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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-796799

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the clinical efficacy of radical resection for stage T3 gallbladder cancer and prognostic factors.@*Methods@#The retrospective case-control study was conducted. The clinico-pathological data of 87 patients with T3 gallbladder cancer who were admitted to Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital from January 2005 to June 2016 were collected. There were 44 males and 43 females, aged 29-79 years, with a median age of 61 years. According to the different preoperative pathological classification and intraoperative exploration of gallbladder cancer, corresponding surgeries were performed. Observation indicators: (1) surgical and postoperative conditions; (2) clinical efficacy of stage T3 gallbladder cancer and prognostic factors analysis; (3) clinical efficacy of stage T3 gallbladder adenocarcinoma and prognostic factors analysis; (4) clinical efficacy of stage T3 gallbladder adenosquamous carcinoma and prognostic factors analysis. Follow-up by outpatient examination or telephone interview was performed to detect the postoperative survival of patients up to June 2018. Measurement data with skewed distribution were represented as M (range), and count data were described as absolute numbers. Survival curve, survival time and survival rate were drawn and calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Survival analysis was performed by the Log-rank test. Univariate analysis was performed using the Log-rank test and multivariate analysis using the COX proportional hazard model.@*Results@#(1) Surgical and postoperative conditions: all the 87 patients underwent radical resection of gallbladder cancer, including 29 cases of hepatic wedge resection and 58 cases of extended hepatectomy. Of the 87 patients, 42 underwent standard lymph node dissection and 45 underwent enlarged lymph node dissection. There were 27 cases receiving extrahepatic bile duct reconstruction. The postoperative pathological results of 87 patients showed that 64 were diagnosed with gallbladder adenocarcinoma and 23 were diagnosed with gallbladder adenosquamous carcinoma. There were 59 cases comorbid with liver invasion and 3 cases comorbid with vascular invasion. The marginal histopathological examination showed negative margin in 63 cases and positive margin in 24 cases. The degree of tumor differentiation: there were 23 patients with highly differentiated tumor and 64 with poorly differentiated tumor. Of the 87 patients, 43 received postoperative adjuvant therapy and 44 didn′t receive adjuvant therapy. (2) Clinical efficacy of stage T3 gallbladder cancer and prognostic factors analysis. ① All the 87 patients were followed up for 1.8-128.0 months, with a median follow-up time of 26.3 months. All the 87 patients had survived for 1.1-82.7 months, with a median time of 20.1 months. The 2-year overall survival rate of patients was 59.8%, and the 2-year disease-free survival rate was 49.4%. ② Univariate analysis showed that preoperative alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level, tumor diameter, pathological type of tumor, lymph node metastasis, and range of hepatectomy were associated factors for the postoperative 2-year overall survival rate of patients (χ2=5.451, 4.900, 8.256, 4.419, 5.858, P<0.05), and pathological type of tumor, lymph node metastasis, and range of hepatectomy were associated factors for the postoperative 2-year disease-free survival rate of patients (χ2=5.828, 6.968, 4.077, P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that preoperative ALP level, tumor diameter, and lymph node metastasis were independent factors influencing the postoperative 2-year overall survival rate of patients [hazard ratio (HR)=2.539, 2.619, 2.201, 95% confidence interval (CI) : 1.174-5.491, 1.209-5.673, 1.104-4.391, P<0.05)]; pathological type of tumor and lymph node metastasis were independent factors influencing the postoperative 2-year disease-free survival rate of patients (HR=2.254, 2.296, 95%CI: 1.170-4.344, 1.206-4.374, P<0.05). ③ Survival analysis: pathological type of tumor was an associated factor for the postoperative 2-year overall survival rate and 2-year disease-free survival rate of patients. Of the 87 patients with T3 gallbladder cancer, there was no significant difference in the postoperative 2-year overall survival rate between the 64 patients with gallbladder adenocarcinoma and 23 with gallbladder adenosquamous carcinoma (68.8% vs. 34.8%, χ2=8.256, P>0.05), but a significant difference in the postoperative 2-year disease-free survival rate between them (56.3% vs. 30.4%, χ2=5.828, P<0.05). (3) Clinical efficacy of stage T3 gallbladder adenocarcinoma and prognostic factors analysis. ① Sixty-four patients with gallbladder adenocarcinoma had the median survival time of 23.1 months, with a range from 3.2 to 82.7 months. The postoperative 2-year overall survival rate was 68.8%, and the postoperative 2-year disease-free survival rate was 56.3%. ② For the 64 patients with T3 stage gallbladder adenocarcinoma, univariate analysis showed that preoperative CA19-9 level and range of lymph node dissection were associated factors for the postoperative 2-year overall survival rate (χ2=4.012, 8.837, P<0.05). The range of lymph node dissection was an associated factor for the postoperative 2-year disease-free survival rate (χ2=6.361, P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that range of lymph node dissection was an independant factor for both the postoperative 2-year overall survival rate and postoperative 2-year disease-free survival rate (HR=0.244, 0.382, 95%CI: 0.088-0.674, 0.176-0.831, P<0.05). ③ Survival analysis: range of lymph node dissection was an associated factor for both the postoperative 2-year overall survival rate and postoperative 2-year disease-free survival rate of patients. Of the 64 patients with T3 stage gallbladder adenocarcinoma, the postoperative 2-year overall survival rate and disease-free survival rate of patients undergoing enlarged lymph node dissection were 84.8% and 69.7%, versus 51.6% and 41.9% of the patients undergoing standard lymph node dissection (χ2=8.837, 6.361, P<0.05). (4)Clinical efficacy of stage T3 gallbladder adenosquamous carcinoma and prognostic factors analysis. ① Twenty-three patients with gallbladder adenosquamous carcinoma had the median survival time of 13.2 months, with a range from 1.1 to 70.3 months. The postoperative 2-year overall survival rate was 34.8%, and the postoperative 2-year disease-free survival rate was 30.4%. ② For the 23 patients with T3 stage gallbladder adenosquamous carcinoma, univariate analysis showed that preoperative ALP level, lymph node metastasis, range of hepatectomy, and extrahepatic bile duct reconstruction were associated factors for the postoperative 2-year overall survival rate of patients (χ2=5.288, 4.574, 12.960, 4.106, P<0.05). The lymph node metastasis and range of hepatectomy were associated factors for the postoperative 2-year disease-free survival rate of patients (χ2=7.364, 10.582, P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that range of hepatectomy was an independant factor for both the postoperative 2-year overall survival rate and postoperative 2-year disease-free survival rate (HR=0.102, 0.153, 95%CI: 0.012-0.880, 0.033-0.718, P<0.05). ③ Survival analysis: range of hepatectomy was an independant factor for both the postoperative 2-year overall survival rate and postoperative 2-year disease-free survival rate of patients. Of the 23 patients with T3 stage gallbladder adenosquamous carcinoma, the postoperative 2-year overall survival rate and postoperative 2-year disease-free survival rate of patients undergoing extended hepatectomy were 87.5% and 75.0%, versus 6.7% and 6.7% of the patients undergoing hepatic wedge resection (χ2=12.960, 10.528, P<0.05).@*Conclusions@#Lymph node metastasis is an independent factor influencing the postoperative 2-year overall survival rate and postoperative 2-year disease-free survival rate of patients with T3 stage gallbladder cancer. The range of lymph node dissection is an independent factor for the postoperative 2-year overall survival rate and postoperative 2-year disease-free survival rate of patients with stage T3 gallbladder adenocarcinoma. Range of hepatectomy is an independent factor for the postoperative 2-year overall survival rate and postoperative 2-year disease-free survival rate of patients with stage T3 gallbladder adenosquamous carcinoma. Patients with gallbladder adenocarcinoma should undergo enlarged lymph node dissection, and patients with gallbladder adenosquamous carcinoma need to undergo extended hepatectomy.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-790106

