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1.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20210067, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1365078

ABSTRACT

Background: Melittin has shown antiproliferative effects on tumor cells. Therefore, it comprises a valuable compound for studies on cancer treatment. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have reported melittin effects on bone metastasis. Herein, we propose an approach based on intrametastatic melittin injection to treat bone metastases in colorectal cancer. Methods: Following the characterization of melittin and antiproliferative tests in vitro, a single dose was injected through intrametastatic route into the mouse bone metastasis model. Following treatment, metastasis growth was evaluated. Results: A single dose of melittin was able to inhibit metastasis growth. Histological analysis showed necrosis and inflammatory processes in melittin-treated metastasis. Except by mild weight loss, no other systemic effects were observed. Conclusion: Our data suggest that melittin might be a promising agent for the future development of treatment strategies aiming to reduce the bone metastasis skeletal-related impact in colorectal cancer patients with bone metastasis.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone and Bones , In Vitro Techniques , Colorectal Neoplasms , Neoplasm Metastasis
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 352-360, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1248941

ABSTRACT

In this study, the toxic effects of melittin on Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney cells (MDBK) were analyzed with respect to mitochondrial functionality by reduction of MTT and flow cytometry, apoptosis potential, necrosis, oxygen reactive species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation, and DNA fragmentation using flow cytometry and cell membrane destabilization by confocal microscopy. The toxicity presented dose-dependent characteristics and mitochondrial activity was inhibited by up to 78.24 ±3.59% (P<0.01, n = 6) in MDBK cells exposed to melittin (10µg/mL). Flow cytometry analysis revealed that melittin at 2µg/mL had the highest necrosis rate (P<0.05) for the cells. The lipoperoxidation of the membranes was also higher at 2µg/mL of melittin (P<0.05), which was further confirmed by the microphotographs obtained by confocal microscopy. The highest ROS production occurred when the cells were exposed to 2.5µg/mL melittin (P<0.05), and this concentration also increased DNA fragmentation (P<0.05). There was a significative and positive correlation between the lipoperoxidation of membranes with ROS (R=0.4158), mitochondrial functionality (R=0.4149), and apoptosis (R=0.4978). Thus, the oxidative stress generated by melittin culminates in the elevation of intracellular ROS that initiates a cascade of toxic events in MDBK cells.(AU)


Neste estudo, os efeitos tóxicos da melitina em células Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) foram analisados quanto à funcionalidade mitocondrial, por redução de MTT e citometria de fluxo, potencial de apoptose, necrose, produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio (ROS), peroxidação lipídica e fragmentação de DNA, utilizando-se citometria de fluxo e desestabilização da membrana celular, por microscopia confocal. A toxicidade apresentou características dose-dependentes e a atividade mitocondrial foi inibida até 78,24±3,59% (P<0,01, n = 6) em células MDBK expostas à melitina (10µg/mL). Análises por citometria de fluxo revelaram que a melitina a 2µg/mL apresentou o maior índice necrótico celular (P<0,05). A maior lipoperoxidação de membranas também foi na concentração de 2µg/mL de melitina (P<0,05), o que foi posteriormente confirmado por microscopia confocal. A maior produção de ROS aconteceu quando as células foram expostas a 2,5µg/mL de melitina (P<0,05), e essa concentração também aumentou a fragmentação de DNA (P<0,05). Houve uma significativa correlação positiva entre a lipoperoxidação de membranas e a produção de ROS (R=0,4158), funcionalidade mitocondrial (R=0,4149) e apoptose (R=0,4978). Portanto, o estresse oxidativo gerado pela melitina culminou na elevação de ROS intracelular, que inicia uma cascata de eventos tóxicos nas células MDBK.(AU)


Subject(s)
Reactive Oxygen Species/adverse effects , Apoptosis , Cytotoxins/analysis , Melitten/analysis , Bee Venoms/analysis , Microscopy, Confocal , Flow Cytometry
3.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 51(4): e20200545, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153878

