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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245273, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339412

ABSTRACT

Abstract The possible interference of resistant pest's populations to insecticides in natural enemies in the action thas not been clarified yet. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) performance on Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs with resistance frequency to the Metaflumizone over six generations of product exposure. Egg cards (2.0 x 7.0 cm) containing eggs from two populations of S. frugiperda, (resistant to Metaflumizone and the other susceptible), were exposed to T. pretiosum females for 24 hours in free-choice and no-choice testing in three generations (G1, G4, and G6). A completely randomized experimental design was used with 25 replications, each consisting of an egg card (experimental unit) containing 20 eggs. The parameters evaluated were: parasitism (%), emergence (%), sex ratio, number of emerged parasitoids per egg and males/females longevity. ANOVA and Tukey test (P≤ 0.05) were applied on the results. Results showed a reduction in parasitism [41.0% (G1) and 28.4% (G4)], egg emergence (17.5%) and parasitoids/egg [16.2 (G4) and 17.2 (G6)] in eggs originating from the population with resistance frequency. Females emerging from G6 populations eggs without exposure to Metaflumizone had greater longevity (3.5 days more) than the resistant population. The sex ratio and male longevity were not affected. The results indicate a reduction in T. pretiosum activity if S. frugiperda populations have some frequency of resistance to Metaflumizone.


Resumo A possível interferência de populações de pragas resistentes na ação de inimigos naturais ainda não foi esclarecida. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) em ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) com frequência de resistência à Metaflumizona ao longo de seis gerações de exposição ao produto. Cartelas (2,0 x 7,0 cm) com ovos de duas populações de S. frugiperda, (resistente à Metaflumizona e outra suscetível), foram expostas às fêmeas de T. pretiosum por 24 horas em condições de livre escolha e sem chance de escolha por três gerações (G1, G4 e G6). O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 25 repetições, sendo cada repetição composta por uma cartela (unidade experimental) contendo 20 ovos. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: parasitismo (%), emergência (%), razão sexual, número de parasitoides emergidos por ovo e longevidade de machos e fêmeas. ANOVA e teste de Tukey (P≤ 0,05) foram aplicados aos dados coletados. Os resultados mostraram redução do parasitismo [41,0% (G1) e 28,4% (G4)], emergência de ovos (17,5%) e parasitoides/ovo [16,2 (G4) e 17,2 (G6)] em ovos oriundos da população com frequência de resistência. As fêmeas emergidas de ovos da população G6 sem exposição à Metaflumizona, tiveram maior longevidade (3,5 dias a mais) do que a população exposta ao inseticida. A razão sexual e a longevidade de machos não foram afetadas. Os resultados indicam uma redução na atividade de T. pretiosum se as populações de S. frugiperda apresentarem alguma frequência de resistência à Metaflumizona.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Wasps , Hymenoptera , Moths , Semicarbazones , Sex Ratio , Spodoptera
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248975, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339377

ABSTRACT

Abstract Colletotrichum is one of the most economically important fungal genera, which affects a wide range of hosts, specifically tropical and subtropical crops. Thus far, there have been several records of mycovirus infection in Colletotrichum spp., primarily by viruses of the Partitiviridae family. There have also been records of infections by mycoviruses of the Chrysoviridae family. Mycoviruses are (+)ssRNA and dsRNA genome viruses, which may or may not be enveloped. To date, no mycovirus with a DNA genome has been isolated from Colletotrichum spp. Typically, mycoviruses cause latent infections, although hypo- and hypervirulence have also been reported in Colletotrichum spp. In addition to its effects on pathogenic behavior, mycovirus infection can lead to important physiological changes, such as altered morphological characteristics, reduced vegetative growth, and suppressed conidia production. Therefore, research on mycoviruses infecting phytopathogenic fungi can help develop alternative methods to chemical control, which can cause irreversible damage to humans and the environment. From an agricultural perspective, mycoviruses can contribute to sustainable agriculture as biological control agents via changes in fungal physiology, ultimately resulting in the total loss of or reduction in the virulence of these pathogens.


Resumo Colletotrichum é um dos gêneros fúngicos mais importantes economicamente, afetando uma ampla gama de hospedeiros, especialmente em cultivos tropicais e subtropicais. Atualmente já existem diversos registros de infecção por micovírus em Colletotrichum spp., sendo a maioria dos já identificados classificados na família Partitiviridae. Ocorrem registros também de micovírus pertencentes à família Chrysoviridae. Compreendem vírus de genoma de (+)ssRNA e dsRNA que podem ser ou não envelopados. Ainda não foram identificados micovírus com genoma de DNA isolados de Colletotrichum. A infecção por micovírus pode ocorrer de forma latente, mas já foi observado em Colletotrichum spp. o fenômeno de hipo e hipervirulência. Além de influenciar no comportamento patogênico, a infecção pode causar mudanças fisiológicas importantes como alterações das características morfológicas, redução do crescimento vegetativo e redução na produção de conídios. O estudo com micovírus em fungos fitopatogênicos traz uma alternativa ao controle químico que é um método capaz de causar danos irreversíveis ao homem e o meio ambiente. Sob a perspectiva agrícola, os micovírus podem contribuir para agricultura sustentável como agentes de controle biológico. Isso porque obsevam-se mudanças importantes na fisiologia fúngica resultando na perda total ou redução da virulência desses patógenos.