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of radical resection for stage T3 gallbladder cancer and prognostic factors.Methods The retrospective case-control study was conducted.The clinicopathological data of 87 patients with T3 gallbladder cancer who were admitted to Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital from January 2005 to June 2016 were collected.There were 44 males and 43 females,aged 29-79 years,with a median age of 61 years.According to the different preoperative pathological classification and intraoperative exploration of gallbladder cancer,corresponding surgeries were performed.Observation indicators:(1) surgical and postoperative conditions;(2) clinical efficacy of stage T3 gallbladder cancer and prognostic factors analysis;(3) clinical efficacy of stage T3 gallbladder adenocarcinoma and prognostic factors analysis;(4) clinical efficacy of stage T3 gallbladder adenosquamous carcinoma and prognostic factors analysis.Follow-up by outpatient examination or telephone interview was performed to detect the postoperative survival of patients up to June 2018.Measurement data with skewed distribution were represented as M (range),and count data were described as absolute numbers.Survival curve,survival time and survival rate were drawn and calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method.Survival analysis was performed by the Log-rank test.Univariate analysis was performed using the Log-rank test and multivariate analysis using the COX proportional hazard model.Results (1) Surgical and postoperative conditions:all the 87 patients underwent radical resection of gallbladder cancer,including 29 cases of hepatic wedge resection and 58 cases of extended hepatectomy.Of the 87 patients,42 underwent standard lymph node dissection and 45 underwent enlarged lymph node dissection.There were 27 cases receiving extrahepatic bile duct reconstruction.The postoperative pathological results of 87 patients showed that 64 were diagnosed with gallbladder adenocarcinoma and 23 were diagnosed with gallbladder adenosquamous carcinoma.There were 59 cases comorbid with liver invasion and 3 cases comorbid with vascular invasion.The marginal histopathological examination showed negative margin in 63 cases and positive margin in 24 cases.The degree of tumor differentiation:there were 23 patients with highly differentiated tumor and 64 with poorly differentiated tumor.Of the 87 patients,43 received postoperative adjuvant therapy and 44 didn't receive adjuvant therapy.(2) Clinical efficacy of stage T3 gallbladder cancer and prognostic factors analysis.① All the 87 patients were followed up for 1.8-128.0 months,with a median follow-up time of 26.3 months.All the 87 patients had survived for 1.1 -82.7 months,with a median time of 20.1 months.The 2-year overall survival rate of patients was 59.8%,and the 2-year disease-free survival rate was 49.4%.② Univariate analysis showed that preoperative alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level,tumor diameter,pathological type of tumor,lymph node metastasis,and range of hepatectomy were associated factors for the postoperative 2-year overall survival rate of patients (x2 =5.451,4.900,8.256,4.419,5.858,P < 0.05),and pathological type of tumor,lymph node metastasis,and range of hepatectomy were associated factors for the postoperative 2-year disease-free survival rate of patients (x2 =5.828,6.968,4.077,P< 0.05).Multivariate analysis showed that preoperative ALP level,tumor diameter,and lymph node metastasis were independent factors influencing the postoperative 2-year overall survival rate of patients [hazard ratio (HR) =2.539,2.619,2.201,95% confidence interval (CI):1.174-5.491,1.209-5.673,1.104-4.391,P< 0.05)];pathological type of tumor and lymph node metastasis were independent factors influencing the postoperative 2-year disease-free survival rate of patients (HR =2.254,2.296,95%CI:1.170-4.344,1.206-4.374,P<0.05).③ Survival analysis:pathological type of tumor was an associated factor for the postoperative 2-year overall survival rate and 2-year disease-free survival rate of patients.Of the 87 patients with T3 gallbladder cancer,there was no significant difference in the postoperative 2-year overall survival rate between the 64 patients with gallbladder adenocarcinoma and 23 with gallbladder adenosquamous carcinoma (68.8% vs.34.8%,x2 =8.256,P>0.05),but a significant difference in the postoperative 2-year disease-free survival rate between them (56.3% vs.30.4%,x2=5.828,P<0.05).(3) Clinical efficacy of stage T3 gallbladder adenocarcinoma and prognostic factors analysis.① Sixty-four patients with gallbladder adenocarcinoma had the median survival time of 23.1 months,with a range from 3.2 to 82.7 months.The postoperative 2-year overall survival rate was 68.8%,and the postoperative 2-year disease-free survival rate was 56.3%.② For the 64 patients with T3 stage gallbladder adenocarcinoma,univariate analysis showed that preoperative CA19-9 level and range of lymph node dissection were associated factors for the postoperative 2-year overall survival rate (x2=4.012,8.837,P<0.05).The range of lymph node dissection was an associated factor for the postoperative 2-year disease-free survival rate (x2 =6.361,P<0.05).Multivariate analysis showed that range of lymph node dissection was an independant factor for both the postoperative 2-year overall survival rate and postoperative 2-year disease-free survival rate (HR =0.244,0.382,95%CI:0.088-0.674,0.176-0.831,P<0.05).③ Survival analysis:range of lymph node dissection was an associated factor for both the postoperative 2-year overall survival rate and postoperative 2-year disease-free survival rate of patients.Of the 64 patients with T3 stage gallbladder adenocarcinoma,the postoperative 2-year overall survival rate and disease-free survival rate of patients undergoing enlarged lymph node dissection were 84.8% and 69.7%,versus 51.6% and 41.9% of the patients undergoing standard lymph node dissection (x2 =8.837,6.361,P<0.05).(4)Clinical efficacy of stage T3 gallbladder adenosquamous carcinoma and prognostic factors analysis.① Twenty-three patients with gallbladder adenosquamous carcinoma had the median survival time of 13.2 months,with a range from 1.1 to 70.3 months.The postoperative 2-year overall survival rate was 34.8%,and the postoperative 2-year disease-free survival rate was 30.4%.② For the 23 patients with T3 stage gallbladder adenosquamous carcinoma,univariate analysis showed that preoperative ALP level,lymph node metastasis,range of bepatectomy,and extrahepatic bile duct reconstruction were associated factors for the postoperative 2-year overall survival rate of patients (x2 =5.288,4.574,12.960,4.106,P<0.05).The lymph node metastasis and range of hepatectomy were associated factors for the postoperative 2-year disease-free survival rate of patients (x2 =7.364,10.582,P<0.05).Multivariate analysis showed that range of hepatectomy was an independant factor for both the postoperative 2-year overall survival rate and postoperative 2-year disease-free survival rate (HR=0.102,0.153,95%CI:0.012-0.880,0.033-0.718,P<0.05).③ Survival analysis:range of hepatectomy was an independant factor for both the postoperative 2-year overall survival rate and postoperative 2-year disease-free survival rate of patients.Of the 23 patients with T3 stage gallbladder adenosquamous carcinoma,the postoperative 2-year overall survival rate and postoperative 2-year disease-free survival rate of patients undergoing extended hepatectomy were 87.5% and 75.0%,versus 6.7% and 6.7% of the patients undergoing hepatic wedge resection (x2 =12.960,10.528,P<0.05).Conclusions Lymph node metastasis is an independent factor influencing the postoperative 2-year overall survival rate and postoperative 2-year disease-free survival rate of patients with T3 stage gallbladder cancer.The range of lymph node dissection is an independent factor for the postoperative 2-year overall survival rate and postoperative 2-year disease-free survival rate of patients with stage T3 gallbladder adenocarcinoma.Range of hepatectomy is an independent factor for the postoperative 2-year overall survival rate and postoperative 2-year disease-free survival rate of patients with stage T3 gallbladder adenosquamous carcinoma.Patients with gallbladder adenocarcinoma should undergo enlarged lymph node dissection,and patients with gallbladder adenosquamous carcinoma need to undergo extended hepatectomy.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-743978

