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1.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 72(1): 11-22, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1368344

ABSTRACT

El arándano (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) posee un alto contenido de compuestos fenólicos los cuales han sido estudiados principalmente por su actividad antioxidante, antiobesogénica, antiinflamatoria, entre otras. Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la digestión gastrointestinal in vitro sobre la bioaccesibilidad de compuestos fenólicos y actividad antioxidante de una formulación nutracéutica de arándano (cápsula), comparado con arándano fresco y polvo. Materiales y métodos. Se obtuvieron extractos metanólicos de muestras de arándano fresco y liofilizado y se determinó su contenido de fenoles, flavonoides y antocianinas totales, así como también actividad antioxidante. Se llevó a cabo un ensayo de simulación de digestión gastrointestinal para evaluar la bioaccesibilidad de los compuestos fenólicos presentes en las muestras. Resultados. Los resultados mostraron que la digestión gástrica de arándano en polvo y en cápsula promovió una mayor bioaccesibilidad de fenoles (42% y 40%), flavonoides (52% y 33%) y antocianinas (45% y 40%) comparado con digestos de arándano fresco. Posterior a la digestión intestinal, la bioaccesibilidad de fenoles (63%) y flavonoides (67%) fue mayor en la cápsula de arándano comparada con su contraparte arándano en polvo. Las condiciones de digestión intestinal afectaron negativamente la bioaccesibilidad de las antocianinas independientemente del tipo de muestra evaluada. Conclusión. Las condiciones de digestión gástrica promueven una mayor estabilidad de los compuestos fenólicos en arándano en polvo y en cápsula lo que pudiera ser relevante para el mantenimiento de un ambiente antioxidante a este nivel. Las condiciones de digestión intestinal afectaron de manera particular a los compuestos fenólicos de arándano fresco y polvo, pero no a la cápsula, lo que puede sugerir que el encapsulamiento protegió de las condiciones alcalinas a los fenoles presentes. Se sugieren estudios posteriores sobre absorción in vitro de los componentes remanentes en intestino y sus posibles efectos sobre biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo en modelos in vivo(AU)


Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) has a high content of phenolic compounds which have been studied mainly for their antioxidant, antiobesogenic, anti-inflammatory activity, among others. Objetive. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of a nutraceutical formulation of blueberry (capsule), compared to fresh and powder blueberry. Materials and methods. Methanolic extracts of fresh and lyophilized blueberry were obtained and determined its total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins content, as well as antioxidant activity. A gastrointestinal digestion simulation test also was carried out to assess the bioaccessibility of the phenolic compounds found in samples. Results. The results showed that gastric digestion of powder and capsule blueberry promoted greater bioaccessibility of phenols (42% and 40%), flavonoids (52% and 33%) and anthocyanins (45% and 40%), compared to fresh blueberry digests. After intestinal digestion, the bioaccessibility of phenols (63%) and flavonoids (67%) was higher in the blueberry capsule compared to its powdered blueberry counterpart. The intestinal digestion conditions negatively affected the bioaccessibility of anthocyanins regardless of the type of sample evaluated. Conclusion. Gastric digestion conditions promote greater stability of phenolic compounds in powdered and capsule blueberries, which could be relevant for the maintenance of an antioxidant environment at this level. The intestinal digestion conditions particularly affected the phenolic compounds of fresh and lyophilized blueberry, but not the capsule, which may suggest that encapsulation protected the phenols present from alkaline conditions. Further studies on in vitro absorption of the remaining components in the intestine and their possible effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in in vivo models are suggested(AU)


Subject(s)
Tannins , Flavonoids , Blueberry Plants , Phenolic Compounds , Gastrointestinal Absorption , In Vitro Techniques , Chronic Disease , Digestion , Freeze Drying
2.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20201070, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1286055

ABSTRACT

A comparative study was perfomed with conventional and ultrasound assisted extraction on tomato processing waste. Ultrasound extraction exhibited slightly higher phenolic and flavonoids content, as well as higher ABTS + radical scavenging capacity (4.63 mg GAE.g-1, 0.96 mg RUE.g-1 and 27.90 µmol TE.g -1 respectively). On both extracts, a high percentage of flavonoids was lost during simulated digestion, resulting on a bioacessibility of approximately 13 %. Extracts presented good stability during storage conditions, which indicates a possible technological application.