Subject(s)
Humans , RNA Viruses , Colletotrichum , Fungal Viruses/genetics , Phylogeny , Spores, Fungal , Virulence
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243890, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278548

ABSTRACT

Abstract Doru luteipes (Scudder, 1876) is an omnivorous predator that finds different food resources in the corn plant: eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797), uredospores of Puccinia polysora (Underw, 1897), and pollen. Knowing the survival and food preferences of this predator is essential to define its relevance as a biological control agent. We hypothesize that the foraging behavior and predatory capacity of D. luteipes may be affected when several food resources, especially eggs of S. frugiperda, uredospores of P. polysora, and pollen are concurrently in the same plant. The survival of D. luteipes in the nymph stage and their preference among food resources, often available in corn plants, were determined. To verify the survival of D. luteipes, newly hatched nymphs were fed exclusively with 1- uredospores of P. polysora, 2- eggs of S. frugiperda, 3- corn pollen, 4- a combination of uredospores + eggs, and 5- artificial diet (control). In another experiment, nymphs and adults of D. luteipes with 24 and 48 hours of fasting were individually released in the center of a container with four diets: 1- uredospores of P. polysora, 2- eggs of S. frugiperda, 3- corn pollen, 4- artificial diet, and maintained for 10 minutes, to evaluate the food choice and feeding time. The exclusive feeding with S. frugiperda eggs caused low nymph survival (8%), but the combination of P. polysora uredospores + S. frugiperda eggs allowed 58.3% survival. D. luteipes preferred feeding during the nighttime and the most significant proportions of choices by nymphs and adults were for pollen and diet, with adults spending more time eating pollen. These findings indicate that the trophic choices of D. luteipes are relevant to understand its contribution as an agent to control pest insects and fungal diseases in corn.


Resumo Doru luteipes (Scudder, 1876) é um predador onívoro, que encontra na planta do milho diferentes recursos alimentares: ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797), uredósporos de Puccinia polysora (Underw, 1897) e pólen. Para definição da relevância desse predador como agente de controle biológico, conhecer a sobrevivência e preferência alimentar é essencial. Nós hipotetizamos que o comportamento de forrageamento e a capacidade de predação de D. luteipes podem ser afetados quando uma mesma planta oferece ovos, uredósporos e pólen, concomitantemente. A sobrevivência de D. luteipes na fase de ninfa e sua preferência entre os recursos alimentares, frequentemente disponíveis nas plantas de milho, foram determinados. Para verificar a sobrevivência de D. luteipes, ninfas recém eclodidas foram alimentadas exclusivamente com 1- uredósporos de P. polysora, 2- ovos de S. frugiperda, 3- pólen de milho, 4- combinação de uredósporos + ovos e 5- dieta artificial (controle). Em outro experimento, ninfas e adultos de D. luteipes com 24 e 48 horas de jejum foram liberadas individualmente, em recipientes contendo quatro dietas: 1- uredósporos de P. polysora, 2- ovos de S. frugiperda, 3- pólen de milho, 4- dieta artificial e mantidas durante 10 min, sendo avaliados a escolha pelo alimento e o tempo de alimentação. A alimentação exclusiva com ovos de S. frugiperda ocasionou baixa sobrevivência das ninfas (8%), porém a combinação de uredósporos de P. polysora + ovos de S. frugiperda possibilitou sobrevivência de 58,3%. D. luteipes preferiu se alimentar durante o período noturno e as maiores proporções de escolhas das ninfas e dos adultos ocorreram no pólen e na dieta, sendo que os adultos gastaram mais tempo se alimentando de pólen. Estas descobertas indicam que as escolhas tróficas de D. luteipes são relevantes para compreender sua contribuição como agente de controle de insetos-praga e doença fúngicas em milho.


Subject(s)
Animals , Predatory Behavior , Insecta , Spodoptera , Zea mays , Larva , Nymph
4.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 74(2): e803, May.-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1408909

