Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 47
Filter
1.
Med. U.P.B ; 43(1): 22-46, ene.-jun. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1531454

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: revisar la literatura existente indagando por los tipos de lesión o enfermedad que se han identificado en supervivientes de artefactos explosivos improvisados (AEI), así como aspectos individuales y colectivos relacionados con la protección o destrucción de la salud humana enfrentada a los AEI. Metodología: revisión sistemática exploratoria de literatura publicada en bases de datos, como PubMed, SciELO, LILACS, JSTOR, OpenGrey y Google Scholar, entre 2001 a 2021 en cualquier localización geográfica. Se incluyeron artículos de investigación, de revisión o reflexión, libros o capítulos de libro de investigación e informes técnicos, en inglés, español, francés y portugués. Resultados: cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión y fueron revisados 76 documentos. Se han reportado múltiples lesiones asociadas al uso de los AEI, sin que exista un patrón característico de lesión o enfermedad; no obstante, la lesión más común es la amputación bilateral de miembros inferiores. En supervivientes se ha encontrado que el personal militar afectado suele mostrar una mayor capacidad de resiliencia, calidad de vida, tratamiento oportuno y capacidad física funcional más alta, comparado con civiles. El apoyo social genera efectos positivos en la salud y bienestar de los afectados. Conclusiones: los AEI generan múltiples afectaciones a la salud humana, físicas y psicosociales, los cuales requieren una atención integral y multidisciplinaria para el tratamiento, rehabilitación y reintegración de los supervivientes. Los aspectos protectores y destructivos identificados se encuentran asociados a mejores o peores resultados en la salud, existe una representación desigual entre civiles y militares.


Objective: to review the existing literature where we inquired for injury types or illness identified in victims of improvised explosive devices (IED), and also to look for individual and collective processes described in literature in relation with the protection or destruction of human's health and IEDs. Methodology: exploratory systematic review of the literature published on PubMed, SciELO, LILACS, JSTOR, OpenGrey and Google Scholar databases between 2001 and 2022, in any geographic location. We included research, review and opinion articles, books and book chapters reporting research results, and final technical reports in English, Spanish, French and Portuguese. Results: 76 documents met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Multiple types of injuries have been reported in relation with the use of IEDs, without a characteristic pattern of injury or disease reported; however, the most common injury is bilateral lower limb amputation. In survivors it has been found that affected military personnel tend to show greater resilience capacity, better quality of life, timely treatment, and higher functional physical capacity, compared to civilians. Social support generates positive health effects and wellness of people affected by IED. Conclusion: IEDs generate multiple effects on human health, both physical and psychosocial, which is why comprehensive and multidisciplinary care is required for the treatment, rehabilitation, and reintegration of their victims. The protective and destructive processes identified are associated with better or worse health outcomes, with unequal representation between civilians and military personnel.


Objetivo: Revisar a literatura existente investigando os tipos de lesão ou doença que foram identificados em sobreviventes de artefatos explosivos improvisados ​​(IED), bem como aspectos individuais e coletivos relacionados à proteção ou destruição da saúde humana diante de IEDs. Metodologia: Revisão sistemática exploratória da literatura publicada nas bases de dados Pubmed, Scielo, Lilacs, JSTORE, Open Gray e Google Acadêmico, entre 2001 e 2021 em qualquer localidade geográfica. Foram incluídos artigos de pesquisa, revisão ou reflexão, livros ou capítulos de livros de pesquisa, relatórios técnicos, em inglês, espanhol, francês e português. Resultados: Atenderam aos critérios de inclusão e foram revisados ​​76 documentos. Múltiplas lesões associadas ao uso de IEDs foram relatadas, sem um padrão característico de lesão ou doença; entretanto, a lesão mais comum é a amputação bilateral de membros inferiores. Nos sobreviventes, verificou-se que os militares acometidos tendem a apresentar maior resiliência, qualidade de vida, tratamento oportuno e maior capacidade física funcional, em comparação aos civis. O apoio social gera efeitos positivos na saúde e bem-estar das pessoas afetadas. Conclusões: Os IEDs geram múltiplos efeitos na saúde humana, física e psicossocial, que requerem atenção integral e multidisciplinar para o tratamento, reabilitação e reintegração dos sobreviventes. Os aspectos protetores e destrutivos identificados estão associados a melhores ou piores resultados de saúde, com representação desigual entre civis e militares.


Subject(s)
Humans
2.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 87(6): e2022, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1513693