Foi realizado um estudo comparativo com a extração convencional e assistida por ultrassom em resíduos do processamento de tomate. A extração ultrassônica exibiu teor de fenólicos e flavonóides ligeiramente maiores, bem como maior capacidade antioxidante ABTS + (4,63 mg AG.g-1, 0,96 mg RUE.g-1 e 27,90 µmol TE.g -1, respectivamente). Em ambos os extratos, uma alta porcentagem de flavonóides foi perdida durante a digestão simulada, resultando em uma bioacessibilidade de aproximadamente 13%. Os extratos apresentaram boa estabilidade durante as condições de armazenamento, o que indica uma possível aplicação tecnológica.


Subject(s)
Lycopersicon esculentum/chemistry , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Phytochemicals/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Ultrasonics
3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2435-2444, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937047

ABSTRACT

In this study, a method for simultaneous quantitative analysis of 6 salvianolic acids and 4 tanshinones in extracts of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma was established by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). The semi-biomimetic method was applied to simulate digestion process in vitro, to explore the digestion and transport characters of oral administration through the gastrointestinal tract, and to explain the content ratio changes and bioaccessibility of active ingredients in Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. The results showed that the 10 index components have a good linear relationship in the corresponding concentration range, and the average recovery rate was 91.35% to 105.65%. After simulated digestion in vitro, types of chemical composition in simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid digested extracts of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma did not change significantly. While the content ratio of salvianolic acid B and rosmarinic acid decreased, and the content ratio of protocatechuic aldehyde and danshensu increased. In the simulated gastric fluid digestion extract of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, the order of bioaccessibility was: danshensu (50.19%) > salvianolic acid B (33.44%) > lithospermic acid (27.34%) > salvianolic acid A (21.71%) > rosmarinic acid (12.31%). In the simulated intestinal fluid digestion extract of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, the order of bioaccessibility was: 15,16-dihydrotanshinone Ⅰ (5.45%) > tanshinone Ⅰ (3.67%) > cryptotanshinone (3.29%) > tanshinone ⅡA (3.01%) > salvianolic acid A (2.39%) > lithospermic acid (1.57%) > salvianolic acid B (1.02%) > danshensu (0.41%) > rosmarinic acid (0.34%). In conclusion, the UHPLC method established in this study can be applied for accurately and sensitively detecting the contents of 6 salvianolic acids and 4 tanshinones in Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. The results of semi-biomimetic extraction showed that not all components were extracted with simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid, especially rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B. Therefore, in the quality study of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and its extract, bioavailability should be considered at the same time when select quality markers and determine their content limits.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1004-1009, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821686

ABSTRACT

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine the content of cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) in earthworms. A physiologically-based extraction test (PBET) digestion in vitro /MDCK cell model was established to investigate the bioaccessibility of Cd and As in earthworms. The hazard index (HI) method and the margin of exposure (MOE) method were used to assess the risks of the total content and the bioaccessible content of Cd and As. The results showed that the total content of Cd and As in six batches of earthworms ranged from 8.319 to 33.606 mg·kg-1 and from 0.532 to 16.412 mg·kg-1, respectively. After uptake by MDCK cells, the bioaccessibility of Cd in earthworms ranged from 10.13% to 64.16%, and the bioaccessibility of As was from 2.72% to 46.57%. The results of risk assessment showed that before uptake by MDCK cells, the MOE values of As and HI values of Cd for all batches of earthworms were greater than 1, which suggests that the risks of As are acceptable but the risks of Cd are unacceptable. After transportation by MDCK cells, except for one batch of earthworms, the HI values of Cd in the other five batches were less than 1, which suggests that the risks are at a safe level. This study provides important technical support for a more objective and scientific assessment of the health risks of heavy metals in traditional Chinese medicines, and for a more scientific and reasonable standard limit of heavy metals.