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: Los productos derivados de Bacillus thuringiensis se han empleado con éxito en el control de insectos. Sin embargo, la poca residualidad promueve la búsqueda de alternativas. En Cuba diferentes estudios informan la evaluación y selección de aislamientos de B. thuringiensis con actividad larvicida contra Aedes aegypti: el aislado A21 se destaca por su elevada actividad larvicida y ausencia de betaexotoxina. Objetivo: Evaluar la toxicidad/patogenicidad aguda oral y actividad larvicida residual del aislado A21. Métodos: La evaluación de la toxicidad/patogenicidad aguda oral del aislado A21 se estableció en el modelo biológico Rattus norvegicus. Se realizaron observaciones clínicas diarias de los animales y se evaluó el peso corporal. Se estimó la eliminación y la infectividad de B. thuringiensis mediante análisis de muestras de heces, y de fluidos y órganos, respectivamente. Para determinar la actividad larvicida residual del aislado A21 frente a larvas de Ae. aegypti se realizaron bioensayos con diferentes volúmenes de recambios de agua semanal (total, parcial, no recambio) en los recipientes. La mortalidad obtenida se calculó a las 24-72 h. Resultados: Con el aislado A21 no se detectó toxicidad/patogenicidad aguda oral en Rattus norvegicus. En el estudio de residualidad, la mortalidad larvaria a las 72 h se mantuvo elevada (80-100 %) hasta la semana 24. A partir de la semana 25 la mortalidad larvaria disminuyó (p < 0,05). Conclusiones: Se evidencia la baja toxicidad y la elevada actividad larvicida residual del aislado A21 contra Ae. aegypti y lo convierten en un candidato promisorio para el desarrollo de biolarvicidas. Estos productos biológicos podrían contribuir a mejorar las estrategias de control del vector existentes en Cuba.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Bacillus thuringiensis-based products have been successfully used for insect control. However, their low residuality promotes the search for alternatives. In Cuba, different studies have informed about the evaluation and selection of B. thuringiensis isolates with larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti: isolate A21 highlights for its high larvicidal activity and absence of beta-exotoxins. Objective: To evaluate the acute oral toxicity/pathogenicity and the residual larvicidal activity of isolate A21. Methods: The evaluation of the acute oral toxicity/pathogenicity of isolate A21 was established in the animal model Rattus norvegicus. Daily clinical observations of the animals were carried out, and their body weight was evaluated. The elimination and infectivity of B. thuringiensis were estimated by analyzing feces, and fluids and organs samples, respectively. To determine the residual larvicidal activity of isolate A21 to Ae. aegypti larvae, bioassays were conducted with different volumes of weekly water changes (total, partial, no change) in the containers. Mortality was calculated at 24h-72h. Results: No acute oral toxicity/pathogenicity was detected with isolate A21 in Rattus norvegicus. In the study of residuality, at 72h larval mortality remained high (80%-100%) until week 24, decreasing from week 25 (p < 0.05). Conclusions: It is evidenced the low toxicity and high residual larvicidal activity of isolate A21 against Ae. aegypti, which makes it a promising candidate for the development of biolarvicides. These biological products could contribute to the improvements of the existing vector control strategies in Cuba.

5.
Acta biol. colomb ; 27(1): 36-43, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360047

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Termites of the Nasutitermes genus are considered one of the main urban and agroforestry pests in Brazil, where the main method of control is the application of pesticides. The uso of entomopathogenic fungi to reduce the population of this plague in the environment could be use as an alternative. The goal of this study was to evaluate the virulence of isolates native Amazonian fungi belonging to the Tolypocladium endophyticum, Metarhizium anisopliae and Metarhizium marquandii species for the control of Nasutitermes sp. The strains of T. endophyticum (4.439), M. anisopliae (4.443) and M. marquandii (4.472) with their respective isolation codes, were evaluated using suspensions at concentrations of 105, 106, 107 and 108 conidia/mL against the termites. The fungi were characterized to species level by molecular analysis. The greatest virulence was registered with T. endophyticum (4.439), with a mortality of 100 % on the 4th day of treatment for all analyzed concentrations. The M. anisopliae strain (4.443) proved to be efficient, causing a mortality of 100 % on the 7th and 6th days at dilutions of 107 and 108 conidia/mL, respectively. Rates lower than 100 % were registered with M. marquandii (4.472). Therefore, the three fungal strains showed virulence against the termites Nasutitermes sp. In this study, the fungi Tolypocladium endophyticum and Metarhizium marquandii are reported for the first time for the biological control of pests, indicating the potential of native Amazonian fungi for the biological control of thermites Nasutitermes sp.


RESUMEN Las termitas del género Nasutitermes son consideradas una de las principales plagas urbanas y agroforestales de Brasil, donde el principal método de control es la aplicación de pesticidas. Los hongos entomopatógenos pueden ser usados como alternativa para reducir la población de esta plaga en el medio ambiente. Por tanto, el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la virulencia de aislados de hongos nativos de suelo amazónico pertenecientes a las especies Tolypocladium endophyticum, Metarhizium anisopliae y Metarhizium marquandii para el control de Nasutitermes sp. Las cepas de T. endophyticum (4,439), M. anisopliae (4,443) y M. marquandii (4,472) con sus respectivos códigos de aislamiento, fueron evaluadas utilizando suspensiones a concentraciones de 105, 106, 107 y 108 conidios/mL contra las termitas. Los hongos se caracterizaron mediante análisis moleculares para confirmar la especie. La mayor virulencia se registró con el hongo T. endophyticum (4,439), con una mortalidad del 100 % al cuarto día de tratamiento para todas las concentraciones analizadas. La cepa M. anisopliae (4,443) demostró ser eficiente, causando una mortalidad del 100 % al sexto y septimo días a las diluciones de 107 y 108 conidios / mL, respectivamente. Se registraron tasas inferiores al 100 % con M. marquandii (4,472). Por tanto, las tres cepas de hongos mostraron virulencia contra las termitas Nasutitermes sp. En este estudio, los hongos Tolypocladium endophyticum y Metarhizium marquandii son reportados por primera vez para el control biológico de plagas, indicando el potencial de hongos nativos de suelo amazónico para el control biológico de termitas Nasutitermes sp.