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The objective was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, genotoxic, antigenotoxic, and antineoplastic activities of apitoxin produced by the bee Apis mellifera. The antioxidant activity of the apitoxin solution was evaluated using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrilhydrazyl) method. Genotoxic potential of apitoxin was analyzed by comparing the mean DNA damage indices (idDNA) of L929 strain fibroblasts exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 - genotoxic substance), distilled water, or apitoxin. The antigenotoxic effect of apitoxin was analyzed by assessing the percentage decrease in H2O2-induced genotoxicity in L929 fibroblasts co-treated with three concentrations of the aqueous apitoxin solution and subjected to comet assay. In vitro antineoplastic activity in human tumor cell lines of prostate adenocarcinoma (PC3), hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPGE2), melanoma (MAD-MB435), and astrocytoma (SNB19), were verified by MTT [3- (4) bromide colorimetric method, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium]. Apitoxin had no genotoxic effect on L929 cells at concentrations of 30, 10, and 5 µg/mL after 24 hours of exposure. This effect was only evident at 50 µg/mL. Apitoxin promoted a significant reduction in DNA damage index (idDNA) at all concentrations tested. At 30 µg/mL, apitoxin attenuated the genotoxic effects induced by H2O2. Apitoxin also demonstrated in vitro antineoplastic potential, since the cytotoxic effect was observed at concentrations of 50 µg/mL and 25 µg/mL, with significant reduction in viability percentage of PC3 tumor cell lines, HEPGE2, MAD-MB435, and SNB19. The high antioxidant activity associated with the absence of genotoxic effect and the genoprotective and antineoplastic effect demonstrated by apitoxin here provide indications of apitoxin's therapeutic potential.


RESUMO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as atividades antioxidantes, genotóxicas, antigenotóxicas e antineoplásicas in vitro da apitoxina produzida pela abelha Apis mellifera. A atividade antioxidante da solução da apitoxina foi avaliada pelo método DPPH (2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil). O potencial genotóxico da apitoxina foi analisado através dos índices médios de dano ao DNA (idDNA) dos fibroblastos da linhagem L929 expostos à peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2 - substância genotóxica), água destilada ou apitoxina. O efeito antigenotóxico da apitoxina foi analisado através da avaliação da diminuição percentual na genotoxicidade induzida por H2O2 nos fibroblastos L929 co-tratados com três concentrações da solução aquosa de apitoxina e submetidos ao ensaio cometa. A atividade antineoplásica in vitro em linhagens celulares tumorais humanas de adenocarcinoma da próstata (PC3), carcinoma hepatocelular (HEPGE2), melanoma (MAD-MB435) e astrocitoma (SNB19), foram verificadas pelo método colorimétrico do brometo de MTT [3- (4), 5-dimetiltiazol -2-il) -2,5-difeniltetrazólio]. A apitoxina não teve efeito genotóxico nas células L929 nas concentrações de 30, 10 e 5 µg / mL após 24 horas de exposição. Este efeito foi apenas evidente a 50 µg / mL. A apitoxina promoveu uma redução significativa no índice de danos ao DNA (idDNA) em todas as concentrações testadas. A 30 µg / mL, a apitoxina atenuou os efeitos genotóxicos induzidos por H2O2. A apitoxina também demonstrou potencial antineoplásico in vitro, uma vez que o efeito citotóxico foi observado em concentrações de 50 µg / mL e 25 µg / mL, com redução significativa na porcentagem de viabilidade das linhagens celulares de PC3, HEPGE2, MAD-MB435 e SNB19. A alta atividade antioxidante associada à ausência de efeito genotóxico e o efeito genoprotetor e antineoplásico demonstrado pela apitoxina aqui fornecem indicações do potencial terapêutico da apitoxina.

4.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-187967

ABSTRACT

The Honeybee (Apis mellifera) is one of the world’s most beneficial insects, as it plays a critical role in many terrestrial ecosystems. The use of honeybee products has been documented for thousands of years in many cultures for the treatment of human diseases, and their healing properties have been documented in many religious texts. The present study sets out to compile information on the history, chemical composition and scientific evidence concerning bee venom research. The promising bioactivities have the potential to provide practical directions for further investigation. PubMed database, Google Scholar Library, research articles, books, and relevant web pages have been accessed to accumulate data so that the updated information included in this study is as current as possible. At least 18 pharmacologically active components including various enzymes, peptides, and amines are present in bee venom. Medicinal use of bee venom therapy wields significant in vivo and in vitro outcomes to some extent mitigate the effects of Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, HIV, arthritis, liver fibrosis, cancer, tumors, fibrotic diseases, Lyme disease, etc. The effects of bee venom were the first documented in 1888 with the publication of a European clinical study conducted on its impact on rheumatism. According to a study published in the journal, bee venom has been used to treat various conditions for centuries. Such research activities confirm the therapeutic effectiveness of bee venom and as a potential future biomedicine.