5.
Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal ; (24): 1201-1206, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-857647

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the bioaccessibility and evaluate the safety of inorganic elements in decoction of "Zhebawei" traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). METHODSE: The bioaccessibility of inorganic elements in decoction of "Zhebawei" TCMs was measured based on in vitro digestion and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) and the safety of these elements were evaluated by comparing with the safe limits issued by the FAO and WHO. RESULTS: The bioaccessibility of the inorganic elements was less than 1, and varied among different elements of the same herbal medicine or for the same element among different herbal medicines. Cd, V, Se, Cr, Sn, and As were not detected in the dialysate of some TCMs' decoction after in vitro digestion because of the total content being low or undetected in decoction. The result of safety evaluation showed that the daily intakes of Ni, Fe, Mn, Se, Cu, Zn, Co, V, Cr from the decoction of "Zhebawei" TCMs were all within safe limits. The daily intakes of Cd and Sn did not exceed the level of personal acceptable daily intake instituted by the FAO and WHO. The total content in the decoction of Rhizoma Corydalis was more than the level of personal acceptable daily intake instituted by FAO and WHO, however the amount in the dislysate of "Zhebawei" TCMs' decoction after in vitro digestion were under the standard. The analysis of total content may exaggerate the risk of toxicity. CONCLUSION: The results will provide the basis for further researches such as bioavailability and safety of inorganic elements in "Zhebawei" TCMs, and will provide references for ensuring the rational use of TCM according to the analysis of inorganic elements.

6.
Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal ; (24): 1243-1247, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-857621

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate and apply the bioaccessibility of Cd in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) to human health risk assessment, and provide reference for the formulation of limit standards. METHODS: The contents of Cd in Coptis chinensis Franch., Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., Lindera aggregate (Sims) Kosterm., and Curcuma kwangsiensis S.G. Lee et C.F. Liang were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The bioaccessibility of Cd in TCMs was investigated by in vitro physiologically based extraction test(PBET) digestion method. And the target hazard quotient (THQ) was applied to assess the health risks of Cd contents. RESULTS: The bioaccessibility of Cd for Coptis chinensis Franch., Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., Lindera aggregate (Sims) Kosterm., and Curcuma kwangsiensis S.G. Lee et C.F. Liang was 49.0%, 40.0%, 44.9% and 65.7%, respectively. The results of risk assessment showed that before extraction, THQ values of Cd for Coptis chinensis Franch., Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., Lindera aggregate (Sims) Kosterm., and Curcuma kwangsiensis S.G. Lee et C.F. Liang were 1.895, 1.045, 1.446 and 1.653, respectively; after extraction, THQ values of Cd for the four types of TCMs were 0.929, 0.418, 0.649 and 1.077, respectively. CONCLUSION: Cd in the four types of TCMs cannot be completely absorbed in the artificial gastrointestinal phase, and the risks of Cd are reduced after extraction. Except THQ for Curcuma kwangsiensis S.G. Lee et C.F. Liang, the THQ values are below the value of 1, indicating very low health risks for the other three types of TCMs after extraction. In this study, the bioaccessibility of heavy metals in TCMs is applied to the health risk assessment model in order to provide a scientific basis for objectively evaluating the health risks of heavy metals in TCMs and formulating a scientific and reasonable heavy metal limit standards.

7.
J Ayurveda Integr Med ; 2019 Apr; 10(2): 111-118
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214060

ABSTRACT

Background: Bhasmas are unique Ayurvedic organometallic preparations used for medicinal purpose.Quality of bhasma depends upon quality of starting materials, processing ingredients, meticulous trituration and heating cycle. In Ayurveda, Vanga bhasma is traditional Indian medicine which is anorganometallic preparation treated with plant extract. It is especially used in the treatments of diseasesrelated to gastrointestinal tract and genitor urinary system. However detailed characterization studiesafter synthesis are important which shows authenticity of product.Objective: The present study deals with the preparation of Vanga bhasma according to the procedurementioned in the Ayurvedic literature. Synthesized bhasma was characterized by various analyticaltechniques and also compared with commercial sample.Material and method: Different steps involved in synthesis of Vanga bhasma include shodhan (purification/detoxification), jaran (heating and stirring), bhavan (levigation) and maran (incineration).Bhasma was incinerated (maran process) by traditional method of heating as well as using mufflefurnace. These two products obtained from Maran (incineration) and commercial sample wereanalyzed for quality control checks, on the parameters described in Ayurvedic texts as well as moderntechniques such as TEM, SEM, EDX, XRD, DLS and FTIR were done to find out the nature and form ofthe drug prepared. The in vitro gastric and gastrointestinal (pancreatic) bioaccessibility of Bhasmawere also determined.Results: The study reveals that the synthesized Bhasma was converted into its nontoxic oxide form andhad a highly reduced particle size observed from SEM images. These studies reveal that Vanga Bhasmaprepared by traditional method of heating (Sn1) has 50% nanoparticles (150e300 nm range) that prepared by using electric muffle furnace (Sn2) has 100% nanoparticles (50e100 nm range) while commercial samples (Sn3) has 50% nanoparticles (100e300 nm range).Conclusion: The study confirmed the formation of organometallic compound (SnO2) at the end of themanufacturing process. The percentage bioaccessibility for gastrointestinal digestion is more than thegastric digestion. Hence, it is concluded that Vanga Bhasma can be useful nanomedicine.© 2017 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Publishing Services byElsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