6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e255753, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355850

ABSTRACT

Abstract The leaf miner, Tuta absoluta is continue to be a serious threat to solanaceous plants, especially tomato plant worldwide. Tomato crop in Saudi Arabia has been recently affected by T. absoluta, which is difficult to control due to its unique biological features, such as high fecundity and its potential to develop resistance to chemical pesticides. In this article, the suitability and effectiveness of the predatory mite, Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), an indigenous species usually found in tomato greenhouses of northcentral Saudi Arabia, has been evaluated on eggs and 1st instar larvae of T. absoluta in the laboratory. All experiments were conducted in an incubator at three constant temperatures of 22, 27 and 32°C ± 1°C, 50 ± 4% R.H. and L12:D12 h photoperiod. Adult females and males of N. cucumeris were able to feed and sustain oviposition on eggs and 1st instar larvae of T. absoluta, and could be an effective biocontrol agent against T. absoluta. The N. cucumeris had a clear preference for eggs compared to 1st instar larvae of T. absoluta. The results showed the obvious effect of the temperature on the consumption rate of the predatory mite. The maximum daily consumption rate occurred during the oviposition period, when the females of the predatory mite consumed an average of 4.26 eggs and 2.44 1st instar larvae of T. absoluta. In general, total fecundity was high with T. absoluta eggs as a food source when temperature increased from 22 to 32°C. The highest fecundity rate (42.92 and 20.97 eggs /female) was recorded at 32°C, while the lowest one (26.77 and 10.12 eggs / female) was recorded at 22°C, when N. cucumeris female fed on eggs and 1st instar larvae of T. absoluta, respectively. The results of this study indicated that the predatory mite, N. cucumeris can be considered a promising potential candidate for controlling the leaf miner T. absoluta, and further research is required to assess its effectiveness under greenhouse conditions.


Resumo A traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta, continua sendo uma séria ameaça às plantas solanáceas, especialmente ao tomateiro em todo o mundo. A safra de tomate na Arábia Saudita foi recentemente afetada por T. absoluta, o qual é de difícil controle por causa de suas características biológicas únicas, como alta fecundidade e potencial para desenvolver resistência a pesticidas químicos. Neste artigo, a adequação e a eficácia do ácaro predador Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), uma espécie indígena geralmente encontrada em estufas de tomate no centro-norte da Arábia Saudita, foram avaliadas em ovos e larvas de 1º instar de T. absoluta em condições de laboratório. Todos os experimentos foram conduzidos em uma incubadora em três temperaturas constantes de 22, 27 e 32°C ± 1°C, 50 ± 4% UR e fotoperíodo L12: D12 h. Fêmeas e machos adultos de N. cucumeris foram capazes de se alimentar e sustentar a oviposição em ovos e larvas de 1º instar de T. absoluta, podendo ser um agente de biocontrole eficaz contra T. absoluta. Neoseiulus cucumeris teve uma clara preferência por ovos em comparação com larvas de 1º instar de T. absoluta. Os resultados mostram que mais presas foram consumidas conforme a temperatura aumentou de 22°C para 32°C. A taxa máxima de consumo diário ocorreu durante o período de oviposição, quando as fêmeas consumiram em média 4,26 ovos e 2,44 larvas de 1º instar de T. absoluta. Em geral, a fecundidade total foi maior com ovos de T. absoluta como fonte alimentar e com o aumento da temperatura. A maior taxa de fecundidade (42,92 e 20,97 ovos por fêmea) foi registrada a 32°C, enquanto a mais baixa (26,77 e 10,12 ovos por fêmea) foi a 22°C, quando N. cucumeris se alimentou de ovos e larvas de 1º instar de T. absoluta, respectivamente. Os resultados deste estudo indicam que o ácaro predador N. cucumeris pode ser considerado um potencial candidato para o controle da traça-do-tomateiro T. absoluta, e mais pesquisas são necessárias para avaliar sua eficácia em condições de estufa.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Lycopersicon esculentum , Lepidoptera , Mites , Oviposition , Predatory Behavior , Pest Control, Biological , Larva
7.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20210050, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360569