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: This study aimed to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of victims of fireworkrelated ocular trauma treated at the ophthalmologic emergency de partments of two reference centers in Pernambuco, Brazil, and to identify risk factors related to poor visual prognosis. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of patients admitted in emergency departments with a report of firework-related trauma between January 2012 and December 2018. Data collected included patient's age, sex, place of origin, month and year of the accident, ocular structures affected, characteristics of the injuries, and type of treatment that patients received. For patients who were followed for >30 days, the final visual acuity and patient's origin were analyzed. Results: Three hundred and seventy eyes from 314 patients were included, of which 248 (79.0%) were male and 160 (51.0%) were from the metropolitan region of Recife. The mean patient age was 25.6 ± 18.8 years. In 56 (17.8%) patients, the ocular trauma was bilateral. A total of 152 (48.4%) cases occurred in June. The most affected sites were the eyelids in 91 (24.6%) eyes and ocular surface in 252 (68.1%). Surgical treatment was required in 87 (23.5%) eyes. After clinical and surgical management, 37 (10.0%) eyes presented final visual acuity of <20/400. Of these, 34 (91.9%) eyes were from patients from the countryside or from another state. Patients from the countryside presented higher risk of developing blindness after a firework trauma than those from the metropolitan area (odds ratio of 5.46). Conclusions: Victims of firework-related ocular trauma were mostly male, from the metropolitan region of Pernambuco state and mainly pediatric patients or economically active. Those coming from the countryside and other states had higher risk of developing blindness


RESUMO Objetivos: Descrever as características demográficas e clínicas das vítimas de trauma ocular por fogos de artifício atendidas nas emergências oftalmológicas de dois centros de referência em Pernambuco e identificar fatores relacionados a mau prognóstico visual. Métodos: Avaliação retrospectiva dos prontuários de pacientes admitidos na emergência oftalmológica com história de trauma por fogos de artifício entre janeiro de 2012 e dezembro de 2018. A coleta de dados incluiu idade, gênero, procedência, mês e ano do acidente, estruturas oculares acometidas e características das lesões, além do tipo de tratamento a que os pacientes foram submetidos. Naqueles pacientes acompanhados por mais de 30 dias, analisou-se a acuidade visual final e a associação com sua procedência. Resultados: Foram incluídos 370 olhos de 314 pacientes. Destes, 248 (79,0%) vítimas eram do sexo masculino e 160 (51,0%) da região metropolitana do Recife, com uma média de idade de 25.6 ± 18.8 anos. Em 56 (17,8%) dos casos o trauma foi bilateral. No mês de junho ocorreu um total de 152 (48,4%) casos. Os sítios mais acometidos foram pálpebras em 91 (24,6%) olhos e superfície ocular em 252 (68,1%). O tratamento cirúrgico foi necessário em 87 (23,5%) olhos. Após manejo clínico-cirúrgico, 37 (10.0%) olhos desenvolveram visão pior do que 20/400. Destes, 34 (91,9%) olhos eram de pacientes do interior do estado de Pernambuco ou de outro estado. Os pacientes provenientes do interior do estado apresentaram maior chance de desenvolver cegueira quando comparados aos que eram provenientes da região metropolitana (Odds Ratio de 5,46). Conclusões: As vítimas de trauma ocular por fogos de artificio foram em sua maioria do sexo masculino, procedentes da região metropolitana do estado e das faixas etárias pediátrica e economicamente ativa. Aqueles provenientes do interior ou de outros estados apresentaram maior chance de desenvolver cegueira.

3.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 139-146, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981919

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#High explosives are used to produce blast waves to study their biological effects. The lungs are considered as the critical target organ in blast-effect studies. The degree of lung hemorrhaging is related to both the explosive power and the increased lung weight. We studied the characteristics of the biological effects from an air explosion of a thermobaric bomb in a high-altitude environment and the lethality and lung injury severity of goats in different orientations and distances.@*METHODS@#Goats were placed at 2.5, 3, 4, and 5 m from the explosion center and exposed them to an air blast at an altitude of 4700-meter. A group of them standing oriented to the right side and the other group seated facing the explosion center vertically. The lung injuries were quantified according to the percentage of surface area contused, and using the pathologic severity scale of lung blast injury (PSSLBI) to score the 4 injury categories (slight, moderate, serious and severe) as 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The lung coefficient (lung weight [g]/body weight [kg]) was the indicator of pulmonary edema and was related to lung injury severity. Blast overpressure data were collected using blast test devices placed at matching locations to represent loadings to goats. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, version 26.0, statistical software (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).@*RESULTS@#In total, 127 goats were involved in this study. Right-side-standing goats had a significantly higher mortality rate than those seated vertical-facing (p < 0.05). At the 2.5 m distance, the goat mortality was nearly 100%, whereas at 5 m, all the goats survived. Lung injuries of the right-side-standing goats were 1 - 2 grades more serious than those of seated goats at the same distances, the scores of PSSLBI were significantly higher than the seated vertical-facing goats (p < 0.05). The lung coefficient of the right-side-standing goats were significantly higher than those of seated vertical-facing (p < 0.05). Mortality, PSSLBI, and the lung coefficient results indicated that the right-side-standing goats experienced severer injuries than the seated vertical-facing goats, and the injuries were lessened as the distance increased. The blast overpressure was consistent with these results.@*CONCLUSION@#The main killing factors of the thermobaric bomb in the high-altitude environment were blast overpressure, blast wind propulsions and burn. The orientation and distances of the goats significantly affected the blast injury severity. These results may provide a research basis for diagnosing, treating and protecting against injuries from thermobaric explosions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lung Injury/etiology , Blast Injuries , Goats , Explosions , Lung/pathology
4.
Chinese Journal of Practical Nursing ; (36): 1105-1109, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990303