5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738614

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report a patient stung by a bee, who was diagnosed with sterile endopthalmitis and another patient diagnosed with optic neuritis, with decreasing visual acuity, after refined bee venom injection around the orbital tissue. CASE SUMMARY: A 82-year-old female visited our hospital for decreased visual acuity in the right eye and ocular pain due to a bee sting. The bee sting penetrated the sclera into the vitreous. In the anterior segment, severe cornea edema and anterior chamber cells were seen. Using ultrasonography, inflammation was seen around the intravitreal area. After 3 months, intravitreal inflammation regressed but the patient's visual acuity was light perception negative, and corneal opacity, neovascularization, and phthisis bulbi were detected. A 55-year-old male visited our hospital for ocular pain in the right eye and decreasing visual acuity after refined bee venom injection around the orbital tissue. The best-corrected visual acuity in the right eye was 15/100, there was moderate injection on the conjunctiva. A relative afferent pupillary defect, abnormal color vision test results, and a defect in the visual field test were observed. There was no pain during external ocular movement, and other general blood tests, and a brain MRI were normal. Based on these symptoms, methylprednisolone megatherapy was started for treatment of optic neuritis. After treatment, visual acuity of the right eye was 9/10 and all other clinical optic neuritis symptoms regressed. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these two cases, ocular toxicity from bee venom could result from both direct and indirect courses. Treatment using refined bee venom might be harmful, and caution is recommended in its use.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Anterior Chamber , Bee Venoms , Bees , Bites and Stings , Brain , Color Vision , Conjunctiva , Cornea , Corneal Opacity , Edema , Female , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Inflammation , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Methylprednisolone , Middle Aged , Optic Neuritis , Orbit , Pupil Disorders , Sclera , Ultrasonography , Visual Acuity , Visual Field Tests
6.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2181-2186, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-817155

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the acute toxicity, long-term toxicity, skin irritation and anaphylaxis of Bee venom (BV) plastics, and to evaluate its preclinical safety. METHODS: The acute toxicity of BV plastics to rats was investigated after administration of high-dose, medium-dose and low-dose (144, 96, 48 mg/kg) of BV plastics. The long-term toxicity of BV plastics was investigated by continuous administration of high-dose, medium-dose and low-dose (72, 48, 24 mg/kg) of BV plastics for 28 days. The irritation of intact and damaged skin in rabbits with 8 mg/kg BV plastics was investigated by using the self-control method of left and right homologous body. The skin anaphylaxis of guinea pig were investigated after sensitized with 15 mg/kg BV plastics on the left back (on 0, 7th, 14th day) and stimulated with 15 mg/kg BV plastics on the right back. RESULTS: During the acute toxicity experiment with BV plastic,the weight of rats and the changes of viscera were normal,and there was no relevant toxic reaction. Long-term toxicity test results showed that no significant pathological changes were observed at 24 h after the last administration; the spleen index  of rats in BV low-dose group, testicular index in middle-dose group and epididymis index in high-dose and middle-dose groups were significantly increased, while PT in plasma of rats in BV medium-dose and low-dose groups was significantly prolonged (P<0.05). There were no abnormal changes in organ appearance, other organ index, coagulation index and blood biochemical index. All above indexes became normal at the end of 2-week recovery period. Skin irritation test showed that BV plastics could cause slight erythema and obvious scab on the skin of rabbits which along with little irritation on intact or damaged skin. Skin anaphylaxis test showed that BV plastics produced mild erythema in the skin of guinea pigs, belonging to light allergy. CONCLUSIONS: No acute or long-term toxicity is observed after transdermal administration of BV plastics, which is safe and only causes mild irritation and irritability to skin, indicating there is good safety of the plastic under experiment doses.

7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(4): 595-604, abr. 2018. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-955370