ABSTRACT

Scorpionism is a worldwide problem that has already made thousands of victims, and multi-disciplinary approaches for controlling their populations are to be more successful. Hens are often mentioned as tools for controlling scorpions; however, systematic/experimental behavioral studies are not available. Moreover, there is no systematic information on the effect of scorpion venoms on hens. Using the venomous yellow scorpion Tityus serrulatus, the present study aimed to clarify the following aspects: (1) voracity of hens, (2) how hens react when stung, (3) the effect of scorpion stings on hen behavior during attacks, and (4) hen survivorship after feeding on scorpions. Methods: We attracted hens with corn powder, offered them scorpions and then recorded the hen-scorpion interaction. To test the effects of the sting we manually removed the scorpion's telson. Results: We found that some hens ate up to six scorpions within minutes. By means of an ethogram and drawings, we showed that they exhibited several aversive behaviors when capturing scorpions. Removal of the scorpion telson stopped the aversive reactions, which was not observed in the control group. Finally, hens did not exhibit atypical behaviors after 1, 7 and 30 days and were all alive after 30 days. Conclusion: This is the first empirical and video recorded study providing evidence that hens are clearly affected by scorpion venom but do not die. Therefore, they may have potential to be used in biological control of these arthropods.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Scorpion Venoms/poisoning , Biological Products , Scorpion Stings , Scorpions , Chickens/metabolism , Zea mays
8.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20210027, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1286051

ABSTRACT

Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner: 1818) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) is one of the main pests that affect soybean crops, causing defoliation. In the vegetative stages, defoliation occurs together with weeds, and in the reproductive stages with pathogens. In this sense, to maintain plant health, it is necessary to carry out the combined use of pesticides. Thus, this research determined the compatibility of the entomopathogenic virus AgMNPV with the main herbicides and fungicides used in soy at different times of the mixture. The artificial diet was immersed in the solutions of the pesticides and their mixtures and supplied to A. gemmatalis caterpillars, immediately and after one and two hours of mixing. The evaluation was performed by quantifying the number of dead caterpillars by mixing the AgMNPV virus with herbicides and fungicides, even after two hours of mixing if compatible. The observed scenarios showed a compatibility of the virus with the herbicides and fungicides, with mortality rates between 70 to 99% for A. gemmatalis.


Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner: 1818) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) é uma das principais pragas que acometem a cultura da soja, causando desfolha. Nos estágios vegetativos a desfolha ocorre juntamente com ervas daninhas, e no reprodutivo com patógenos. Nesse sentido, para manter a fitossanidade, é necessário realizar a utilização combinada de pesticidas. Assim, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a compatibilidade do vírus entomopatogênico AgMNPV com os principais herbicidas e fungicidas utilizados na soja em diferentes tempos de mistura. A dieta artificial foi imersa nas soluções dos pesticidas e suas misturas e fornecida às lagartas de A. gemmatalis, imediatamente e após uma e duas horas de mistura. A avaliação foi realizada quantificando o número de lagartas mortas. A mistura do vírus AgMNPV com herbicidas e fungicidas, mesmo após duas horas de mistura se mostrou compatível. Os cenários observados mostram a compatibilidade do vírus com os herbicidas e fungicidas, com percentuais de mortalidade entre 70 a 99% para A. gemmatalis.


Subject(s)
Pest Control, Biological/methods , Nucleopolyhedroviruses , Fungicides, Industrial/administration & dosage , Herbicides/administration & dosage , Lepidoptera
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939474

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Endophthalmitis is an uncommon but serious ocular infection often resulting in probable visual loss. Bacteroides fragilis is a rare cause of endophthalmitis. Patient concerns: A 46-year-old male patient complained of eye pain and low vision after pars plana vitrectomy. Diagnosis: Bacteroides fragilis endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy was diagnosed. Interventions: Pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil implantation were performed. Outcomes: Early treatment and choice of tamponade in endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy may possibly prevent evisceration and progression of endophthalmitis. Lessons: Bacteroides fragilis can be seen in cases of endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939473

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify unique immunogenic epitopes of Zika virus non-structural 1 (NS1) antigen and produce immunoglobulin Y (IgY) for potential use in he diagnosis of of Zika virus infection. Methods: Immunogenic epitopes were identified using in silico B-cell epitope prediction. A synthetic peptide analog of the predicted epitope was used to induce antipeptide IgY production in hens which was purified using affinity chromatography. Presence of purified IgY and its binding specificity were performed by gel electrophoresis and ELISA, respectively. Results: Out of the nine continuous epitopes identified, the sequence at position 193-208 (LKVREDYSLECDPAVI) was selected and used to produce anti-peptide IgY. The produced IgY was found to bind to the synthetic analog of the Zika virus NS1 immunogenic epitope but not to other flaviviruses and random peptides from other pathogens. Conclusions: In this study, we identified an immunogenic epitope unique to Zika virus that can be used to develop a serodiagnostic tool that specifically detect Zika virus infection.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939472