ABSTRACT

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is the second most common primary hepatic malignancy with an increasing incidence and mortality in recent years.Despite advanced improvements in its diagnosis and therapy,the prognosis for ICC patients remains poor.High heterogeneity and malignant biological behavior are the main factors determining the prognosis of ICC.An in-depth study of the mechanism of ICC invasion and metastasis is expected to help optimizing clinical decision-making.The application of advanced technologies such as next-generation sequencing has enhanced the researchers' understanding of heterogeneity of ICC and characteristics of invasion and metastasis.Studies have found that ICC gene expression abnormalities (gene mutations,fusion gene formation,and abnormalities in gene expression regulatory pathways) and microRNA expression disorders are closely related to ICC cell proliferation,invasion and metastasis.In addition,ICC is usually characterized by a dense desmoplastic stroma,in which cancer-associated myofibroblasts are the major cellular components and play an important role in inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition,promoting malignant cell invasion and metastasis,and even accelerating ICC progression.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-743975

ABSTRACT

Hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCa) is a biliary malignancy that seriously affects the survival of patients.Radical resection is the only cure method for patients to achieve long-term survival.However,due to the low rate of radical resection,its prognosis is poor.In this article,surgical treatment strategies of HCCa in the precision surgery era,3D image evaluation in the curative resection,surgical procedure decision and the preservation of liver parenchyma in the hepatic resection are discussed combined with the research progress at home and abroad.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-609808

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the predictive value of preoperative serum tumor markers test for lymph node metastasis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC).Methods The retrospecgtive cohort study was conducted.The clinicopathological data of 69 patients with ICC who were admitted to the Xinhua Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University between May 2006 and May 2016 were collected.Among 69 patients with pathological diagnosis,24 with lymph node metastasis were allocated into the lymph node metastasis group and 45 without lymph node metastasis were allocated into the non-lymph node metastasis group.Tumor markers of the 2 groups were preoperatively detected,including alpha-fetoprotein (AFP),carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA),prostate specific antigen (PSA),CA19-9,CA125,CA242,CA153,CA724,CA211,neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC).Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was built,and critical value,sensitivity and specificity were calculated based on ROC curve.Coincident rate between significant indicators and results of pathological examination was calculated.Observation indicators:(1) overall positive rates of tumor markers;(2) comparison of tmmor markers levels in the 2 groups;(3) tumor markers predicted ROC curve of lymph node metastasis and coincident rate between ROC curve and results of postoperative pathological examination.Measurement data with normal distribution were represented as (x)±s and comparison between groups was analyzed using the t test.Measurement data with skewed distribution were described as M (Q25,Q75) and comparison between groups was analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test.Comparison of count data was analyzed by the chi-square test and Fisher exact probability.The statistically significant indicators were analyzed by the ROC curve.Results (1) Overall positive rates of tumor markers:positive rates of AFP,CEA,PSA,CA19-9,CA125,CA242,CA153,CA724,CA211,NSE and SCC in 69 patients were 27.5% (19/69),29.0% (20/69),4.3% (3/69),69.6% (48/69),36.2% (25/69),50.7% (35/69),26.1% (18/69),21.7% (15/69),62.3% (43/69),31.9%(22/69) and 21.7%(15/69),respectively.Positive rates of AFP,CEA,CA19-9,CA125,CA242,CA153,CA724,CA211,NSE and SCC were more than 20%,which became comparison indicators of 2 groups.(2) Comparison of tumor markers levels in the 2 groups:levels of CA19-9,CA125,CA242 and CA211 were 284.9 U/mL (42.5 U/mL,730.3 U/mL),63.6 U/mL (23.4 U/mL,172.1 U/mL),71.7 U/mL (25.6 U/mL,138.9 U/mL),6.7 μg/L (3.9 μg/L,17.5 μg/L) in the lymph node metastasis group and 58.0 U/mL (25.9 U/mL,405.9 U/mL),18.2 U/mL (11.7 U/mL,33.8 U/mL),11.0 U/mL (3.7 U/mL,41.7 U/mL),3.7 μg/L (2.7 μg/L,6.9 μg/L) in the non-lymph node metastasis group,respectively,with statistically significant differences between the 2 groups (Z=2.016,3.213,3.143,2.482,P<0.05).(3) Tumor markers predicted ROC curve of lymph node metastasis and coincident rate between ROC curve and results of postoperative pathological examination:area under the ROC curve of CA19-9,CA125,CA242 and CA211 were respectively 0.648 [95% confidence interval (C I):0.515-0.781,P<0.05],0.736 (95% CI:0.608-0.864,P<0.05),0.731 (95% CI:0.603-0.859,P<0.05),0.714 (95% CI:0.581-0.847,P<0.05).The positive critical value,sensitivity and specificity of CA19-9,CA125,CA242 and CA21 were 150.6 U/mL,35.7 U/mL,43.4 U/mL,6.0 μg/L and 62.5%,66.7%,70.8%,62.5% and 71.1%,82.2%,77.8%,75.6%,respectively.The coincident rate between ROC curve and results of postoperative pathological examination of CA 19-9,CA 125,CA242 and CA211 were 68.1% (47/69),76.8%(53/69),75.4%(52/69),71.0%(49/69),respectively.Conclusion The levels of serum CA19-9,CA125,CA242 and CA211 can effectively predict lymph node metastasis of patients with ICC.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-512834