8.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 45(4): 323-330, dic. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978093

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La germinación es un proceso que involucra cambios en la actividad enzimática de los granos y ruptura de macro-moléculas, los cuales disminuyen los factores antinutricionales e incrementan la síntesis de otros constituyentes. Se obtienen granos con características sensoriales mejoradas, mayor valor nutricional y funcional. En esta investigación se germinaron granos de Cajanus cajan, por 96 horas, a 20°C en oscuridad, para estudiar las variaciones en composición proximal, ácidos grasos, capacidad antioxidante y bioaccesibilidad mineral. Los resultados obtenidos indican una disminución de las proteínas y aumento de cenizas, grasas y carbohidratos. Se determinó el perfil de ácidos grasos y se identificó la presencia de seis ácidos grasos, siendo el más abundante el ácido linoléico, la cantidad de los mismos también varió como consecuencia del proceso aplicado. El contenido de polifenoles y la capacidad antioxidante de la semilla aumentaron debido a la germinación. Se obtuvieron valores de bioaccesibilidad mineral, en un rango entre 16 y 31 % para el magnesio y el potasio, respectivamente. Se concluyó que el quinchoncho representa un alimento de elevado valor nutricional y que a través de la germinación se pueden introducir cambios nutricionales positivos y de esta forma promover su consumo.


ABSTRACT Germination is a process that involves changes in the enzymatic activity of grains and macromolecule breakdown, which decreases anti-nutritional factors and increases the synthesis of other constituents. Germinated grains are thus of higher sensory, nutritional and functional value. In this research, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) grains were germinated for 96 hours at 20°C in the dark. Variations in proximal composition, fatty acids composition, antioxidant ability and mineral bioaccessibility were determined. The results obtained showed that because of the germination process, protein content decreased, while ash, fat and carbohydrate content increased. Fatty acid profile was determined and six fatty acids were identified, with the greatest amount of linoleic acid. The fatty acid content changed with the applied process. The polyphenolic content and antioxidant ability also increased as a result of the germination process. The values obtained for the mineral bioaccessibility varied from 16 to 31% for magnesium and potassium, respectively. It was concluded that pigeon pea grains represent a food of high nutritional value, which, as a result of germination, can create positive nutritional changes. Thus, consumption of this food should be promoted.


Subject(s)
Edible Grain , Fatty Acids , Fabaceae , Antioxidants , Food Composition
9.
Food Sci. Technol (SBCTA, Impr.) ; 38(1): 157-163, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-892250

ABSTRACT

Abstract A 32 factorial design was employed to develop an in vitro digestion method for estimation of Fe bioaccessible fractions in cooked chicken meat. The effects of sample size and the in vitro bioaccessible fractions of this essential element were evaluated. A sample preparation method employing a microwave assisted digestion with dilute nitric acid was used prior to total Fe determination. For the bioacessibility studies, the optimized procedure employed 7.5 g of sample and 6% w/v of an acid pepsin solution. This procedure was applied to two kinds of chicken meat samples: breast and liver. Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was used to determine total and bioaccessible (chyme or soluble portion) levels of iron in the samples. With respect to total Fe content, the bioaccessible fractions of Fe found in these samples were around 23% and 56 %, for breast and chicken liver, respectively. The chicken liver sample showed the highest total (400 ± 10 mg kg-1) and bioaccessible Fe contents (223 ± 18 mg kg-1) and stands out as a good source of this micronutrient.