ABSTRACT

Objective:To summarize the precision fluid management of patients with severe blast injury in the emergency intensive care unit, so as to help patients smoothly pass through the dangerous period and recover smoothly.Methods:Based on the experience of fluid management in 6 patients admitted to the Second Affiliated Hospital Zhejiang University School of Medicine in the tanker truck explosion on 14 June, 2020. The main measures included: fluid volume management and dynamic adjustment; assessment of intake, output and urine volume, and dynamic adjustment of infusion volume and speed; monitoring of pulmonary oxygenation and timely adjustment of fluid resuscitation strategies; monitoring indexes and providing nursing care strategies for fluid management.Results:Finally, among 6 patients with severe blast injury, 5 patients were discharged from the hospital with follow-up treatment after they suffered from the shock and infection phases and refined fluid management, 1 patient died due to severe injury and ineffective rescue.Conclusions:Adopting individualized, phased, and refined liquid management strategy has clinical significance for patients with severe blast injury to smoothly pass the risk period.

5.
Med. UIS ; 35(2): e300, mayo-ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1422044

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los artefactos explosivos improvisados son armas no convencionales que pueden provocar múltiples lesiones y dejar esquirlas a modo de cuerpos extraños que pueden contener metales tóxicos, con potencial afectación a la salud de las víctimas según reportes datados desde 1977, los cuales mencionan alta mortalidad por cáncer y otros síntomas compatibles con toxicidad crónica Objetivo: Describir los resultados de investigación que informen sobre la toxicidad crónica producida por metales en personas víctimas de artefactos explosivos improvisados con esquirlas internalizadas, y sus posibles relaciones con cáncer. Metodología: Revisión sistemática exploratoria de literatura publicada y gris que se realizó entre los meses de marzo a mayo de 2021 en diferentes repositorios de tesis y bases de datos (Scielo, Pubmed, Academic Search Complete, JSTOR, Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, Freepdf, Google Académico, Open Grey); sin límite temporal o geográfico. Se incluyeron artículos originales de revistas indexadas o informes finales no publicados, correspondientes a investigaciones científicas con texto completo, en inglés, español y portugués. Resultados: De 56 documentos evaluados, solamente tres cumplieron criterios de inclusión. Todos estaban escritos en idioma inglés. Solo un estudio iraquí abordó población civil y los otros trabajos aludían a veteranos norteamericanos. Los niveles elevados de metales tóxicos, asociados con alteraciones tisulares circunscritas, fueron hallazgos recurrentes. No hubo reportes de patologías instauradas o manejos clínicos. Conclusión: Fue escasa la evidencia científica recabada; sin embargo, sí se han reportado cambios tisulares circundantes a esas esquirlas. Se considera necesario realizar más estudios relacionados con el tema, incluyendo seguimientos a largo plazo de las afectaciones tisulares detectadas.


Abstract Introduction: Improvised explosive devices are unconventionalweapons that can cause multiple injuries and splinters internalized containing heavy metals, potentially affecting the victim's health, according to reports dating from 1977, which mention high mortality from cancer and other symptoms suggestive of chronic metal toxicity. Objective: To describe the research results that report on the chronic toxicity produced by heavy metals in people who are victims of improvised explosive devices with internalized splinters, and its possible links with cancer. Methodology: Systematic exploratory review of published and grey literature which was carried out between march and may of 2021, in thesis repositories and different databases (Scielo, Pubmed, Academic Search Complete, JSTOR, Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, Freepdf, Google Académico, Open Grey); without time or geographical limit. Original articles from indexed scientific research journals or unpublished final reports were included, corresponding to scientific research with full text, in english, spanish and portuguese. Results: 56 documents were evaluated, three were selected fulfilling the inclusion criteria. They were all written in the english language. Only one Iraqi study addressed the civilian population and the other studies referred to North American veterans. Elevated heavy metal levels, associated with circumscribed tissue abnormalities, were recurrent findings. There were no reports of established pathologies or clinical management. Conclusion: The scientific evidence was scarce; as well as its relationship with established cancer, however, tissue changing surrounding these splinters have been reported. It is considered necessary to carry out more studies related to the subject, including long-term follow-up of detected tissue damage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blast Injuries , Toxicity Tests, Chronic , Review Literature as Topic , Metals, Heavy , Armed Conflicts , Neoplasms
6.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 1132-1140, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992562