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the surgical safety and clinical efficacy of combined anterograde and retrograde method exposing porta hepatis for the treatment of the intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma invading porta hepatis.Methods The retrospective descriptive study was conducted.The clinicopathological data of 3 patients with left intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma invading porta hepatis who were admitted to the Renji Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine from February 2015 to May 2016 was collected.All the 3 patients underwent left hemihepatectomy combined with caudate lobectomy after preoperative lab and imaging examinations and the evaluations of liver function and residual liver volume.The surgical procedures followed as:anterograde dissection of porta hepatis,exposure of hilar plate,left hemihepatectomy combined with caudate lobectomy,right artery resection and reconstruction,hilar cholangioplasty and bilioenteric anastomosis.Observation indicators included:(1) surgical situations:operation time,time of hepatic artery~ anastomosis and volume of intraoperative blood loss;(2) postoperative pathological examinations;(3) postoperative situations:postoperative complications (biliary fistula,hemorrhage,abnormal liver function,gastroplegia) and postoperative chemotherapy;(4) follow-up:postoperative patients' survival and carcinoma occurrence.Follow-up was performed to by outpatient examination up to December 2016.The follow-up included clinical symptoms such as abdominal pain,chills,fever and jaundice,liver function and tumor marker examination,and color ultrasound Doppler or abdominal enhanced computed tomography (CT) was performed to detect carcinoma recurrence.Measurement data was represented as average (range).Results (1) Surgical situations:all the 3 patients underwent successful left hemihepatectomy combined with caudate lobectomy using combined antegrade and retrograde method exposing porta hepatis,including 1 combined with right hepatic artery resection and reconstruction,without perioperative death.The average operation time,average time of hepatic artery anastomosis and average volume of intraoperative blood loss of 3 patients were 493 minutes (range,430-570 minutes),11 minutes and 526 mL (range,450-600 mL),respectively.(2) Postoperative pathological examination showed 3 patients were diagnosed with cholangiocarcinoma,2 with nerve bundles invaded and 2 with No.12 lymph node metastasis,with negative margins of bile duct and hepatic artery.(3) Postoperative situations:3 patients are not complicated with biliary fistula and gastroplegia.One patient with postoperative liver dysfunction after right artery resection and reconstruction underwent anti-infection,hepatoprotection and anti-hepatic encephalopathy therapies,and then was improved and discharged from hospital at 4 weeks postoperatively.The other 2 patients recovered steadily without complications such as hypohepatia,and then respectively discharged from hospital at 17 and 20 days postoperatively.All the 3 patients underwent chemotherapy of gemcitabine combined with S-1 for 8 courses at week 4 or 5 postoperatively.(4) Follow-up:all the 3 patients were followed up for 7-20 months,with good general conditions and normal liver function and without cholangitis symptoms.One patient received right artery reconstruction,and CT reexamination at postoperative month 3 showed fine imaging of right hepatic artery.There was no sign of carcinoma recurrence.Conclusion The combined anterograde and retrograde method exposing porta hepatis for the treatment of the intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma invading porta hepatis can increase the radical resection rate and surgical safety.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-512782

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate clinical efficacy and prognostic factors of hilar cholangiocarcinoma.Methods The retrospective case-control study was conducted.The clinicopathological data of 322 patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma who were admitted to the Xiangya Hospital of Central South University between December 2005 and November 2015 were collected.Preoperative staging and classification of tumor and treatment planning were carried out according to the results of laboratory and imaging examinations.Observation indexes:(1) clinical features and results of assisted examinations;(2) treatments and results of pathological examination;(3) followup and survival;(4) prognostic factors analysis:gender,age,preoperative highest total bilirubin (TBil),preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA),preoperative CA19-9,preoperative CA242,preoperative CA125,treatment methods and TNM staging.The follow-up of outpatient examination and telephone interview was perfornmed to detect patients' survival up to November 2016.Survival curve was drawn using the Kaplan-Meier method.Survival and univariate analyses were done using the Log-rank test,and multivariate analysis was done using the Cox proportional hazard model.Results (1) Clinical features and results of assisted examinations:among the 322 patients,there were 301 patients with a chief complaint of jaundice.Of the 322 patients,the preoperative highest levels of TBil,DBil,ALT and AST in 322 patients were 3.9-785.2 μmol/L,1.6-410.2 μ mol/L,14.8-484.5 U/L and 21.4-539.8 U/L,respectively.Levels of ALP and GGT in 272 patients were 93.8-1 890.0 U/L and 2.0-1 832.8 U/L,respectively.Seventy-seven of 292 patients had an elevated CEA level,272 of 298 patients had an elevated CA19-9 level,153 of 260 patients had an elevated CA242 level and 86 of 260 patients had an elevated CA125 level.According to Bismuth-Corlette type,24 patients were detected in type Ⅰ,115 in type Ⅱ,55 in type Ⅲa,63 in type Ⅲb and 65 in type Ⅳ.(2) Treatments and results of pathological examination:Of the 322 patients,104 patients underwent radical resection,including 79 with hilar bile duct resection (9 combined with vascular resection and reconstruction) and 25 with extended hepatic lobectomy (16 combined with caudate lobectomy),and 218 patients underwent palliative treatments,including 134 with external biliary drainage and 84 with internal biliary drainage.Five patients were dead in the perioperative period,of which 2 died of acute liver failure,1 died of systemic infection and multiple organ failure,1 died of acute renal failure and 1 died of acute suppurative cholangitis,septic shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation.Of 263 patients receiving pathological examination,adenocarcinoma was detected in 253 patients (12 with high-differentiated adenocarcinoma,85 with moderate-differentiated adenocarcinoma,33 with low-differentiated adenocarcinoma and 123 with indefinite differentiation),mucinous adenocarcinoma in 5 patients,cholangiocarcinoma in 3 patients and neuroendocrine carcinoma in 2 patients.TNM staging of 322 patients:stage Ⅰ was detected in 8 patients,stage Ⅱ in 53 patients,stage Ⅲ in 132 patients,stage Ⅳ in 96 patients and indefinite stage in 33 patients.(3) Follow up and survival:among the 322 patients,296 were followed up for 12-132 months,with a median follow-up time of 65 months,including 94 with radical resection and 202 with palliative treatments.Among the 296 patients,the median survival time and 1-,3-,5-year survival rates were 10 months,47.1%,20.2% and 9.5%,respectively.0f296 patients with follow-up,median survival time and 1-,3-,5-year survival rates were 31 months,84.0%,46.2%,25.0% in 94 patients receiving radical resection and 7 months,29.9%,8.1% and 2.3% in 202 patients receiving palliative treatment,respectively,with a statistically significant difference between the 2 groups (x2=78.777,P< 0.05).Among the 94 patients receiving follow-up and radical resection,the median survival time and 1-,3-,5-year survival rates were 31 months,82.1%,45.1%,25.7% in 73 patients undergoing hilar bile duct resection and 35 months,90.5%,49.8%,22.1% in 21 patients undergoing hepatic lobectomy,respectively,with no statistically significant difference (x2=0.186,P>0.05).Among the 73 patients undergoing hilar bile duct resection,median survival time and 1-,3-,5-year survival rates were 16 months,57.1%,0,0 in 7 patients combined with vascular resection and reconstruction and 34 months,84.6%,49.5%,27.5% in 66 patients undergoing simplex hilar bile duct resection,respectively,showing a statistically significant difference (x2 =11.977,P< 0.05).(4) Prognostic factors analysis:results of univariate analysis showed that preoperative highest TBil,preoperative CEA,preoperative CA242,preoperative CA125,treatment methods and TNM staging were related factors affecting prognosis of patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma (x2=25.009,18.671,9.359,33.628,94.729,77.136,P<0.05).Multivariate analysis showed that preoperative highest TBil ≥ 342.0 μmol/L,preoperative CEA ≥ 5.00 μg/L,palliative treatments,TNM stage Ⅲ and Ⅳ were the independent risk factors affecting the poor prognosis of patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HR =2.270,2.147,3.166,2.351,95% confidence interval:1.587-3.247,1.446-3.188,2.117-4.734,1.489-3.712,P<0.05).Conclusions Prognosis of hilar cholangiocarcinoma is still unsatisfactory.The R0 resection is the key in radical surgery.Preoperative highest TBil≥342.0 μmol/L,preoperative CEA ≥ 5.00 μg/L,palliative treatments,TNM stage Ⅲ-Ⅳ are independent risk factors affecting the poor prognosis of patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-505337