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the spatiotemporal distribution of Schistosoma (S.) japonicum infections in humans, livestock, and Oncomelania (O.) hupensis across the endemic foci of China. Methods: Based on multi-stage continuous downscaling of sentinel monitoring, county-based schistosomiasis surveillance data were captured from the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2005 to 2019. The data included S. japonicum infections in humans, livestock, and O. hupensis. The spatiotemporal trends for schistosomiasis were detected using a Joinpoint regression model, with a standard deviational ellipse (SDE) tool, which determined the central tendency and dispersion in the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis. Further, more spatiotemporal clusters of S. japonicum infections in humans, livestock, and O. hupensis were evaluated by the Poisson model. Results: The prevalence of S. japonicum human infections decreased from 2.06% to zero based on data of the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2005 to 2019, with a reduction from 9.42% to zero for the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in livestock, and from 0.26% to zero for the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in O. hupensis. Analysis using an SDE tool showed that schistosomiasis-affected regions were reduced yearly from 2005 to 2014 in the endemic provinces of Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, and Anhui, as well as in the Poyang and Dongting Lake regions. Poisson model revealed 11 clusters of S. japonicum human infections, six clusters of S. japonicum infections in livestock, and nine clusters of S. japonicum infections in O. hupensis. The clusters of human infection were highly consistent with clusters of S. japonicum infections in livestock and O. hupensis. They were in the 5 provinces of Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Anhui, and Jiangsu, as well as along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Humans, livestock, and O. hupensis infections with S. japonicum were mainly concentrated in the north of the Hunan Province, south of the Hubei Province, north of the Jiangxi Province, and southwestern portion of Anhui Province. In the 2 mountainous provinces of Sichuan and Yunnan, human, livestock, and O. hupensis infections with S. japonicum were mainly concentrated in the northwestern portion of the Yunnan Province, the Daliangshan area in the south of Sichuan Province, and the hilly regions in the middle of Sichuan Province. Conclusions: A remarkable decline in the disease prevalence of S. japonicum infection was observed in endemic schistosomiasis in China between 2005 and 2019. However, there remains a long-term risk of transmission in local areas, with the highest-risk areas primarily in Poyang Lake and Dongting Lake regions, requiring to focus on vigilance against the rebound of the epidemic. Development of high-sensitivity detection methods and integrating the transmission links such as human and livestock infection, wild animal infection, and O. hupensis into the surveillance-response system will ensure the elimination of schistosomiasis in China by 2030.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939471

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the resistance profiles to antimicrobial agents of wound-isolated Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa among Chinese burn patients. Methods: Electronic databases and manual search were used to identify eligible studies published since 2010. The objectives were pooled resistance rates for eleven common antimicrobial agents, estimated by a random-effects model. Subgroup analyses were conducted by stratifying the studies into three four-year periods based on year of isolation. Results: A total of 35 studies were included. Gentamicin had the highest pooled resistance rate (56%, 95% CI 48%-64%), while meropenem had the lowest pooled resistance rate (29%, 95% CI 20%-40%). There was an increasing trend of resistance to common antimicrobial agents of wound-isolated P. aeruginosa over a span of twelve years (2009-2020). There remained the highest risk of gentamicin resistance over time in China. Subgroup analyses indicated significantly higher resistances to ceftazidime and levofloxacin from 2017 to 2020. Conclusions: Enhanced resistance to common antimicrobial agents in wound-isolated P. aeruginosa presents a challenge in burn wound management in mainland China. Effective stewardship programs should be established based on corresponding resistance profiles, thereby optimizing treatment options for hospitalized burn patients.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939470

ABSTRACT

Liposomes are phospholipid bilayer vesicles, which are biocompatible, biodegradable and nontoxic vehicles suitable for numerous drug and gene delivery applications. In this review, we discuss the prospect of using liposome technology in the development of a vaccine for tuberculosis. Tuberculosis remains an important health problem that requires the development of an effective vaccine, especially since the only approved vaccine for it continues to be the Bacille Calmette-Geurin (BCG) one developed 100 years ago. This review focuses on the different applications of liposomes toward achieving this goal. Numerous liposomal formulations showing prospect in the research stage and in clinical trials are discussed.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939469

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Human myiasis is the invasion of tissue or organs by fly larvae. This could be obligatory, facultative, or accidental. Patient concerns: A 4-year-old Saudi boy complained of fever over the past three days with multiple inflamed painful dermal furuncles and worms-like discharge. Diagnosis: Furuncular obligatory myiasis caused by Wohlfahrtia magnifica. Interventions: Maggots were removed for identification. The wounds were cleaned with antiseptic dressings. Topical and oral antibiotics were applied. Outcomes: Seven days later, the wounds completely healed. Lessons: Although several reports correlated human myiasis with old age, low health status, mental retardation, and low socioeconomic status, but the patient in our case was a healthy child from a family with good socioeconomic status, good hygiene, no history of diseases or mental disability, but traveled to a village where the climate is suitable for fly breeding.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939468