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the changes of cognitive function in non-fatal drowning rats after blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI).Methods:Eighty SD rats were divided into normal group, bTBI group, drowning group and bTBI plus drowning group according to the random number table, with 20 rats per group. Rats in normal group were not injured. In bTBI group, bTBI was established in a BST-I biological shock tube with a pressure of 4.0 MPa in the driving section. In drowning group, rats were subjected to non-fatal drowning by falling into the water with temperature of 18 ℃ and depth of 30 cm from the height of 1 m and were taken out quickly after swimming to exhaustion. After being injured in a biological shock tube, rats in bTBI plus drowning group were immediately forced to drowning using the same method. On day 3 post-injury, the neurocognitive function was evaluated by elevated plus maze and Morris water maze tests. Morphological changes of neurons in CA1 and CA3 regions of hippocampus were observed by Nissl staining, and the number of surviving neurons were counted. The concentrations of hippocampal neurotransmitters glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) related glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and caspase-12 were examined by ELISA analysis. Levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated protein (Bax) and caspase-3 were detected by Western blotting. The ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax was calculated as well.Results:In elevated plus maze test, the percentage of open arm entry and number of head-dipping behaviour were decreased in bTBI plus drowning group compared with normal and bTBI groups at 3 days after injury ( P<0.05 or 0.01), with no statistical difference from those in drowning group ( P>0.05). The number of head-dipping behaviour in drowning group was lower than that in bTBI group ( P<0.05). In Morris water maze test, bTBI plus drowning group showed increased target latency on the third and fourth days of spatial acquisition training and decreased number of crossing the target area and percentage of swimming time in the target quadrant during probe trials as compared with normal group ( P<0.05 or 0.01), but there was no statistical difference among bTBI, drowning and normal groups (all P>0.05). Nissl staining showed that the neurons in the CA1 and CA3 regions of hippocampus in normal group were arranged neatly with clear Nissl bodies at 3 days after injury, while the other groups showed different degrees of injury. In contrast with normal group, the neurons in the CA1 and CA3 regions of hippocampus in all other groups were decreased with the lowest number in bTBI plus drowning groups ( P<0.05 or 0.01). In ELISA analysis, the level of hippocampal glutamate in bTBI plus drowning group was higher than that in all other groups at 3 days after injury and the level in bTBI injury and drowning groups was higher than that in normal group ( P<0.05 or 0.01); the level of hippocampal glycine in bTBI plus drowning group was lower than that in normal group ( P<0.05), but there was no statistical difference among bTBI, drowning or normal groups (all P>0.05); the concentration of hippocampal GABA had no statistical difference among all groups (all P>0.05). In addition, the concentration of GRP78 in bTBI injury, drowning and bTBI injury plus drowning groups were increased compared with normal group ( P<0.05 or 0.01), but did not statistically differ from each other (all P>0.05). The concentration of caspase-12 in drowning and bTBI plus drowning groups were increased compared with normal group ( P<0.05 or 0.01), but was not statistically different from each other ( P>0.05), and its concentration in bTBI plus drowning group was increased compared with bTBI group ( P<0.05). In Western blotting, the level of Bcl-2 in bTBI plus drowning group was decreased compared with all other groups at 3 days after injury, and the level in bTBI and drowning groups were decreased compared with normal group, but a much lower level was observed in drowning group than that in bTBI group ( P<0.05 or 0.01); the level of Bax in bTBI plus drowning group was increased compared with all other groups at 3 days after injury, and the level in drowning group was increased compared with normal group ( P<0.05 or 0.01), with no statistical difference between bTBI and drowning groups ( P>0.05). The ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax in bTBI plus drowning group was decreased compared with all other groups, while the ratio in bTBI and drowning groups were decreased compared with normal group, showing a much lower level in drowning group than that in bTBI group ( P<0.05 or 0.01). Also, the level of caspase-3 in drowning and bTBI plus drowning groups were increased compared with normal and bTBI groups ( P<0.05 or 0.01), but there was no statistical difference between drowning and bTBI plus drowning groups ( P>0.05). Conclusions:Non-fatal drowning can aggravate hippocampal neuron damage in bTBI rats and cause memory, emotion and other cognitive dysfunction. The mechanism may involve the imbalance of hippocampal neurotransmitters glutamate and glycine, which activates the downstream pro-apoptotic pathway through ERS in the early stage of injury to induce hippocampal neuron apoptosis.

7.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 11-22, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932205

ABSTRACT

Blast injury of the chest injury is the most common wound in modern war trauma and terrorist attacks, and is also the most fatal type of whole body explosion injury. Most patients with severe blast injury of the chest die in the early stage before hospitalization or during transportation, so first aid is critically important. At present, there exist widespread problems such as non-standard treatment and large difference in curative effect, while there lacks clinical treatment standards for blast injury of the chest. According to the principles of scientificity, practicality and advancement, the Trauma Society of Chinese Medical Association has formulated the guidance of classification, pre-hospital first aid, in-hospital treatment and major injury management strategies for blast injury of the chest, aiming to provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

8.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 992-998, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-956532