ABSTRACT

Objective To systematically evaluate the safety and effectiveness of combined portal vein resection and reconstruction in the resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma.Methods Literatures were researched using Cochrane Library,PubMed,Embase,China Biology Medicine disc,China National Knowledge Infrastructure,Wanfang database,VIP database from January 31,2006 to January 31,2016 with the key words including “hilar cholangiocarcinoma”“Klatskin tumor”“Bile duct neoplasm”“Vascular resection”“portal vein resection”“肝门部胆管癌”“血管切除”“门静脉切除”.The clinical studies of resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma with portal vein resection and construction and without vascular resection and construction were received and enrolled.Two reviewers independently screened literatures,extracted data and assessed the risk of bias.Patients who underwent resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma combined with portal vein resection and reconstruction were allocated into the portal vein resection group and patients who didn't undergo vascular resection were allocated into the no vascular resection group.Analysis indicators included (1) results of literature retrieval;(2) results of Meta-analysis:① incidence of postoperative complications (hepatic failure,biliary fistula,intra-abdominal hemorrhage),② postoperative mortality,③ patients' prognosis,④ related indicators of postoperative pathology (lymph node metastasis rate,moderate-and low-differentiated rate,nerve invasion rate,negative rate of resection margin).The heterogeneity of the studies was analyzed using the I2 test.The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used for assessing the prognostic indicators.The incidence of complications,mortality and pathological indicators were evaluated by the odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI.Results (1) Results of literature retrieval:13 retrospective studies were eurolled in the meta-analysis,and the total sample size was 1 668 cases including 437 in the portal vein resection group and 1 231 in the no vascular resection group.(2) Results of Meta-analysis:① incidence of postoperative complications was respectively 39.86% in the portal vein resection group and 35.27% in the no vascular resection group,with no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups (OR =1.12,95% CI:0.82-1.53,P >0.05).The results of subgroup analysis showed that hepatic failure,biliary fistula and intra-abdominal hemorrhage were postoperative main complications,and the incidences were 17.09%,8.79%,6.25% in the portal vein resection group and 10.62%,9.69%,2.51% in the no vascular resection group,respectively,with no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups (OR =0.48,1.13,0.82,95% CI:0.23-1.02,0.45-2.83,0.21-3.12,P > 0.05).② Postoperative mortality was respectively 5.38% in the portal vein resection group and 3.88% in the no vascular resection group,with no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups (OR =1.16,95% CI:0.62-2.14,P > 0.05).③ There was statistically significant difference in patients' prognosis between the 2 groups (HR =1.81,95% CI:1.52-2.16,P < 0.05).④ The related indicators of postoperative pathology:lymph node metastasis rate,moderate-and low-differentiated rate and negative rate of resection margin were 41.55%,76.42%,63.74% in the portal vein resection group and 33.42%,66.75%,64.29% in the no vascular resection group,respectively,with no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups (OR =1.45,1.59,0.67,95% CI:0.95-2.21,0.97-2.61,0.37-1.20,P > 0.05).The nerve invasion rate was 83.47% in the portal vein resection group and 64.90% in the no vascular resection group,with a statistically significant difference between the 2 groups (OR =2.61,95 % CI:1.45-4.70,P < 0.05).Conclusion Combined portal vein resection and reconstruction is safe and feasible in the treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma,and the prognosis of patients with portal vein invasion is worse than that without portal vein invasion.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-505336

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic factors of combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CC).Methods The retrospective cohort study was conducted.The clinicopathological data of 72 patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who were admitted to the Xiangya Hospital of Central South University between January 2005 and December 2014 were collected.Thirty-two patients who were diagnosed with cHCC-CC by postoperative pathological examination were allocated into the cHCC-CC group and 40 patients who were diagnosed with HCC by postoperative pathological examination were allocated into the HCC group.Observation indicators:(1) clinicopathological characteristics:male,age > 60 years,positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg),positive alpha-fetoprotein (AFP),positive CA19-9,positive carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA),liver cirrhosis,Child-Pugh grade A,tumor diameter > 5 cm,tumor with capsule,solitary tumor,portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT),cancer thrombus of the bile duct,positive lymph node metastasis,stage Ⅰ-Ⅱ of TNM stage,Edmondson-Steiner stage Ⅰ-Ⅱ;(2) pathological features of surgical incision specimens;(3) follow-up situations:median survival time,1-,3-,5-year survival rates and tumor-free survival rate;(4) prognostic factors analysis of patients with cHCC-CC:AFP,CA19-9,liver cirrhosis,tumor diameter,tumor capsule,number of tumor,PVTT,cancer thrombus of the bile duct,lymph node metastasis,Edmondson-Steiner stage,volume of intraoperative blood loss,intraoperative blood transfusion,distant from surgical margin.Follow-up using outpatient examination and telephone interview was performed to detect survival of patients and tumor recurrence or metastasis up to October 2015.Comparison of count data was analyzed using the chi-square test.The survival curve was drawn by the Kaplan-Meier method,and the survival analysis was done using the Log-rank test.The prognostic analysis was done using the COX regression model.Results (1) Clinicopathological characteristics:positive CA19-9,tumor with capsule,cancer thrombus of the bile duct and positive lymph node metastasis were detected in 16,4,12,6 patients in the cHCC-CC group and 5,17,1,1 patients in the HCC group,respectively,with statistically significant differences between the 2 groups (x2=10.471,9.723,13.005,4.009,P < 0.05).(2) Pathological features of surgical incision specimens:pathological results showed that surgical incision specimens in the cHCC-CC group had characteristics of HCC tissues and cholangiocarcinoma tissues.The antigenic activity of hepatic cells in paraffin sections,Cytokeratin 7,Cytokeratin 19 and progenitor cell markers were positive by immunohistochemical staining detection.Patients in the HCC group had characteristics of HCC tissues,with positive AFP using immunohistochemical staining detection.(3) Follow-up situations:all the 72 patients were followed up for 5.0-74.0 months with a median time of 41.0 months.The median survival time,1-,3-,5-year survival rates,1-,3-,5-year tumor-free survival rates were 14.5 months,62.3%,38.9%,19.1%,50.0%,23.9%,4.0% in the cHCC-CC group and 46.8 months,82.3%,57.4%,38.6%,72.9%,35.6%,17.6% in the HCC group,respectively,with statistically significant differences in overall survival and tumor-free survival between the 2 groups (x2=4.231,3.881,P < 0.05).(4) Prognostic factors analysis of patients with cHCC-CC:results of univariate analysis showed that CA19-9,tumor capsule,number of tumor,cancer thrombus of the bile duct,lymph node metastasis and Edmondson-Steiner stage were related factors affecting prognosis of patients with cHCC-CC [HR =1.824,0.227,0.441,1.421,1.887,2.745,95% confidence interval (CI):1.126-2.172,0.118-0.654,0.318-0.764,1.071-4.231,1.017-5.643,1.223-6.421,P < 0.05].Results of multivariate analysis showed that lymph node metastasis and stage Ⅲ-Ⅳ of Edmondson-Steiner stage were independent risk factors affecting prognosis of patients with cHCC-CC (RR =1.658,2.912,95% CI:1.027-7.542,1.143-6.582,P <0.05).Conclusions The positive CA19-9,tumor without capsule,cancer thrombus of the bile duct and positive lymph node metastasis can partly predict cHCC-CC.The prognosis of patients with cHCC-CC is worse than that with HCC.The positive lymph node metastasis and stage Ⅲ-Ⅳof Edmondson-Steiner stage are independent risk factors affecting prognosis of patients with cHCC-CC.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-661462

