Extremely Premature
19.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(3): 413-417, dez 20, 2021. fig, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354260

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a meningite bacteriana em equinos é uma enfermidade frequente em animais jovens. Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli são as bactérias mais comumente isoladas nesses casos. Apesar da bactéria Providencia rettgeri já ter sido isolada em casos de meningite humana e de crocodilo, não há relatos de seu isolamento em equinos. Objetivo: relatar o isolamento e a identificação da bactéria P. rettgeri de um potro com sintomas neurológicos e avaliar o perfil de sensibilidade a antibióticos deste isolado. Metodologia: o isolamento foi realizado a partir do líquido cefalorraquidiano do potro, por meio de cultivo em meio ágar chocolate. Após isolamento, as colônias formadas foram identificadas por equipamento Biotyper, baseado em espectrometria de massa. O perfil de sensibilidade foi definido por teste de difusão em discos, seguindo metodologia relatada pelo CLSI M2-A8 em 2003, sendo a bactéria classificada como resistente, padrão indeterminado ou sensível aos antibióticos, de acordo com o descrito pelo EUCAST em 2021. Resultados: este é o primeiro relato do isolamento de P. rettgeri como agente etiológico de meningite em potro. Dos 15 antibióticos testados, a bactéria foi resistente a 9, sensível a 5 e com padrão indeterminado a 1 antibiótico. Conclusão: nossos resultados indicam que P. rettgeri deve ser considerada entre possíveis agentes etiológicos de quadros neurológicos em equinos e que testes de sensibilidade a antibiótico são fundamentais, uma vez que essa bactéria já apresenta resistência a diversos antibióticos disponíveis comercialmente.


Introduction: Bacterial meningitis in horses is a frequent disease in young animals. Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are the most commonly isolated bacteria in these cases. Although Providencia rettgeri bacterium has already been isolated in cases of human and crocodile meningitis, there are no reports of its isolation in cases of meningitis in horses. Objective: to report isolation and identification of the P. rettgeri bacteria from a foal with neurological symptoms and to assess antibiotic sensitivity profile in isolate of it. Methods: isolation was performed from the foal's cerebrospinal fluid, through cultivation in chocolate agar medium. After isolation, formed colonies were identified by Biotyper equipment, based on mass spectrometry. Sensitivity profile was verified by disk diffusion test, according to methodology that was reported by CLSI M2-A8 in 2003, which classified bacteria as resistant, indeterminate pattern or sensitive to antibiotics, as described by EUCAST in 2021. Results: this is the first report on isolation of P. rettgeri as an etiologic agent of meningitis in foals. Among 15 antibiotics that were tested, results showed bacteria resistence to 9 antibiotics, bacteria sensitivity to 5, but undetermined pattern to 1 antibiotic. Conclusion: results indicate that P. rettgeri shall be considered among potential etiologic agents of neurological conditions in horses and that antibiotic sensitivity tests are essential, since this type of bacterium is already resistant to several commercially available antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Animals , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Equidae , Meningitis , Anti-Infective Agents , Staphylococcus aureus , Bacteria , Escherichia coli , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Noxae
20.
Medisan ; 25(6)2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1356473

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las infecciones respiratorias agudas abarcan entre 20 y 40 % del total de todas las hospitalizaciones y 20 - 34 % de las muertes en menores de 5 años de edad, fundamentalmente a expensas de neumonía. Objetivo: Describir aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos y microbiológicos en pacientes menores de 5 años con neumonía bacteriana. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 39 pacientes con neumonía y aislamientos bacterianos en hemocultivos, líquido pleural y/o exudados nasofaringeos, ingresados en el Hospital Infantil Docente Sur Antonio María Béguez Cesar de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero de 2018 hasta diciembre de 2019. Se analizaron variables de interés, tales como edad, sexo, factores de riesgo, sintomatología y cultivos microbiológicos. Se utilizaron la frecuencia absoluta y el porcentaje como medidas de resumen. Resultados: Prevalecieron los pacientes entre 1 - 4 años de edad, el sexo femenino y los hemocultivos con estafilococos coagulasa negativo, así como neumococos, estos últimos también aislados en exudados nasofaríngeos. Los factores de riesgo más frecuentes fueron infección respiratoria aguda previa, uso anticipado de antibióticos, asistencia a círculo infantil, supresión precoz de lactancia materna, fiebre, tos, tiraje y alteraciones del murmullo vesicular. Predominaron la insuficiencia respiratoria aguda y el derrame pleural como complicaciones. Se notificó más gravedad en los lactantes y ocurrieron 2 decesos, para una letalidad de 1,47 %. Conclusiones: La conjunción de factores de riesgo detectados, la baja positividad de los cultivos, la identificación de bacterias prevalentes en hemocultivos y el descenso de la letalidad resultaron de interés en el estudio.


Introduction: Acute respiratory infections take in between 20 and 40 % of all the hospitalizations and 20 - 34% of deaths in children under 5 years, fundamentally at the expense of pneumonia. Objective: To describe epidemiologic, clinical and microbiologic aspects in patients under 5 years with bacterial pneumonia. Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 39 patients with pneumonia and bacterial isolations in hemocultures, pleural fluid and/or nasopharyngeal swabs was carried out. They were admitted to Antonio María Béguez Cesar Southern Teaching Children Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from January, 2018 to December, 2019. Variables of interest were analyzed, such as age, sex, risk factors, symptomatology and microbiologic cultures. The absolute frequency and the percentage as summary measures were used. Results: There was a prevalence of patients among 1 - 4 years, female sex and the hemocultures with negative coagulase staphylococcu, as well as pneumococus, these last ones also isolated in nasopharingeal swabs. The most frequent risk factors were previous acute respiratory infection, premature use of antibiotics, attendance to day care center, early suppression of breastfeeding, fever, cough, tirage and changes of the vesicular breath sound. The acute respiratory failure and pleural effusion as complications prevailed. More seriousness was notified in infants and there were 2 deaths, for a letality of 1.47 %. Conclusions: The combination of detected risk factors, low positivity of the cultures, identification of bacterias prevalents in hemocultures and the decrease of letality was of interest in the study.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Bacterial , Pneumonia, Bacterial/microbiology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/epidemiology , Secondary Care , Child
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