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare the clinical efficacy of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and ventilation therapy in the treatment of severe blast lung injury.Methods:A retrospective cohort study was conducted to analyze the clinical data of 37 patients with severe blast lung injury admitted to 909th Hospital of Joint Logistics Support Force (Affiliated Dongnan Hospital of Xianmen University Medical College) from January 2000 to December 2021, including 23 males and 14 females; aged 26-50 years [(36.3±11.1)years]. The chest abbreviated injury score (AIS) was 3-5 points. In all, 16 patients were treated with ECMO from January 2017 to December 2021 (ECMO group) and 21 with ventilator from January 2000 to December 2016 (ventilator group). Blood gas analysis indexes [arterial pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO 2), partial pressure of oxygen (PaO 2), blood lactate (Lac)] and hemodynamics indexes [central venous pressure (CVP), cardiac output index (CI), pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PAWP)] were compared in the two groups at 30 minutes before treatment and at 2, 4, 6 hours after treatment. The mechanical ventilation time, ICU length of stay, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score and mortality were measured at 7 days after treatment. Results:All patients were followed up for 24-48 months [(33.6±8.2)months]. The blood gas analysis and hemodynamic indexes were significantly improved in the two groups at 2, 4, 6 hours after treatment when compared with those at 30 minutes before treatment (all P<0.05), and the improvements were still statistically significant in ECMO group at 4, 6 hours after treatment when compared with those at 2 hours after treatment (all P<0.05), while not in ventilator group (all P>0.05). There was no significant difference in blood gas analysis indexes or hemodynamic indexes between the two groups at 30 minutes before treatment (all P>0.05). After treatment for 2, 4, 6 hours, blood gas analysis indexes and hemodynamic indexes in ECMO group were statistically different from those in ventilator group (all P<0.05). After treatment for 7 days, the mechanical ventilation time, ICU length of stay, APACHE II score and mortality were (3.2±1.2)days, (5.4±1.3)days, (14.1±3.3)points and 12.5% (2/16) in ECMO group, significantly different from (5.1±1.6)days, (7.6±1.6)days, (10.2±2.6)days and 28.6% (6/21) in ventilator group (all P<0.05). Conclusion:For severe blast lung injury, ECMO can attain rapid and continuous improvement of refractory hypoxemia and dyspnea, shorten the duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU length of stay and reduce the mortality rate when compared with ventilator therapy.

9.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(4): 677-681, 20210000. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291235

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El Registro Colombiano de Víctimas de Lesiones por Minas Antipersona fue lanzado por el gobierno de Colombia con el objetivo de recolectar información sobre los casos de heridos por minas antipersona en el país. El propósito de este estudio fue investigar las disparidades de mortalidad entre las víctimas de lesiones por minas antipersona, en función de la pertenencia a una minoría étnica. Métodos. Se hizo una regresión logística multivariable para examinar la asociación entre minorías étnicas y mortalidad en las personas heridas por minas antipersona. Resultados. Se registraron 10.306 casos de lesiones por minas antipersona, de los cuales 430 eran personas pertenecientes a grupos étnicos minoritarios (indígenas o afrodescendientes). De estos, 85 (19,7 %) eran mujeres, 156 (36,2 %) eran menores de 18 años y 427 (99,3%) vivían en áreas rurales. La mortalidad fue significativamente mayor (29,3 %) en comparación con la población mestiza (18,5 %; p < 0,001). Después de ajustar por sexo, edad, soldado en servicio activo, área rural y volumen de casos por departamento, encontramos que las minorías étnicas tenían mayores probabilidades de morir (OR = 2,03; IC95% 1,61- 2,56; p < 0,001).Discusión. Encontramos una asociación entre la pertenencia a una minoría étnica y una mayor probabilidad de mortalidad con lesiones causadas por minas antipersona. Estos hallazgos deberían alentar a los legisladores de las zonas rurales de Colombia a trabajar más diligentemente, para reducir las consecuencias nocivas de las lesiones causadas por estos artefactos en los grupos étnicos minoritarios


Introduction. The Colombian Victims of Antipersonnel Mines Injuries registry was launched by the Colombian government with the objective of collecting information on all the cases of injuries caused by antipersonnel landmines in the country. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mortality disparities among ethnic minority victims of antipersonnel landmine injuries.Methods. A multivariate logistic regression was performed to examine the association between ethnic minorities and mortality in people injured by antipersonnel mines. Results. A total of 10,306 cases of injuries caused by antipersonnel landmines were registered, of which 430 were people belonging to minority ethnic groups (indigenous or Afro-descendant). Of these, 85 (19.7%) were women and 156 (36.2%) were under 18 years of age. Almost all people from ethnic minority groups were located in rural areas (n=427, 99.3%) and mortality was significantly higher compared to the mestizo population (mestizo 18.5% vs. individuals from ethnic minorities 29, 3%; p <0.001). After adjusting for sex, age group, active duty soldier status, rural area, and case volume for each geographic department, we found that ethnic minorities were more likely to die after suffering an antipersonnel mine injury (OR = 2.03; 95% CI 1.61-2.56; p <0.001). Discussion. We found an association between belonging to an ethnic minority and a higher probability of mortality with injuries caused by antipersonnel mines. These findings should encourage legislators in rural Colombia to work more diligently to reduce the harmful consequences of injuries caused by these devices in ethnic minority groups


Subject(s)
Humans , Blast Injuries , Ethnicity , Health Status Disparities , Wounds and Injuries , Mortality , Colombia
10.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(4): 677-681, 20210000. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365769