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore clinical efficacy of new types of operation based on perihilar resection to cure hilar cholangiocarcinoma.Methods The retrospective descriptive study was conducted.The clinicopathological data of 4 patients with different Bismuth type of hilar cholangiocarcinoma who were admitted to the Beijing Tsinghua Chunggung Hospital from December 2014 to June 2016 were collected.After preoperative examinations and evaluations,single perihilar resection or combined with central liver segmentectomy were performed.Observation indicators included:(1) intraoperative situations;(2) postoperative pathological examinations;(3) postoperative situations;(4) follow-up.Patients were followed up using outpatient examination up to June 2017.Follow-up included abdominal pain,fever,routine blood test,tumor marker test and imaging examination which detected tumor recurrence and metastasis.Measurement data were represented as average (range).Results (1) Intraoperative situations:4 patients received successful operations,with an average operation time of 512 minutes (range,300-620 minutes).Portal vein was blocked continuously,with an average occlusion time of 70 minutes (range,57-80 minutes),an average volume of intraoperative blood loss was 537 mL (range,200-1 000 mL).Two patients received transfusion of 2 U plasma,4 U plasma + 4 U red blood cell (RBC),respectively.(2) Postoperative pathological examinations:results of postoperative pathological examinations in 4 patients showed that tumor size was respectively 1.5 cm× 1.2 cm× 1.1 cm,1.3 cm× 1.1 cm× 1.0 cm,2.0 cm× 1.7 cm× 1.5 cm and 2.0 cm×2.0 cm× 1.5 cm.Tumor differentiation:1 and 3 patients were respectively detected in moderate-differentiated cholangiocarcinoma and low-differentiated cholangiocarcinoma.Positive nerve plexus invasion was found in all 4 patients and 3 patients had regional lymph node metastasis.Four patients received R0 resection.TNM staging:T2aN1M0 and T2bN1M0 were found in 1 and 3 patients,respectively.(3) Postoperative situations:of 4 patients,1 complicated with biliary leakage was cured by conservative treatment and then discharged from hospital at 67 days;3 had good recovery and then discharged from hospital at day 21,14 and 14,respectively.Patients didn't receive postoperative adjuvant treatment,such as chemoradiotherapy.(4) Follow-up:4 patients were followed up for 12-31 months.During follow-up,4 patients were in good condition,and 1 with transient fever was relieved by conservative treatment.Levels of tumor marker in 4 patients were normal,results of enhanced CT scan showed no signs of tumor recurrence and intrahepatic bile duct dilatation.Conclusion After precisely evaluating the tumor extension among segmental bile duct,single perihilar resection or combined with central segmentectomy can effectively cure hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-659402

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the risk factors of postoperative pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD).Methods The retrospective case-control study was adopted.The clinicopathological data of 196 patients with PD who were admitted to First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University from September 2014 to July 2016 were collected.All the patients underwent PD.Observation indicators:(1) intra-and postoperative situations;(2) follow-up;(3) analysis of risk factors of pancreatic fistula after PD.All patients were followed up by outpatient examination and telephone interview to detect pancreatic fistula and peritoneal fluid collection up to March 2017.Measurement data with normal distribution were represented as (x)±s and comparison between groups was analyzed by t test.Measurement data with skewed distribution were represented as median (range).Count data and univariate analysis were done using the chi-square test.Logistic regression model was used for multivariate analysis.Results (1) Intra-and post-operative situations:all the 196 patients underwent surgeries successfully.The operation time,volume of intraoperative blood loss,number of intraoperative blood transfusion and non intraoperative blood transfusion were (439± 136) minutes,(686±280) mL,45 and 151 cases,respectively.Time to initial anal exsufflation,time of initial defecation and time for first diet after operation were (4.1 ±2.1) days,(5.1± 2.9) days and (3.1 ± 2.0) days.Of 76 patients,the content of diastase in the i ntraperitoneal drainage was 614 U/L (31-30 215 U/L) at postoperative day 1 and level of serum procalciton in was (0.7±0.4) ng/mL at postoperative day 3.Time for drainage tube removal of 196 patients was (14.6±7.1)days.Fifty four of 196 patients with postoperative complications were improved by symptomatic treatment,including 15 with intestinal obstruction,12 with delayed gastric emptying,11 with abdominal infection,9 with incision infection,7 with bleeding.Duration of postoperative hospital stay was (17.1 ±4.2)days.Results of pathological diagnosis of 196 patients showed 121 cases of pancreatic cancer,50 of intraductal papillary mucinous tumors of the pancreas,7ampullary carcinoma,15 of carcinoma of the lower end of the bile duct,and 3 of duodenum cancer.Pancreatic findings:pancreatic texture:95 cases were with soft pancreas and 101 with hard pancreas.Diameter of main pancreatic duct duct:101 cases had diameter of pancreatic duct duct ≥3 mm and 95 cases <3 mm.(2)Followup:all the 196 patients were followed up for 4-30 months,with a median follow-up time of 18 months.During follow-up time,the grade B/or C pancreatic fistula occurred in 37 cases.Of 16 patients with pancreatic fistularalated ascites,10 had readmission and were improved by symptomatic treatment.(3) Analysis of risk factors of pancreatic fistula after PD:the results of univariate analysis showed that the content of diastase in the intraperitoneal drainage at postoperative day 1,level of serum procalcitonin at postoperative day 3 and pancreatic texture were related factors affecting the pancreatic fistula after PD (x2 =6.569,5.902,13.517,P<0.05).The results of multivariate analysis showed that the content of diastase in the intraperitoneal drainage at postoperative day 1 ≥600 U/L was an independent risk factor affecting the pancreatic fistula after PD (OR =9.135,95%confidence interval:2.247-37.130,P<0.05).Conclusion The content of diastase in the intraperitoneal drainage at postoperative day 1 ≥ 600 U/L is an independent risk factor affecting the pancreatic fistula after PD.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-658543