ABSTRACT

A busca por alternativa aos fármacos sintéticos têm revelado descobertas no campo da farmacologia e, nesse sentido, melitina e apamina, dois constituintes do veneno de abelhas, foram descritas com várias ações farmacológicas. Este estudo objetivou avaliar in vitro as capacidades antiviral e virucida destes componentes. Para tanto, células MDBK (Madin Darby Bovine Kidney), após verificação das respectivas doses tóxicas por ensaio MTT ((3-(4,5 dimetiltiazol-2yl)-2-5-difenil-2H tetrazolato de bromo), foram cultivadas em microplacas e tratadas com diferentes concentrações de apamina, melitina e sua associação. Esse tratamento ocorreu antes e após a infecção com 0,1 MOI (multiplicidade de infecção) de cepas citopatogênicas de herpesvírus bovino tipo 1 (BoHV-1) cepa Los Angeles e vírus da diarreia viral bovina (BVDV) cepa NADL. Após incubação por 72 horas, 37oC, as células foram submetidas ao ensaio MTT para estimativa da viabilidade celular. Em experimento paralelo, placas que foram submetidas ao mesmo procedimento sofreram ciclo de congelamento e descongelamento das células, para rompimento das mesmas e mensuração dos títulos virais. O ensaio virucida foi realizado incubando-se suspensões de BoHV-1 e BVDV com as soluções de apamina, melitina e associação por 24 horas a 37oC e 22oC. O título viral foi avaliado às 0 horas, 1, 2, 4, 8 e 24 horas de incubação. A concentração citotóxica para 50% das células (CC50) de melitina foi 2,32 μg/ml e apamina não demonstrou toxicidade à maior concentração testada (100μg/ml). Houve efeito antiviral da melitina sobre BoHV-1, especialmente na concentração de 2μg/ml, onde observou-se 85,96% de viabilidade celular quando o tratamento foi realizado antes da infecção e 86,78% de viabilidade quando o tratamento foi realizado após a infecção. Houve ainda redução de 90% das partículas virais de BoHV-1. Em menores concentrações (1 e 1,5μg/ml) de melitina não houve atividade antiviral, pois a viabilidade celular foi baixa, demonstrando efeito citopático do vírus. Na associação das duas substâncias houve queda no título de BVDV e observou-se maior viabilidade celular quando comparados à ação isolada dos composto sobre este vírus. Isso se confirma na atividade virucida, uma vez que houve decréscimo de 90% das partículas virais de BVDV com a associação dos dois compostos do veneno de abelhas. Atuando individualmente, melitina apresentou efeito antiviral e virucida frente ao BoHV-1, zerando seu título em apenas 2 horas a 37oC. Conclui-se que melitina tem ação antiviral e virucida frente ao BoHV-1 e sua associação com apamina potencializou seus efeitos frente ao BVDV.(AU)


The search for an alternative to synthetic drugs have revealed discoveries in the field of pharmacology and, according to melittin and apamin, two components of bee venom which have been described were with various pharmacological actions.This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antiviral and virucidal capabilities of these components. Therefore, after verification of their toxic doses by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay, MDBK cells (Madin Darby Bovine Kidney) have been cultivated in microplates and treated with different concentrations of apamin, melittin and its association. This treatment occurred before and after infection with MOI (multiplicity of infection) 0.1 of cytopathogenic strains of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) strain Los Angeles and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain NADL. After incubation for 72 hours, 37°C, the cells were submitted to MTT assay to estimate cell viability. In parallel experiments, plates were subjected to the same procedure suffered freezing and thawing cycle the cells to rupture the same and measurement of viral titers. The virucidal assay was performed by incubating suspension of bovine herpesvirus type-1 and BVDV with apamin solutions, melittin and association for 24 hours at 37°C and 22°C. The viral titer was evaluated at 0 hours, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 hours of incubation. The cytotoxic concentration to 50% of the cells (CC50) of melittin was 2.32g/mL and apamin did not show toxicity at the greater concentration tested (100μg/mL). There was antiviral effect of melittin on bovine herpesvirus type-1, especially at a concentration of 2μg/mL, where was observed 85.96% cell viability when treatment was performed before the infection and 86.78% viability when the treatment was carried out after infection. There was also a 90% reduction of viral particles of bovine herpesvirus type-1. In lower concentrations (1 and 1.5μg/mL) melittin no antiviral activity because cell viability was low, showing cytopathic effect of the virus. At the association two substances there were a decrease in the title of BVDV and there was higher cell viability when compared to the isolated action of the compounds of this virus. This is confirmed in the virucidal activity, since there was a decrease of 90% of the viral particles of BVDV with the combination of the two compounds of bee venom. Acting individually, melittin showed antiviral effect and virucidal against for BoHV-1, zeroing its title in just 2 hours at 37°C. It is concluded that melittin has antiviral and virucidal action against the BoHV-1 and its association with apamin potentiate its effects against BVDV.(AU)


Subject(s)
Apamin/administration & dosage , Cattle/abnormalities , Cattle/virology , Herpesvirus 1, Bovine/immunology , Melitten/administration & dosage
8.
Acupuncture Research ; (6): 251-254, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-844472