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. El Registro Colombiano de Víctimas de Lesiones por Minas Antipersona fue lanzado por el gobierno de Colombia con el objetivo de recolectar información sobre los casos de heridos por minas antipersona en el país. El propósito de este estudio fue investigar las disparidades de mortalidad entre las víctimas de lesiones por minas antipersona, en función de la pertenencia a una minoría étnica. Métodos. Se hizo una regresión logística multivariable para examinar la asociación entre minorías étnicas y mortalidad en las personas heridas por minas antipersona. Resultados. Se registraron 10.306 casos de lesiones por minas antipersona, de los cuales 430 eran personas pertenecientes a grupos étnicos minoritarios (indígenas o afrodescendientes). De estos, 85 (19,7 %) eran mujeres, 156 (36,2 %) eran menores de 18 años y 427 (99,3%) vivían en áreas rurales. La mortalidad fue significativamente mayor (29,3 %) en comparación con la población mestiza (18,5 %; p < 0,001). Después de ajustar por sexo, edad, soldado en servicio activo, área rural y volumen de casos por departamento, encontramos que las minorías étnicas tenían mayores probabilidades de morir (OR = 2,03; IC95% 1,61- 2,56; p < 0,001). Discusión. Encontramos una asociación entre la pertenencia a una minoría étnica y una mayor probabilidad de mortalidad con lesiones causadas por minas antipersona. Estos hallazgos deberían alentar a los legisladores de las zonas rurales de Colombia a trabajar más diligentemente, para reducir las consecuencias nocivas de las lesiones causadas por estos artefactos en los grupos étnicos minoritarios.


Abstract Introduction. The Colombian Victims of Antipersonnel Mines Injuries registry was launched by the Colombian government with the objective of collecting information on all the cases of injuries caused by antipersonnel landmines in the country. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mortality disparities among ethnic minority victims of antipersonnel landmine injuries. Methods. A multivariate logistic regression was performed to examine the association between ethnic minorities and mortality in people injured by antipersonnel mines. Results. A total of 10,306 cases of injuries caused by antipersonnel landmines were registered, of which 430 were people belonging to minority ethnic groups (indigenous or Afro-descendant). Of these, 85 (19.7%) were women and 156 (36.2%) were under 18 years of age. Almost all people from ethnic minority groups were located in rural areas (n=427, 99.3%) and mortality was significantly higher compared to the mestizo population (mestizo 18.5% vs. individuals from ethnic minorities 29, 3%; p <0.001). After adjusting for sex, age group, active duty soldier status, rural area, and case volume for each geographic department, we found that ethnic minorities were more likely to die after suffering an antipersonnel mine injury (OR = 2.03; 95% CI 1.61-2.56; p <0.001). Discussion. We found an association between belonging to an ethnic minority and a higher probability of mortality with injuries caused by antipersonnel mines. These findings should encourage legislators in rural Colombia to work more diligently to reduce the harmful consequences of injuries caused by these devices in ethnic minority groups.


Subject(s)
Wounds and Injuries , Blast Injuries , Occupational Mortality , Ethnicity , Health Status Disparities
11.
Academic Journal of Second Military Medical University ; (12): 551-557, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837869

ABSTRACT

Blast wave can stimulate the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system, leading to the changes of autonomic nervous function. It can also damage the hypothalamus and pituitary, and activate the hypothalamic-pituitarytarget gland axis and the locus ceruleus-sympathetic-adrenal medulla axis, resulting in the changes of endocrine level. In addition, it can activate inflammatory cells, synthesize and release different inflammatory mediators, resulting in the changes of inflammatory response. This paper reviews the changes and interactions of autonomic nervous function, endocrine level and inflammatory response in blast wave injury, and further explains the injury mechanism of blase wave, providing references for the treatment of blast wave injury..

12.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(10): 896-903, Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973463

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the apoptotic mechanisms in rabbits with blast-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Methods: A total of 40 rabbits were randomly divided into a blank control group (A, n=10) and an experimental group (EXP, n=30). Explosion-induced chest-ALI models were prepared and sampled at different time points (4, 12, and 24h after modeling, T1-T3) to test the lung dry weight/wet weight ratio (W/D) and arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2), apoptosis of lung tissue by the TUNEL assay, and Caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 levels by immunohistochemical analysis. Furthermore, lung tissue was sampled to observe pathological morphology by microscopy. Results: Under a light microscope, Group EXP exhibited obvious edema in the pulmonary interstitial substance and alveoli, a large number of red blood cells, inflammatory cells, and serous exudation in the alveolar cavity, as well as thickening of the pulmonary interstitial fluid. Compared to Group A, the W/D ratio was significantly increased in Group EXP (P<0.01), while PaO2 was significantly reduced (P<0.01). The apoptosis index was significantly increased (P<0.01), and caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl-2 levels were increased (P<0.01). Conclusion: Apoptosis plays an important role in the occurrence and development of acute lung injury in rabbits by participating in lung injury and promoting the progression of ALI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rabbits , Blast Injuries/physiopathology , Apoptosis/physiology , Acute Lung Injury/physiopathology , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , Blast Injuries/pathology , Blast Injuries/blood , Random Allocation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/blood , Disease Models, Animal , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/blood , Caspase 3/blood , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Acute Lung Injury/blood
13.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 637-642, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-707351