10.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2018. 177 p. tab, ilus, graf.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361621

ABSTRACT

However, folate production was strain-dependent and also dependent on the environmental conditions and on the vegetable substrate used. Passion fruit by-product presented the lowest folate concentration and was selected for the following experiments. Thus, the impact of the supplementation of soymilk with passion fruit by-product and/or commercial prebiotic fructooligosaccharides FOS P95 on the folate production by three St. thermophilus strains, as well as four probiotic Lactobacillus strains (LA-5, LGG, PCC, and RC-14) were evaluated. St. thermophilus ST-M6 and TH-4 produced the highest amounts of folate in all fermented soymilks. The concentration of the vitamin was also high when these strains grew in co-culture with LA-5 and LGG. Soymilk supplemented with both passion fruit by-product and FOS together presented the highest concentration of folate when fermented by the co-culture TH-4+LGG. This co-culture was selected to produce four fermented soy products (FSP). All FSP were bio-enriched with folate produced by the co-culture and the probiotic strain LGG remained always above 8 log CFU/mL until the end of the storage period (28 days at 4ºC). In contrast, the concentration of the vitamin was stable until day 14 then a slight decrease was observed at the end of the storage period. The FSP supplemented with both passion fruit by-product and FOS together may contribute with around 14% of the recommended daily intake for folate if consumed until day 14 of storage. During the in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions, the folate content of the digested FSP increased from 1.3 to 3.6-fold, especially at the small and large intestinal in vitro phases and the strain LGG was recovered. In contrast, St. thermophilus TH-4 was not recovered during the assay. Finally, the prebiotic potential of the bioactive compounds present in the fruit by-products was characterized. Fruit by-product water extracts (FWE) containing soluble fibres from fruit by-products were obtained through a hot-water extraction and were associated to phenolic compounds and showed antioxidant activity. The FWE (especially, orange and mango water extracts) presented an anti-inflammatory potential by decreasing the nitric oxide concentration produced in vitro by macrophages stimulated with lipopolisaccharides (LPS) from Salmonella Thyphymurium. The FWE (especially from mango) were able to stimulate the growth of the strains TH-4 and LGG, as well the folate production by these microorganisms when tested individually and in co-culture. The FWE also increased the adhesion of TH-4 and LGG to Caco-2 cells in an in vitro model. These results suggest a prebiotic potential of the fruit by-products evaluated and their potential towards increased folate production by the selected microorganisms. Therefore, the bio-enrichment of fermented soy products with folate produced by beneficial microorganisms is an alternative for the development of functional foods with high folate content. Additionally, fermentable bioactive compounds with functional and/or biological activity, such as soluble fibres associated to phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity, present in the fruit by-products, may act as potential prebiotic ingredients. These bioactive molecules may represent a potential natural alternative to synthetic drugs for the treatment of inflammatory processes