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore clinical efficacy of new types of operation based on perihilar resection to cure hilar cholangiocarcinoma.Methods The retrospective descriptive study was conducted.The clinicopathological data of 4 patients with different Bismuth type of hilar cholangiocarcinoma who were admitted to the Beijing Tsinghua Chunggung Hospital from December 2014 to June 2016 were collected.After preoperative examinations and evaluations,single perihilar resection or combined with central liver segmentectomy were performed.Observation indicators included:(1) intraoperative situations;(2) postoperative pathological examinations;(3) postoperative situations;(4) follow-up.Patients were followed up using outpatient examination up to June 2017.Follow-up included abdominal pain,fever,routine blood test,tumor marker test and imaging examination which detected tumor recurrence and metastasis.Measurement data were represented as average (range).Results (1) Intraoperative situations:4 patients received successful operations,with an average operation time of 512 minutes (range,300-620 minutes).Portal vein was blocked continuously,with an average occlusion time of 70 minutes (range,57-80 minutes),an average volume of intraoperative blood loss was 537 mL (range,200-1 000 mL).Two patients received transfusion of 2 U plasma,4 U plasma + 4 U red blood cell (RBC),respectively.(2) Postoperative pathological examinations:results of postoperative pathological examinations in 4 patients showed that tumor size was respectively 1.5 cm× 1.2 cm× 1.1 cm,1.3 cm× 1.1 cm× 1.0 cm,2.0 cm× 1.7 cm× 1.5 cm and 2.0 cm×2.0 cm× 1.5 cm.Tumor differentiation:1 and 3 patients were respectively detected in moderate-differentiated cholangiocarcinoma and low-differentiated cholangiocarcinoma.Positive nerve plexus invasion was found in all 4 patients and 3 patients had regional lymph node metastasis.Four patients received R0 resection.TNM staging:T2aN1M0 and T2bN1M0 were found in 1 and 3 patients,respectively.(3) Postoperative situations:of 4 patients,1 complicated with biliary leakage was cured by conservative treatment and then discharged from hospital at 67 days;3 had good recovery and then discharged from hospital at day 21,14 and 14,respectively.Patients didn't receive postoperative adjuvant treatment,such as chemoradiotherapy.(4) Follow-up:4 patients were followed up for 12-31 months.During follow-up,4 patients were in good condition,and 1 with transient fever was relieved by conservative treatment.Levels of tumor marker in 4 patients were normal,results of enhanced CT scan showed no signs of tumor recurrence and intrahepatic bile duct dilatation.Conclusion After precisely evaluating the tumor extension among segmental bile duct,single perihilar resection or combined with central segmentectomy can effectively cure hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-657392

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the risk factors of postoperative pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD).Methods The retrospective case-control study was adopted.The clinicopathological data of 196 patients with PD who were admitted to First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University from September 2014 to July 2016 were collected.All the patients underwent PD.Observation indicators:(1) intra-and postoperative situations;(2) follow-up;(3) analysis of risk factors of pancreatic fistula after PD.All patients were followed up by outpatient examination and telephone interview to detect pancreatic fistula and peritoneal fluid collection up to March 2017.Measurement data with normal distribution were represented as (x)±s and comparison between groups was analyzed by t test.Measurement data with skewed distribution were represented as median (range).Count data and univariate analysis were done using the chi-square test.Logistic regression model was used for multivariate analysis.Results (1) Intra-and post-operative situations:all the 196 patients underwent surgeries successfully.The operation time,volume of intraoperative blood loss,number of intraoperative blood transfusion and non intraoperative blood transfusion were (439± 136) minutes,(686±280) mL,45 and 151 cases,respectively.Time to initial anal exsufflation,time of initial defecation and time for first diet after operation were (4.1 ±2.1) days,(5.1± 2.9) days and (3.1 ± 2.0) days.Of 76 patients,the content of diastase in the i ntraperitoneal drainage was 614 U/L (31-30 215 U/L) at postoperative day 1 and level of serum procalciton in was (0.7±0.4) ng/mL at postoperative day 3.Time for drainage tube removal of 196 patients was (14.6±7.1)days.Fifty four of 196 patients with postoperative complications were improved by symptomatic treatment,including 15 with intestinal obstruction,12 with delayed gastric emptying,11 with abdominal infection,9 with incision infection,7 with bleeding.Duration of postoperative hospital stay was (17.1 ±4.2)days.Results of pathological diagnosis of 196 patients showed 121 cases of pancreatic cancer,50 of intraductal papillary mucinous tumors of the pancreas,7ampullary carcinoma,15 of carcinoma of the lower end of the bile duct,and 3 of duodenum cancer.Pancreatic findings:pancreatic texture:95 cases were with soft pancreas and 101 with hard pancreas.Diameter of main pancreatic duct duct:101 cases had diameter of pancreatic duct duct ≥3 mm and 95 cases <3 mm.(2)Followup:all the 196 patients were followed up for 4-30 months,with a median follow-up time of 18 months.During follow-up time,the grade B/or C pancreatic fistula occurred in 37 cases.Of 16 patients with pancreatic fistularalated ascites,10 had readmission and were improved by symptomatic treatment.(3) Analysis of risk factors of pancreatic fistula after PD:the results of univariate analysis showed that the content of diastase in the intraperitoneal drainage at postoperative day 1,level of serum procalcitonin at postoperative day 3 and pancreatic texture were related factors affecting the pancreatic fistula after PD (x2 =6.569,5.902,13.517,P<0.05).The results of multivariate analysis showed that the content of diastase in the intraperitoneal drainage at postoperative day 1 ≥600 U/L was an independent risk factor affecting the pancreatic fistula after PD (OR =9.135,95%confidence interval:2.247-37.130,P<0.05).Conclusion The content of diastase in the intraperitoneal drainage at postoperative day 1 ≥ 600 U/L is an independent risk factor affecting the pancreatic fistula after PD.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-491001

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the surgical method and clinical efficacy of hilar cholangio carcinoma in Bismuth type Ⅳ.Methods The retrospective descriptive study was adopted.The clinical data of 1 patient with hilar cholangiocarcinoma in Bismuth type Ⅳ who was admitted to the Renji Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University in October 2014 were collected.The patient had complaint about right upper abdominal pain for half month.Enhanced CT scan showed soft-tissue mass at hepatic hilum.After accurate assessment,the patient underwent radical resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma + right hemihepatectomy + perihilar resection + right caudate hepatectomy + Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy.The operation time,volume of intraoperative blood loss,results of pathological examination,postoperative complications,time of drainage tube removal,discharge time and follow-up were observed.The follow-up was performed to detect the life quality and tumor recurrence by outpatient examination and telephone interview up to July 2015.Results The patient received successful radical resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma + right hemihepatectomy + perihilar resection + right caudate hepatectomy + Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy.Operation time and volume of intraoperative blood loss were 480 minutes and 300 mL,respectively.The result of pathological examination showed that the size of hilar bile duct was 4 cm× 3 cm × 2 cm and poor-differentiated adenocarcinoma infiltrated through bile duct into liver tissues and right branch of portal vein.Two lymph nodes in the 8th group,1 in the 12a group and 3 in the 12p group were positive by detection,showing the metastasis of cancer cells.The resection margins of liver and bile ducts were negative,achieving a R0 resection.The patient had a removal of negative pressure drainage tube at postoperative day 7 and discharged from hospital at postoperative day 12,with a good recovery and without the complications of biliary fistula,abdominal infection and hepatic failure.During the 9-month follow-up,there was a good life quality and no tumor recurrence.Conclusion The radical resection rate of Bismuth type Ⅳ tumor can be increased by accurate preoperative evaluation,rational surgical approach,individualized surgical planning and precise intraoperative procedures.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-490501