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the effect of different explosion impulse on rabbit lung injury and decide the death curve,so as to provide a reference for the prediction of lung injury.Methods Six healthy male New Zealand white rabbits with weight of 2.0-2.5 kg and age of (6 ± 1)months were selected.The rabbits were put 0.5 m,0.6 m,0.7 m,0.9 m,1.0 m,and 1.2 m away from 90 g TNT to carry out the blast injury experiment.The characteristic parameters of blast shock wave and general lung injury were recorded.Based on the experimental results combined with theoretical analysis,the changes of rabbit lung injury depending on the explosion distance as well as the rabbit death curve were determined.Results After the 90 g TNT explosion,the peak overpressure of shock wave and the corresponding specific impulse decreased quickly with the increase of explosion distance.The peak overpressure was 0.79 MPa and the specific impulse was 82 Pa · s at the explosion distance of 0.5 m.The peak overpressure was 0.1 MPa and the specific impulse was 34 Pa · s at the explosion distance of 1.2 m.The rabbits at 0.5 m and 0.6 m died,the rabbit at 0.7 m was severely injured,and the rabbits at 0.9 m,1.0 m,and 1.2 m were slightly injured.The dependence of lung injury degree on the explosion distance under 90 g TNT explosion was established based on dimensional analysis theory.The lung injury degree was exponentially attenuated with the explosion distance:φ =(R/0.6)-5.64(φ represented lung injury degree,and R represented the explosion distance).Considering the combined injury effects of peak overpressure of shock wave and its specific impulse on rabbit lung,the death curve of rabbit was determined:(p-0.1) (I-59) =2.6 (p represented peak overpressure,and I represented specific impulse).The criterion of "overpressure-specific impulse" was used to estimate the death of rabbit,and the death curve of rabbit was determined as (p-0.1)(I-59) =2.6(p represented peak overpressure and I represented specific impulse).The critical overpressure was 0.1 MPa and the critical specific impulse was 59 Pa · s.Conclusions Under the explosion condition of 90 g TNT,the relationship between degree of lung injury in rabbits and explosion distance is established.Death curve of rabbits is determined based on the damage effect of shock wave peak overpressure and specific impulse on the lungs of rabbits,which is significant for predicting the blast injury.

14.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 88(5): 269-273, oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-887792

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: el uso de fuegos artificiales y dispositivos de pirotecnia forma parte de celebraciones y espectáculos públicos en todo el mundo. En Uruguay, su uso se encuentra concentrado en los meses estivales en eventos públicos y privados. Hay normativas para su uso, la importación y venta está regulada. En el verano de 2014-2015 hubo cuatro niños con lesiones graves de mano producidas por explosivos. Todas en circunstancias similares, compartieron el mismo mecanismo lesional y vinculados a un único dispositivo. En el año 2016 hubo más niños con iguales injurias. Objetivo: comunicar una serie de niños con injurias provocadas por un tipo de explosivo de pirotecnia con un patrón diferente al conocido previamente. Resultados: n=6. Todos varones, cinco adolescentes. Los seis presentaron lesiones severas en manos con amputación de uno o varios dedos, determinando secuelas estéticas y funcionales. Discusión: se identifica los dispositivos con alto contenido en pólvora y el mal uso de los mismos como factores asociados a las lesiones graves de mano. Se realizó una campaña desde la Sociedad Uruguaya de Pediatría, el Departamento de Emergencia Pediátrica, el Ministerio de Salud y otras autoridades para abordar este problema. Se prohíbe la venta de ese dispositivo. Conclusiones: la utilización de dispositivos de pirotecnia con alto contenido de pólvora como el megapetardo o superbomba puede determinar lesiones graves de mano, mutilantes y secuelas permanentes. No se recomienda la manipulación de fuegos artificiales por parte de los niños. El cumplimiento de las normativas vigentes y el correcto uso de los mismos podrían contribuir a disminuir estas injurias.


Summary Introduction: the use of fireworks and pyrotechnic devices are ways of public entertainment and celebration around the world. In Uruguay, they are more frequently used during summer-time in public and private events. Usage, import and sales are regulated by law. In summer 2014-2015 four children presented severe hand injuries caused by blasts, all of which occurred under similar conditions, shared the same injury mechanism and were linked to a specific device. In 2016 there were more children with similar lesions. Objective: to report a series of children with hand lesions caused by a certain type of pyrotechnic device with a pattern that was different from the one previously known. Results: n=6. All of them males 5 adolescents. The 6 children studied presented severe lesions in hands with amputation of 1 or several fingers, which resulted in aesthetic and functional sequelae. Discussion: devices with a high dose of gunpowder and their incorrect use are identified as factors associated to severe lesions. The Uruguayan Society of Pediatrics, the Pediatrics Emergency Department and the Ministry of Health, among other authorities, conducted a campaign to address this issue. The sale of this device is prohibited. Conclusions: the use of pyrotechnic devices with a high dose of gunpowder such as mega firecrackers or superbombs can result in severe hand lesions, mutilation and permanent sequelae. The handling of fireworks by children is not recommended. Fulfillment of updated regulations and the correct use of fireworks might contribute to diminishing these injuries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Blast Injuries/prevention & control , Accidents Caused by Explosives/prevention & control , Hand Injuries/prevention & control , Amputation, Traumatic/prevention & control
15.
Academic Journal of Second Military Medical University ; (12): 106-111, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-838340