O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de subprodutos vegetais, incluindo subprodutos do processamento de fruta (maracujá, laranja, acerola e manga) e de soja (okara) na produção de folatos de novo por microrganismos strater e probióticos para bioenriquecer um produto de soja fermentado. Na primeira etapa deste trabalho, o impacto da farinha de amaranto na produção de folatos pelos microrganismos também foi avaliado. Neste sentido, primeiramente, verificou-se o efeito desses subprodutos vegetais e da farinha de amaranto na capacidade de três cepas starter - Streptococcus thermophilus (ST-M6, TH-4 e TA-40) e 10 cepas probióticas (Lactobacillus (Lb.) acidophilus LA-5, Lb. fermentum PCC, Lb. reuteri RC-14, Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei Lb. casei 431, Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei F19, Lb. rhamnosus GR-1, and Lb. rhamnosus LGG, Bifidobacterium (B.) animalis subsp. lactis BB-12, B. longum subsp. longum BB-46, e B. longum subsp. infantis BB-02) em produzir folato utilizando um caldo MRS modificado. A maior parte dos microrganismos testados foi capaz de produzir folato. Entretanto, a produção foi considerada cepa-dependente e, também, dependente das condições ambientais e do tipo de subproduto vegetal empregado. O subproduto de maracujá apresentou a menor concentração de folato e, por isso, foi selecionado para os testes seguintes. Neste sentido, o impacto da suplementação do leite de soja com subproduto de maracujá e/ou com o prebiótico comercial fruto-oligosacarídeo FOS P95 na produção de folato pelas três cepas de St. thermophilus, bem como quarto cepas probióticas do gênero Lactobacillus (LA-5, LGG, PCC e RC-14), também foi avaliado. Em cultura pura, as cepas de St. thermophilus ST-M6 e TH-4 produziram grande quantidade de folato nas formulações de extrato de soja fermentados. A concentração da vitamina foi maior quando tais cepas se desenvolveram em co-cultura com LA-5 e LGG. Observou-se que o extrato de soja suplementado concomitantemente com subproduto de maracujá e FOS apresentou a maior quantidade de folato quando fermentado pela co-cultura TH-4+LGG. Esta co-cultura, portanto, foi selecionada para desenvolver os produtos fermentados de soja (PFS). Todas as formulações foram bioenriquecidas e a cepa LGG manteve-se viável por todo o período de armazenamento (28 dias a 4ºC). Entretanto, a concentração da vitamina manteve-se estável apenas até o dia 14, observando-se uma diminuição da quantidade de folato ao final do período de armazenamento. Constatou-se que o produto fermentado de soja suplementado concomitantemente com subproduto de maracujá e FOS pode contribuir com cerca de 14% da ingestão diária recomendada para folato se consumido até o dia 14 do armazenamento. Além disso, durante a simulação gastrointestinal in vitro, observou-se que a digestão aumentou de 1,3 a 3,6 vezes a concentração da vitamina incrementando, consideravelmente, a bioacessibilidade do folato, principalmente nas porções simuladas do intestino delgado e grosso do intestino e a cepa LGG foi recuperada. Entretanto, a cepa St. thermophilus TH-4 não foi recuperada durante o ensaio. Por fim, o potencial prebiótico de componentes bioativos presentes nos subprodutos de fruta foi caracterizado. Uma extração Hot Water foi conduzida, a fim de obter extratos aquosos de subprodutos de fruta ricos em fibras solúveis associadas a compostos fenólicos com atividade antioxidante. Observou-se, ainda, que tais extratos aquosos de subprodutos de fruta (laranja e manga) apresentaram potencial anti-inflamatório constatado pela diminuição da concentração de óxido nítrico produzido por macrófagos estimulados com lipopolissacarideo (LPS) de Salmonella Typhymurium in vitro. Além disso, os extratos aquosos de subprodutos de fruta (principalmente o extrato aquoso de subproduto de manga) foram capazes de estimular a multiplicação das cepas TH-4 e LGG, bem como a produção de folatos por estes microrganismos quando avaliados individualmente e em co-cultura. Adicionalmente, esses extratos aquosos de subprodutos de fruta aumentaram a adesao do TH-4 e do LGG a células Caco-2 em modelo in vitro. Neste sentido, os resultados sugerem um potencial prebiótico dos subprodutos de fruta testados, de modo a estimular, não somente o desenvolvimento dos microrganismos avaliados mas, principalmente, o potencial destes em produzir folatos na presença dos substratos vegetais testados. O bioenriquecimento dos produtos fermentados de soja com folatos produzidos por microrganismos benéficos emerge como alternativa de alimento potencialmente funcional com alto teor de folato. Adicionalmente, compostos bioativos fermentescíveis e com atividade biológica como, por exemplo, as fibras solúveis associadas a compostos fenólicos com atividade antioxidante, presentes nos subprodutos de fruta testados podem constituir potenciais ingredientes prebióticos, além de representarem uma possível alternativa natural para o tratamento de processos inflamatórios


Subject(s)
Plants/adverse effects , Soybeans/adverse effects , Probiotics/analysis , Soy Milk/pharmacology , Prebiotics/analysis , Fruit/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Pteroylpolyglutamic Acids/antagonists & inhibitors , Coculture Techniques/methods , Functional Food/analysis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
11.
Nutrire Rev. Soc. Bras. Aliment. Nutr ; 41: 1-10, Dec. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-880606

ABSTRACT

Seafood lipids encompass important healthy nutrients, such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), whichmay have a significant effect on human cardiovascular health and needs to be supplied by the human diet. Particularly, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are the most abundant n-3 PUFA present in seafood and have an impact on the cardiovascular health. DHA and EPA are deemed to display anti-inflammatory, cell membrane modulation, and biophysical properties, thereby offsetting the pro-inflammatory effects of n-6 PUFA, and to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Consumption of large amounts of n-3 PUFA exerts a positive effect on a wide array of cardiovascular health concerns ranging from hypertension and atherosclerosis to myocardial infarction and stroke. Infact, animal studies indicate that n-3 PUFAs play a bioactive cardiovascular protective role. Therefore, it is recommended up to two servings of fatty fish per week or up to 500 mg/day of EPA and DHA (World Health Organization).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Biological Availability , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/therapeutic use , Seafood/analysis
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-625332