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical efficacy and safety of bee-venom acupuncture therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: A total of 120 cases of RA patients were randomized into bee-sting acupuncture group (treatment) and western medicine group (control) in accordance with the random number table. The patients of the control group were treated by oral administration of Methotrexate (10 mg, once a week) and Celecoxlb (0.2 g, once a day), and those of the treatment group treated by 5 to 15 bee stings of Ashi-points or acupoints according to different conditions and corporeity, and with the bee-sting retained for about 5 min every time, once every other day. The treatment lasted for 8 weeks. The therapeutic effect was assessed by examining symptoms and signs of the affected joints as morning stiffness duration, swollen/tender joint counts (indexes), handgrip strength, 15 m-walking time, visual analogue scale (VAS), Disease Activity Score including a 28-joint count (DAS 28), rheumatoid factor (RF), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (ACCPA); and for assessing the safety of bee-venom acupuncture, the patients' responses of fever, enlargement of lymph nodes, regional red and swollen, itching, blood and urine tests for routine were examined. RESULTS: Findings of DAS 28 responses displayed that of the two 60 cases in the control and bee-venom acupuncture groups, 15 and 18 experienced marked improvement, 33 and 32 were effective, 12 and 10 ineffective, with the effective rates being 80% and 83. 33%, respectively. No significant difference was found between the two groups in the effective rate (P>0.05). After the treatment, both groups have witnessed a marked decrease in the levels of morning stiffness duration, arthralgia index, swollen joint count index, joint tenderness index, 15 m walking time, VAS, RF, ESR, CRP and ACCPA, and an obvious increase of handgrip strength relevant to their own levels of pre-treatment in each group (P0.05). The routine blood test, routine urine test, routine stool test, electrocardiogram result, the function of liver and kidney and other security index were within the normal range, without any significant adverse effects found after bee-stinging treatment. CONCLUSION: Bee-venom acupuncture therapy for RA patients is safe and effective, worthy of popularization and application in clinical practice.

9.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 27(3): 324-328, May-June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-898679

ABSTRACT

Abstract Glioblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor representing with poor prognosis, therapy resistance and high metastasis rate. Increased expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2, a member of matrix metalloproteinase family proteins, has been reported in many cancers including glioblastoma. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression has resulted in reduced aggression of glioblastoma tumors in several reports. In the present study, we evaluated effect of bee venom on expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 as well as potential toxicity and apoptogenic properties of bee venom on glioblastoma cells. Human A172 glioblastoma cells were treated with increasing concentrations of bee venom. Then, cell viability, apoptosis, matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity were measured using MMT assay, propidium iodide staining, real time-PCR, and zymography, respectively. The IC50 value of bee venom was 28.5 µg/ml in which it leads to decrease of cell viability and induction of apoptosis. Incubation with bee venom also decreased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in this cell line (p < 0.05). In zymography, there was a reverse correlation between bee venom concentration and total matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity. Induction of apoptosis as well as inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity and expression can be suggested as molecular mechanisms involved in cytotoxic and antimetastatic effects of bee venom against glioblastoma cells.

10.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 47(10): e20160486, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1044886

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Apitoxin is the venom produced by bees. It is a complex chemical compound, rich in protein substances and with pharmacological effects. This study was carried out with the objective of comparing the quality of apitoxin extracted in an apiary in different parts of the collector in relation to moisture content, protein analysis and cytotoxicity assay with Artemia salina L. Type 1 apitoxin was collected from glass slabs at the entrance to the hive, while type 2 apitoxin was collected from the waste accumulated in the collection rods and treated by rinsing in distilled water. Both apitoxins presented significant differences (P>0.05) in relation to protein profile, with type 1 showing a higher content (77.8%) than type 2 (51.9%), and presented polypeptide bands with more than 50% of their nitrogenous components having molecular weight below 10KDa. Regarding cytotoxicity assays, type 1 apitoxin had LD50 of 71.5μg mL-1, while type 2 had LD50 of 191.6μg mL-1. Thus, the region where apitoxin accumulates in the collector does influence the product quality if moisture and protein contents are in accordance with the standards recommended in specific legislation, and so it can be commercialized by the beekeeper.


RESUMO: A apitoxina é o veneno produzido pelas abelhas, um composto químico complexo, rico em substâncias proteicas e com efeito farmacológico. Com objetivo de comparar a qualidade da apitoxina extraída em apiário em relação ao teor de umidade, análise das proteínas e ensaio de citotoxicidade frente Artemia salina L. este trabalho foi realizado. A apitoxina denominada neste estudo como tipo 1 foi coletada de placas de vidro na entrada da colmeia, enquanto que a denominada tipo 2, coletada a partir dos resíduos acumulados nas varetas coletoras e tratada com lavagem em água destilada. As apitoxinas apresentaram diferenças significativas (P>0,05) em relação ao perfil proteico, sendo a tipo 1 com maior teor (77,8%) que a tipo 2 (51,9%) e apresentou bandas de polipeptídios reveladas possuindo mais de 50% de seus componentes nitrogenados com peso molecular abaixo de 10KDa. Quanto aos ensaios de citotoxicidade, a apitoxina tipo 1 apresentou DL50 de 71,5µg mL-1 e a tipo 2 DL50 191,6µg mL-1. Assim, a região onde se acumula a apitoxina no coletor influencia na qualidade do produto, mas apresenta teores de umidade e proteína de acordo com padrões preconizados em legislação especifica, podendo ser comercializada pelo apicultor.