ABSTRACT

Objective To systematically review the prognostic factors of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and clinical significance of abdominal lymphadenectomy.Methods PubMed was queried with the terms of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma,survival,surgery,lymph or vascular invasion to find all studies published from January 2005 to December 2015.Authors were contacted by letters for the publications that were initially ineligible due to insufficient information for data extraction,responses were received,so these publications were included.Data were analyzed and evaluated by 2 independent researchers.Prognostic factors of ICC (vascular invasion,bile duct invasion,lymphatic vessel invasion,lymph node metastasis and peripheral nerve invasion) and related-factors of surgical method (R0 resection and lymph node dissected) were analyzed.The 3-,5-year survival rate,tumor-free survival rate and effect of lymph node dissected for prognosis of patients were extracted.Heterogeneity was analyzed by the chi-squared test and I2 test.The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were transformed to Log (HR) and standard errors (SE) Log (HR).HR and 95% CI of clinical factors associated with outcomes were done using univariate COX regression models.Publication bias was evaluated by the Egger's method,visualizing with funnel plot.Results A total of 48 publications including 7 868 patients with ICC were eligible to be included in this analysis,12 of 48 publications were included in the Mata analysis.Of 7 868 patients with ICC,vascular invasion,bile duct invasion,lymphatic vessel invasion,lymph node metastasis,peripheral nerve invasion,R0 resection and lymph node dissected were detected in 30% (5%-98%),40% (11%-59%),45% (35%-65%),28% (9%-100%),25% (7%-55%),79% (35%-100%) and 64% (9%-100%),respectively.The 3-,5-year survival rate and 3-,5-year tumor-free survival rate were 39% (16%-65%),29%(5%-60%) and 34% (3%-60%),23% (0-52%),respectively.The results of meta-analysis showed that lymph node metastasis and vascular invasion were factors affecting the prognosis of patients with ICC (HR =2.30,1.92,95 % CI:1.94-2.73,1.64-2.25,P < O.05).Among the patients without lymph node metastasis,5-year survival rate in patients with and without lymphadenectomy was 17%-64% and 15%-64%,respectively,showing no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05).Among the patients with lymph node metastasis,5-year survival rate in patients with and without lymphadenectomy was 48% and 11%,respectively,showing a statistically significant difference (P<0.05).Conclusions Lymph node metastasis and vascular invasion are the risk factors affecting the prognosis of patients with ICC.Routine lymphadenectomy for ICC cannot show survival benefit,while routine lymphadenectomy should be applied to patients with ICC and uncertain lymph node metastasis.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-490500

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinicopathologic features and prognostic analysis of intrahepatic mucinous cholangiocarcinoma (IMCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC).Methods The retrospective cohort study was adopted.The clinicopathological data of 20 patients with IMCC and 51 patients with ICC who were admitted to the Fujian Provincial Hospital from March 2003 to March 2014 were collected.The observation indicators included (1) clinicopathologic features:gender,age,clinical symptoms (fever,jaundice,abdominal pain and peritoneal effusion),preoperative laboratory examination [alanine transaminase (ALT),aspartate transaminase (AST),direct bilirubin (DBil),carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA),CA19-9 and alphafetoprotein (AFP)],operation methods (radical resection,palliative resection) and pathological features (tumor location,lymph node metastasis,vascular invasion and pathological stage).(2) The follow-up of outpatient examination and telephone interview was performed to detect the survival of patients up to March 2015.Measurement data with normal distribution were represented as x-± s and comparison between groups was analyzed using t test.Count data were analyzed using the chi-square test.The survival curve was drawn by Kaplan-Meier method,and the survival rate was analyzed using the Log-rank test.Result The numbers of patients with fever,jaundice,elevated level of AST and DBil,lymph node metastasis,vascular invasion and numbers of patients with stage 0,Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ,Ⅳ were 13,11,10,11,3,1 and4,6,2,6,2 with IMCC,12,10,9,2,22,36 and 0,14,5,3,29 with ICC,respectively,showing statistically significant differences in the above indicators (x2=10.830,8.639,7.672,25.059,8.036,24.765,26.601,P < 0.05).All the patients were followed up for a median time of 14 months (range,1-118 months).The survival time and 1-,3-,5-year survival rates were (55 ± 8)months,94.4%,44.0%,16.7% in 20 patients with IMCC and (30 ±6) months,36.5%,12.5%,4.0% in 51 patients with ICC,respectively,showing a statistically significant difference (x2 =8.126,P < 0.05).Conclusion The patients with MICC are more easily complicated with fever,jaundice and liver dysfunction,while they have less lymph node metastasis and vascular invasion,earlier pathological stage and better prognosis compared with patients with ICC.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-470304

ABSTRACT

The management of hilar cholangiocarcinoma was challenging to the surgeons due to difficult operations and low resection rate.Recently,a new mode of multidisciplinary team (MDT) is applied to the diagnosis and treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma,which leads to significant changes and development of the diagnosis and treatment for hilar cholangiocarcinoma.In this article,the authors first introduced the recent application of MDT treatment for hilar cholangiocarcinoma on diagnostic methods,staging systems,evaluation for resectability,radical resection,application of liver transplantation and other systematic therapies.Considering the complexity of hilar cholangiocarcinoma,a surgery-centered MDT for hilar cholangiocarcinoma is important and should be promoted.

19.
China Oncology ; (12): 451-456, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-452296

ABSTRACT

Background and purpose: Because of the aggressive nature of hilar cholangiocarcinoma and the absence of effective adjuvant therapy, surgical radical resection offers hilar cholangiocarcinoma patients the only choice. Research focus include preoperative assessment, the use of preoperative biliary drainage, the range of hepatic resection, and the range of lymphadenectomy. To investigate the clinical experience and efifcacy of combined hepatectomy in the treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Methods: Two hundred and seven patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma treated surgically in the First Afifliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University form Jan. 2007 to Oct. 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Results:Of the 207 patients, 125 patients who received radical resection (R0 resection) and the curative resection rate was 60.4%. One hundred and iffty-six cases were treated in combined hepatectomy group, 51 cases in non-hepatectomy group, the rate of R0 resection was 70.5%in hepatectomy group and 29.4%in non-hepatectomy group, and the difference was signiifcant (P<0.01). Two patients died perioperatively, the main postoperative complications included hepatic function insufifciency and bile leakage. One hundred and seventy-two patients were followed up, the median survival time of the 102 patients who received R0 resection was 45 months, and the 1, 3, 5 year survival rates were 96.1%, 59.1%and 17.2%. The median survival time of the 70 patients who received R1-2 resection was 26 months, and the 1, 3 year survival rates were 81.3%and 19.2%, and none of the patient survived for over 5 years. The survival rate of patients who received R0 resection was signiifcantly higher than those who received R1-2 resection (χ2=39.121, P<0.01). In the hepatectomy group was awarded the R0 resection in patients with postoperative 1, 3, 5 year survival rate was 97.8%, 63.9% and 18.0%, in non-hepatectomy group received R0 resection in patients with postoperative 1, 3, 5 year survival rate was 83.3%, 20.8%and 8.3%. There were signiifcant differences in the postoperative survival rate between both group (χ2=5.988, P=0.014). Conclusion:Radical excision is the key to improve the long term survival. Combined hemihepatectomy and standardized lymph node resection has signiifcantly improved the radical resection rate and the efifcacy of treatment for hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-444476

ABSTRACT

Radical resection is one of the important factors for improving the prognosis of patients with resectable carcinoma of head of the pancreas,carcinoma of the distal bile duct and periampullary carcinoma.In order to proceed with a R0 resection,there are many types of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for pancreatic,biliary and periampullary carcinoma such as PD with lymphadenectomy.In this report,we described a PD with extended retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy (D2 +) for the adenocarcinoma of the distal bile duct.The case presented underscores the feasibility and safety of PD with D2 + lymphadenectomy.

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