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In view of the widespread deficiencies of trace minerals like iron and zinc, strategies to enhance their bioavailability from plant foods is of interest. This study was therefore undertaken to explore ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), a known metal chelator, for a possible beneficial influence on the bioaccessibility of iron and zinc from food grains. Methods: EDTA was added at molar ratios ranging from 1:0.25 to 1:2 relative to the inherent iron and zinc to raw and heat-processed food grains. Bioaccessibility of iron and zinc was determined by an in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion procedure. Results: EDTA significantly enhanced iron bioaccessibility from all the food grains (from one-fold to thirteen-fold increase), in both raw and heat processed grains. The beneficial influence of EDTA on iron bioaccessibility was more prominent in cereals than in pulses. EDTA showed influence on zinc bioaccessibility to a lesser magnitude (from one-fold to five-fold increase). The impairment on zinc bioaccessibility by heat processing from the food grains was efficiently countered by EDTA. EDTA added at a level equimolar (1:1) to the inherent iron and zinc significantly enhanced the bioaccessibility of the iron and zinc among the food grains. Conclusion: EDTA could be an effective co-fortificant to enhance the bioaccessibility of iron and zinc from food grains, possibly in the form of a sprinkle, to combat mineral deficiencies.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-454009

ABSTRACT

Two γ-glutamyl-cysteine peptides (γ-GCPs ) , ( SC2 RC7 )-γ-L-glutamyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine ( 1 ) and ( SC2 RC7 )-γ-L-glutamyl-S-propyl-L-cysteine ( 2 ) have been isolated from fresh garlic scales using ion-exchange chromatography and pre-HPLC. Their molecular structures were identified by HPLC-MS, CD, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, specific rotation and confirmed by the corresponding standard compounds. The influence of exogenously adding 1 and 2 on the bioavailability of iron and zinc from food legume was examined with soybean and mung bean, in the level of 0. 01 mmol/5 g of legume respectively. The enhancing effect of the two γ-GCPs of compound 1 and 2 on bioaccessibility of iron was generally evidenced in the case of soybean ( from 1 . 88% to 6 . 73% and 4 . 42%) and mung bean ( from 2 . 52% to 12 . 04% and 9 . 38%) . The two γ-GCPs similarly enhanced the bioaccessibility of zinc from the food legume, in soybean ranging from 13. 37% to 23. 95% and 20. 58%, and in mung bean from 15. 98% to 28. 44% and 27. 05%. Thus, both compounds 1 and 2 obviously had a promoting influence on the bioavailability of iron and zinc from food legumes. These findings are of practical value in a food-based strategy to enhance the bioavailability of trace minerals for human health.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-627582

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The study aimed to analyse the nutritional quality, antioxidant components and activity of three varieties of corn based ready-to- eat (RTE) breakfast cereals (BFC) enriched with strawberry, banana and mango. Methods: Fruit-enriched corn based breakfast cereals manufactured in India were purchased and ground to obtain homogeneous samples for analysis. The contents of moisture, protein, total fat, dietary fibre, iron, phosphorous, calcium, vitamin C, total carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, in vitro digestible protein, bioaccessible calcium and iron, and digestible starch fractions were determined. The antioxidant components namely, polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity in different extracts were also determined using total antioxidant, free radical scavenging(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and reducing power assays. Results: The protein and dietary fibre contents in all samples ranged between 4.0-4.6 and 6.4-7.6 g/100g respectively. Total iron and vitamin C ranged between 10.7-13.3 mg and 33.2-43.6 mg/100g respectively. Cereals with mango had high total carotene in comparison with other samples. In vitro digestible protein of the processed cereals was low, while bioaccessible calcium (50.2-59.5%) and iron (8.5-15.1%) levels were high due to low oxalates and phytic acid contents. The starch profiles of the breakfast cereals showed high rapidly available glucose and starch digestibility index. Fruit-enriched breakfast cereals showed high polyphenol content in methanol extract (48.6-71.3 mg/100g) and high total antioxidant activity in aqueous extracts. Free radical scavenging and reducing power assay showed high activity in 80% methanol extract. Conclusion: Fruit-enriched breakfast cereals have the potential to be a good source of iron, dietary fibre, vitamin C and total carotene. The fruit-enriched cereals also had high bioaccessible iron and antioxidant activity.

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