11.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-954838

ABSTRACT

Background Envenomation caused by multiple stings from Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera constitutes a public health problem in the Americas. In 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health reported 13,597 accidents (incidence of seven cases per 100,000 inhabitants) with 39 deaths (lethality of 0.25%). The toxins present in the venom, which include melittin and phospholipase A2, cause lesions in diverse organs and systems that may be fatal. As there has been no specific treatment to date, management has been symptomatic and supportive only. Methods In order to evaluate the safety and neutralizing capacity of a new apilic antivenom, as well as to confirm its lowest effective dose, a clinical protocol was developed to be applied in a multicenter, non-randomized and open phase I/II clinical trial. Twenty participants with more than five stings, aged more than 18 years, of both sexes, who have not previously received the heterologous serum against bee stings, will be included for 24 months. The proposed dose was based on the antivenom neutralizing capacity and the number of stings. Treatment will be administered only in a hospital environment and the participants will be evaluated for a period up to 30 days after discharge for clinical and laboratory follow-up. Results This protocol, approved by the Brazilian regulatory agencies for ethics (National Commission for Ethics on Research - CONEP) and sanitation (National Health Surveillance Agency - ANVISA), is a guideline constituted by specific, adjuvant, symptomatic and complementary treatments, in addition to basic orientations for conducting a clinical trial involving heterologous sera. Conclusions This is the first clinical trial protocol designed specifically to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and safety of a new antivenom against stings from the Africanized honeybee Apis mellifera. The results will support future studies to confirm a new treatment for massive bee attack that has a large impact on public health in the Americas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Bees , Antivenins , Phospholipases A2 , Environment
12.
Acta biol. colomb ; 21(3): 619-626, set.-dic, 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-827639

ABSTRACT

La abeja africanizada es la más común en la apicultura colombiana y a su veneno (apitoxina) se le han atribuido propiedades terapéuticas para diferentes enfermedades, sin mayor soporte científico. Al revisar en la literatura los reportes publicados sobre el análisis proteómico de la apitoxina, se encontraron cuatro métodos distintos para la extracción de proteínas de la apitoxina. El primer método consiste en resuspender la apitoxina en Urea 7 M, precipitar con acetona y finalmente resuspender en Urea 7 M y CHAPS 4 %. Para el segundo método se resuspende la apitoxina en buffer de lisis, se precipita con ácido tricloroacético, y luego se resuspende en Urea 7 M y CHAPS 4 %. El tercer método es igual al anterior, excepto que la precipitación se realiza con acetona en vez de ácido tricloroacético. Finalmente, el cuarto método consiste en resuspender la apitoxina en agua destilada, precipitar con acetona y resuspender en Urea 7 M y CHAPS 4 %. Este trabajo se enfocó en comparar el desempeño de estos cuatro métodos de extracción y determinar el método con el mejor resultado en cuanto a la concentración e integridad obtenida de las proteínas. De los distintos métodos evaluados, se encontró que los mejores resultados en cuanto a concentración de proteínas se obtuvieron con la resuspensión de apitoxina en buffer de lisis y precipitación con acetona (método 3) y con el método de resuspensión de apitoxina en agua destilada y precipitación con acetona (método 4). De estos, el mejor método de extracción en cuanto a integridad de las proteínas y perfil proteómico fue el de resuspensión de apitoxina en buffer de lisis seguido de precipitación con acetona (método 3).


The Africanised bee is the most common type of bee in Colombia, and therapeutic properties for different diseases have been attributed to its venom, without much scientific support. A literature search of reports on the proteomic analysis of honeybee venom yielded four different methods for extracting proteins from bee venom. The first method consists in resuspending the venom in 7 M Urea, followed by precipitation with acetone and finally resuspending the pellet in 7 M Urea and 4 % CHAPS. For the second method, the venom is resuspended in lysis buffer, precipitated with trichloroacetic acid, and then resuspended in 7 M Urea and 4 % CHAPS. The third method is similar to the previous one, except that the precipitation step is performed with acetone instead of trichloroacetic acid. Finally, the fourth method is to resuspend the venom in distilled water, precipitate with acetone and resuspend in 7 M Urea and 4 % CHAPS. This work focused on comparing the performance of these four extraction methods, in order to determine the method with the best results in terms of concentration and integrity of the proteins obtained. Of the four methods evaluated, the best results in terms of protein concentration and yield were obtained by resuspending the bee venom in lysis buffer followed by precipitation with acetone (method 3), and by resuspending in distilled water followed by precipitation with acetone (method 4). Of these, the method that maintained protein integrity and yielded the best proteomic profile was that in which the bee venom was resuspended in lysis buffer followed by precipitation with acetone (method 3).