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate 11 Cuban native Bacillus (B.) thuringiensis isolates in order to select one with the best larvicidal activity against Aedes (Ae.) aegypti and low cytotoxicity. Methods: The cry and cyt genes of the isolates (A21, A51, L95, L910, M29, R84, R85, R87, R89, U81 and X48) were amplified by PCR. The influence of organic matter and NaCl on the larvicidal activity was tested by bioassays. Cytotoxicity was assayed on peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice. Results: The cyt1 (Aa, Ab, Ba), cyt2, cry4aA, cry4Ba, cry11 (Aa, Ba, Bb) and cry10 genes were identified in all native Cuban isolates. The larvicidal activity (LC90) of seven isolates was affected by the presence of organic matter in the water, while A21, A51, L910, R84, U81 and X48 had better LC50, LC90, LC95 than the 266/2 9-VI-98 control strain. The LC50 of two isolates was affected by the presence of NaCl and A21, A51, R85 isolate had better larvicidal activity than the 266/2 9-VI-98 control strain. In terms of toxicity against macrophages, the extracts of nine isolates were less cytotoxic than the control strains. Conclusions: Native isolate A21 had the main virulence factors against Ae. aegypti larvae, displayed a good larvicidal activity in presence of different factors related with Ae. aegypti breeding sites, and had low citotoxicity against macrophages. These results can contribute to the improvement of existing biological control strategies and the development of new biolarvicides.

16.
Rev. bras. entomol ; 66(3): e20220035, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407493

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This work aims to evaluate the toxicity of insecticides used for stink bug control to the egg parasitoids Telenomus podisi and Trissolcus teretis. We tested ethiprole and sulfoxaflor + lambda-cyhalothrin in comparison with thiamethoxam + lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorpyrifos. Three independent bioassays were conducted in the laboratory and repeated for each parasitoid species, to evaluate the effect of insecticides on pupal and adult stages of the parasitoids and the effects of insecticide sprays on host eggs prior to parasitism. Ethiprole at concentrations of 100 and 133.3 g/100 L H2O was classified as harmless (class 1), according to the International Organization of Biological Control to both pupae and adults of T. podisi. When tested against T. teretis, ethiprole was classified as harmless (class 1) and slightly harmful (class 2), but it still was the most selective pesticide among the studied chemicals. When adult parasitoids of both species were exposed to sprayed host eggs, parasitism rates were similar. The other treatments triggered more severe negative side effects to the parasitoids, especially to adults. Overall, ethiprole was the least toxic compound among the studied products and should be preferred in integrated pest management aimed at preserving these biocontrol agents, while the other tested insecticides should be evaluated under semi-field and field conditions to verify their higher toxicity.

17.
Rev. bras. entomol ; 66(1): e20210045, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387819

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Three parasitoid species Aphidius colemani, Aphidius matricariae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Aphelinus abdominalis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) were evaluated concerning their parasitism potential in two aphid species, Aphis glycines and Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The feeding of these two aphid species, even at low sums, can significantly damage photosynthesis and is found to transmit many kinds of plant viruses, which impact potential adverse effects on the plants. The overall parasitization on all nymphal ages in As. glycines was accomplished by Ad. colemani (60.50%), Ad. matricariae (49.16%) and Al. abdominalis (40%), while in As. gossypii parasitism exhibited by Ad. colemani (79.48%), Ad. matricariae (65.33%) and Al. abdominalis (58.83%). Aphelinus abdominalis exhibited the lowest parasitism in both given species as hosts. Significant differences in parasitism of different parasitoids and host species were observed. Concerning the preference of nymphal instars, we found that parasitoids species prefer to parasitize 1st- 4th instars in As. gossypii while in As. glycines 2nd, 1st, 3rd and 4th. Our results showed that the parasitism increases with the increase of parasitoid numbers and hosts densities.

18.
Rev. bras. entomol ; 66(2): e20210086, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387820

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma are promising for the biological control of insect pests in several crops, including cassava, which is severely attacked by Erinnyis ello L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Evaluating the biological aspects of these parasitoids to understand their dynamics is an important step towards the implementation of this control strategy in the field. Thus, our objective was to evaluate the biology of Trichogramma manicobai Brun, Moraes & Soares, 1984, and T. marandobai Brun, Moraes & Soares, 1986 in E. ello eggs. The parasitoids were obtained by collecting E. ello eggs from a commercial production of cassava, and the host's eggs were obtained from laboratory and greenhouse rearings. The average duration of a generation (T), net reproduction rate (R0), intrinsic rate of increase (rm), and the finite rate of increase (λ) were estimated, and from these, the fertility life table was calculated. The results indicated that T. marandobai has both higher net reproduction rate and a higher intrinsic rate of increase as well as requires less time to double its population than T. manicobai. Thus, T. marandobai has potential for natural and conservative biological control of E. ello. In addition, its potential in applied biological control should be evaluated through studies on the viability of its mass rearing in alternative hosts and its dispersion behavior in the field.

19.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238772, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249276

ABSTRACT

Abstract Necrophagous flies are of great importance for human and animal health. In places where their development occurs, parasitoids can be used as a tool to control these dipterans. In Brazil, the fauna of these parasitoids has been investigated in some regions. However, in Rio Grande do Sul, it is known the occurrence of only one species. Thus, this study aimed to create the first list of parasitoids in flies of medical and veterinary importance in Southern Brazil. Collections took place in the municipality of Pelotas (31º 42' S; 52º 18' W). Three replicates consisting of a 500 g bovine liver chunk placed in a tray were exposed to open air for 20 days. Then pupae were individualized and observed until their emergence. We identified 4,882 adult flies of Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, and Sarcophagidae. 4,040 parasitoids emerged, belonging to eight species, of which Nasonia vitripennis, Spalangia cameroni, Spalangia chontalensis, and Tachinephagus zealandicus are new records in Rio Grande do Sul state. Also, three undescribed species of the genus Aphaereta were collected. In spite of being the first attempt to inventory the fauna of hymenopteran parasitoids, this study may help in the development of management programs of these dipterans in the region.


Resumo Moscas necrófagas possuem grande importância para a sanidade humana e animal. Onde estas se desenvolvem ocorrem parasitoides que podem ser utilizados como ferramentas para o controle desses dípteros. No Brasil, a fauna desses parasitoides vem sendo investigada em algumas regiões e no Rio Grande do Sul é conhecida a ocorrência de apenas uma espécie. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi criar a primeira lista de espécies de parasitoides de moscas de importância médica e veterinária ocorrentes no extremo sul do Brasil. As coletas foram realizadas no município de Pelotas (31º 42' S; 52º 18' O). Foram montadas três réplicas de bandejas contendo, cada uma, 500 g de fígado bovino, expostas ao ar livre durante 20 dias. Na sequência, as pupas foram individualizadas e observadas até a emergência. Foram identificados 4.882 adultos pertencentes às famílias Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Muscidae e Sarcophagidae. Emergiram 4.040 parasitoides, pertencentes a oito espécies, das quais Nasonia vitripennis, Spalangia cameroni, Spalangia chontalensis e Tachinephagus zealandicus são novas ocorrências para o Rio Grande do Sul. Foram coletadas três espécies ainda não descritas do gênero Aphaereta. Apesar de ainda ser um primeiro esforço de inventariar a fauna de himenópteros parasitoides, este estudo pode auxiliar no desenvolvimento de programas de manejos desses dípteros na região.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Diptera , Hymenoptera , Pupa , Brazil , Cattle , Cities
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e239639, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249218

ABSTRACT

Abstract Among the plants defense mechanisms, the induction and emission of volatile organic compounds, which can be used to attract natural enemies, such predators insects. Although well studied, the induction of plant volatiles that attract natural enemies can vary according to intensity of infestation of herbivores and the species of host plant. We investigated the olfactory behavioral responses of the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to the volatiles of infested maize (Zea mays) plants by the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Koch, 1836) (Acari: Tetranychidae) in early and advanced infestations. The Bt (Viptera) maize cultivar Impact® was used for tests the behavior of N. californicus. After initial and advanced infestations, the phytophagous mites T. urticae were removed, and the plants were tested using a "Y" olfactometer. The following treatments were evaluated: air vs. air, uninfested plants vs. air, uninfested plants vs. plants infested with 10 females of T. urticae, uninfested plants vs. plants infested with 100 females of T. urticae, uninfested plants vs. plants infested with 200 females of T. urticae and plants infested with 10 vs. plants infested with 200 females of T. urticae. The predatory mite N. californicus did not show preference to the treatments tested, suggesting that maize plants infested by T. urticae do not induce volatiles capable of attracting the predatory mite N. californicus. We concluded that N. californicus is not attracted by maize plants infested by T. urticae.


Resumo Dentre os mecanismos de defesa de plantas, a indução e emissão de compostos orgânicos voláteis, podem ser utilizados para atrair inimigos naturais, como insetos predadores. Embora bem estudada, a indução dos voláteis de plantas que atraem inimigos naturais pode variar de acordo com a intensidade de infestação de herbívoros e a espécie de planta hospedeira. Investigamos as respostas comportamentais olfativas do ácaro predador Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) aos voláteis de plantas infestadas pelo ácaro-rajado Tetranychus urticae (Koch, 1836) (Acari: Tetranychidae). A cultivar de milho Bt (Viptera) Impact® foi utilizada para testar o comportamento de N. californicus. Após infestações iniciais e avançadas, os ácaros fitófagos T. urticae foram removidos e as plantas testadas em olfatômetro "Y". Os seguintes tratamentos foram avaliados: ar vs. ar, plantas não infestadas vs. ar, plantas não infestadas vs. plantas infestadas com 10 fêmeas de T. urticae, plantas não infestadas vs. plantas infestadas com 100 fêmeas de T. urticae, plantas não infestadas vs. plantas infestadas com 200 fêmeas de T. urticae e plantas infestadas com 10 vs. plantas infestadas com 200 fêmeas de T. urticae. O ácaro predador N. californicus não mostrou preferência aos tratamentos testados, sugerindo que plantas de milho infestadas por T. urticae não induzem voláteis capazes de atrair o ácaro predador N. californicus. Concluímos que N. californicus não é atraído por plantas de milho infestadas por T. urticae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Tetranychidae , Acari , Mites , Predatory Behavior , Smell , Zea mays
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