13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-181680

ABSTRACT

The cross-fertilization by bee increases average agricultural yield by 20 to 25 percent. Its products like honey, pollen, royal jelly, propolis, bee venom have immense medical importance. Honey is useful for healing the wounds, helps to build up hemoglobin, used as laxative blood purifier, preventive against cold, cough, sore throat, eye ailments, burns and gastrointestinal disorder etc. Honey has antibiotic property and is effective in reducing the risk of heart disease, cancer and diabetes. Pollen lowers blood pressure, increases hemoglobin and erythrocyte content, useful in pernicious anemia, sterility, hypertension, in complaints of the nervous and endocrine system. Royal jelly has antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, vasodilative and hypotensive, antioxidant, antihypercholesterolemic and antitumor property. Royal jelly has a diuretic effect, prevents obesity, builds up resistance to infection, regulates the functioning of the endocrine glands and is good for arteriosclerosis and coronary deficiency. Bee venom acts as antibiotic and useful for lowering of blood pressure, in neural disorders and rheumatoid arthritis and acute rheumatic carditis, treating certain eye diseases, hypertension and gynecological and children’s diseases. Propolis, a resinous substance has pharmacologically active constituents as flavonoids, phenolics and other various aromatic compounds. Propolis has antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory proprieties. It is used to treat mouth and gum disorders, gum decay, resistance to general illness, cure burns and fungal skin complaints. Beeswax is used to prepare polishes, waterproofing, electrical insulation, cosmetics, cold creams etc. It is also useful in engineering, pharmaceutical and confectionary industries.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90942

ABSTRACT

Bee sting causes mild symptoms such as urticaria and localized pain, and severe symptoms including anaphylaxis, cardiovascular collapse, and death. We reported on a patient with arterial thrombotic occlusion and severe ischemia in the lower limb after multiple bee stings. The patient was stung 5 times and complained of pallor, pain, and coldness in the left toe, and did not have dorsalis pedis pulsation. Computed tomography angiography showed multiple thrombotic occlusion of the anterior and posterial tibial artery below the knee. Local thrombolytic therapy using urokinase was administered and the occluded arteries were successfully recanalized.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , Angiography , Angioplasty, Balloon , Arteries , Bee Venoms , Bees , Bites and Stings , Humans , Ischemia , Knee , Lower Extremity , Pallor , Thrombolytic Therapy , Tibial Arteries , Toes , Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator , Urticaria
15.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 43-52, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65001

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Hypoxic-ischemic brain injuries influence the mechanisms of signal transduction, including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) that regulates gene expression through transcription factor activity. Several attempts have been made to use bee venom (BV) to treat neurological diseases. However, limited data are available for brain injuries such as neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and neurodegenerative disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of BV by determining the expression of activated MAPK pathways. METHODS: We examined activation and cell viability in hypoxia (1% O2, 5% CO2, 94% N2) in low glucose-treated (H+low G) neuronal cells and astrocytes in the presence and absence of BV. After they were subjected to hypoxic conditions and treated with low glucose, the cells were maintained for 0, 6, 15, and 24 h under normoxic conditions. RESULTS: Extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38 MAPK, and stress-activated protein kinases (SAPK)/Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNK) were activated in H+low G conditions. Particularly, phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was maximized 6 h after exposure to H+low G condition. BV specifically inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2. However, BV had no effect on p38 MAPK or SAPK/JNK. In addition, BV improved neuronal cell and astrocytes viability following exposure to H+low G. CONCLUSION: ERK inactivation is known to mediate protective effects in hypoxic brain injury. Taken together, these results suggest that treatment with BV may be helpful in reducing hypoxic injury in neonatal HIE through the ERK signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Hypoxia , Astrocytes , Bee Venoms , Bees , Brain Injuries , Cell Survival , Gene Expression , Glucose , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Neuroprotective Agents , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases , Signal Transduction , Transcription Factors
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-631105

ABSTRACT

Background Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by chronic high blood glucose levels that causes complications in the eyes, kidneys, heart, vessels and nerves. Currently diabetic nephropathy is the most significant long-term complications in terms of morbidity and mortality for individual patients with diabetes. Honey bee venom can be considered as a natural remedy for diabetes due to its blood glucose levels lowering and lipid-regulating effect on diabetic rabbits. Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Mongolian honey bee venom (Apis mellifera) on renal dysfunction in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. Material and Method Twenty two Chinchilla rabbits were divided into three groups: control (n=6), diabetic (n=8), and bee venom treated (n=8). The diabetic group was injected with 5% solution of Alloxan monohydrate 100 mg/kg intravenously behind the ear for 2 minutes to induce diabetes. The bee venom treated group received a bee sting (a sting contains 0.2-0.5 ml of bee venom) on their hind paw every day after their diagnosis of diabetes. Result Bee venom treatment (BVT) led to the following changes: compared to the diabetic group, the bee venom treated group’s blood glucose levels lowered between 14.9% and 26.5%; the plasma creatinine and urea levels were decreased respectively by 19,8% and 14.8%. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were reduced by 14.8%. Conclusion: Treatment with Mongolian bee venom lowered the blood glucose levels and prevents the renal dysfunction in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits

17.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 24(1): 67-72, Jan-Feb/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-710148

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to identify the pharmacological effects of bee venom and its major component, melittin, on the nervous system of mice. For the pharmacological analysis, mice were treated once with saline, 0.1 or 1.2 mg/kg of bee venom and 0.1 mg/kg of melittin, subcutaneously, 30 min before being submitted to behavioral tests: locomotor activity and grooming (open-field), catalepsy, anxiety (elevated plus-maze), depression (forced swimming test) and apomorphine-induced stereotypy. Haloperidol, imipramine and diazepam were administered alone (positive control) or as a pre-treatment (haloperidol).The bee venom reduced motor activity and promoted cataleptic effect, in a similar manner to haloperidol.These effects were decreased by the pretreatment with haloperidol. Both melittin and bee venom decreased the apomorphine-induced stereotypies. The data indicated the antipsychotic activity of bee venom and melittin in a murine model.

18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-11851

ABSTRACT

A 64-year-old woman presented with headache and visual disturbance which occurred 10 minutes after bee venom acupuncture. She was normotensive. Her pupils were isocoric and normally reflexive but she could precept only lights just in front of her eyes. The brain MRI showed vasogenic edema in the cerebellum and occipitotemporoparietal areas. She fully recovered 2 days later. The brain MRI taken after 7 days revealed remarkable improvement. This case suggests that bee venom might cause posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture , Bee Venoms , Brain , Cerebellum , Edema , Female , Headache , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome , Pupil , Reflex
19.
Toxicological Research ; : 99-102, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-227203

ABSTRACT

Bee venom (Apis mellifera L. BV) has been used as a cosmetic ingredient for anti-ageing, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity after a single dermal administration of BV, BV was administered to 2 groups of Sprague-Dawley (SD) male and female rats (5 animals/group) at doses of 0 and 1,500 mg/kg body weight (BW). Mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes and gross findings were continually monitored for 15 days following the single dose. There were no unscheduled deaths in any groups during the study period. No BV related clinical signs and body weight changes were observed in any groups during the study period. There were no abnormal gross findings at necropsy on day 15 after the treatment. On the basis of the above results, it was concluded that there were no treatment-related effect on mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes and gross findings in SD rats treated with a single dermal dose of BV at dose of 1,500 mg/kg BW. Therefore, the approximate lethal dose of BV was considered to be over 1,500 mg/kg/day for both sexes of rats. BV may provide a developmental basis for a cosmetic ingredient or external application for topical uses.


Subject(s)
Administration, Cutaneous , Animals , Bee Venoms , Bees , Body Weight , Body Weight Changes , Cosmetics , Female , Humans , Male , Rats
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21407

ABSTRACT

Bee venom (Apis mellifera L., BV) has been used as a cosmetic ingredient for antiaging, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial functions. The aim of this study was to access the skin sensitization of BV, a Buehler test was conducted fifty healthy male Hartley guinea pigs with three groups; Group G1 (BV-sensitization group, 20 animals), group G2 (the positive control-sensitization group, 20 animals), and group G3 (the ethyl alcohol-sensitization group, 10 animals). The exposure on the left flank for induction was repeated three times at intervals of one week. Two weeks after the last induction, the challenge was performed on the right flank. No treatment-related clinical signs or body weight changes were observed during the study period. The average skin reaction evaluated by erythema and edema on the challenge sites and sensitization rate in the BV-sensitization group at 30 hours were 0.0 and 0%, respectively, which are substantially low compared with in positive control group (average skin reaction: 0.55, sensitization rate: 40%) and identical with in vehicle control group, representing a weak sensitizing potential. The average skin reaction and sensitization rate observed at 54 hours were 0.0 and 0% in the BV-sensitization group, respectively, and 0.25 and 20% in the positive control group, respectively. It was concluded that BV classified to Grade I, induced no sensitization when tested in guinea pigs and may provide a developmental basis for a cosmetic ingredient or external application for topical uses.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bee Venoms , Bees , Body Weight Changes , Cosmetics , Edema , Erythema , Guinea , Guinea Pigs , Humans , Male , Skin
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