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the characteristics of craniocerebral injuries in the Beagle dogs caused by explosion shock wave and quasi-static pressure by simulating the condition of multiple cabins explosion in warship. Methods A total of 24 Beagle dogs were randomly divided into 2 groups, with 12 in each group, and the Beagle dogs of 2 groups were tested in the multiple cabins with the same size of the real warship. A 0. 65 kg TNT equivalent bare explosion was blasted in the cabins, which was defined as the target cabin (I group), and the neighboring one was defined as the adjacent cabin (II group). Parameters of shock waves were measured using pressure transducers. The survival status of dogs, basic vital signs, neurological function scores and the gross and morphological changes of the brains were observed after the explosion. Results There were two reflected shock waves after the explosion in the cabins, and the peak pressure of the shock wave in the adjacent cabin was about 0. 39 limes of that of the target cabin. Seven Beagle dogs died instantly after the explosion, and four died within 24 h. The mortality rale of the dogs was 45.83% (11/24). with that in the target cabin being 66. 67% (8/12) and that in the adjacent cabin being 25. 0% (3/12). The basic vital signs and neurological function of the survival dogs underwent greal changes immediately after the explosion, which basically recovered after 24 h. The brain issues of the dogs thai immediately died after explosion had obvious contusions, and cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral edema were found in the dogs died within 24 h after explosion. Abnormal morphological structures and neuronal structures were also found in the brain issues of survival Beagle dogs under light microscope, with some neurons showing nuclei condensation and deep staining, nuclear dissolution or disappearance of nucleus, and the cell borders being blurred. Conclusion In multiple cabin explosion, the peak pressure of the shock wave in the target cabin is significantly higher than that in the adjacent cabin. There are two reflected shock waves in the cabins, which increases the damage to the dogs. The mortality rate of the Beagle dogs in the target cabin is higher than that in the adjacent cabin; and the acute injuries of Beagle dogs immediately after the explosion are the most serious ones, with obvious pathological changes of the brain tissues.

16.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 629-633, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-809396

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the situations of on-site rescue and traumatic features of victims involved in gas explosion accident in Hangzhou, so as to provide more data support for emergency medical rescues of the similar incidents of massive casualty.@*Methods@#Two medical workers with a certain clinical experience were sent to Hangzhou 120 emergency medical centers to collect data of the on-site rescue on 21st July, 2017, including ambulance call-outs, on-site command and traffic conditions, and on-site triage and evacuation of the victims. They were then sent to the hospitals receiving the victims to investigate the situations of these victims including the general information (such as gender, age, admitted hospitals, and number of admission, discharge, and transferring in the first two weeks after the accident) and injury assessment [such as injury position and type, injury severity evaluation by New Injury Severity Scoring (NISS), and burn severity evaluation for victims with burns].@*Results@#(1) A total of 15 ambulances reached the accident site for rescue. The traffic and transportation were jammed and interrupted after this accident. On-site triage and distribution were disorderly conducted. (2) Clinical data of 53 victims were collected, including 24 males and 29 females, with the age of 8 to 70 (34±14) years old. They were sent into 6 hospitals in Hangzhou. Two victims died on the day of accident. Up to two weeks after this accident, 28 (52.8%) victims were discharged from the hospitals and received follow-up in outpatient department. Five victims with severe injuries were transferred to the other hospitals. (3) Based on the results of NISS, the injury severities were mild in 29 (54.7%) cases, moderate in 9 (17.0%) cases, serious in 3 (5.7%) cases, and severe in 12 (22.6%) cases. Those 2 dead victims were classified into the severe category due to the highest NISS score of 75. For all of the victims, skin and soft tissue defects were most common. Six (11.3%) victims were combined with burns. According to the classification of burn severity, there were one case of mild, one case of serious, and 4 cases of severe.@*Conclusions@#The gas explosion accident in Hangzhou caused massive casualties with complex injuries. The local emergency medical rescue responded quickly, but during the rescue process, lots of aspects should be further improved.

17.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 465-468, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-809123

ABSTRACT

In order to ameliorate the prognosis of patients in burn disaster, national emergency medical rescue expert teams are usually dispatched to incident areas. This article discusses the major work and challenges of the medical rescue expert teams using example of rescuing gas explosion accident in Hangzhou in last few days and author′s personal experience of previous mission. The foremost mission of medical rescue expert teams is to provide feasible strategic advice for burn disaster rescue and pivotal critical care support. The medical rescue expert teams always begin their work in hospitals lack of experience in disaster rescue. According to the characteristics of"7·21"Hangzhou gas explosion accident, the medical rescue expert teams focus on reassessment of the severity and hidden injuries of all patients, referral of patients according to the homeostasis status in patients with different severity, developing medical safety strategies, medical-related public safety strategies, and nosocomial infection control measure for rescue work. Furthermore, the medical rescue expert teams join the treatment for some critically ill patients and sudden emergency cases. The main challenges of medical rescue experts faced are accumulation and improvement of personal medical skill and powerful psychological endurance. Psychological counseling can play beneficial role in rescue group. In addition, establishing coordinated relationship among national emergency medical rescue expert teams, local administration, and local medical group shall be beneficial to disaster rescue.

18.
Medical Journal of Chinese People's Liberation Army ; (12): 820-825, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-694049

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish a rat model of craniocerebral blast injury caused by the shock wave of cabin explosion.Methods Fifty male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (10 each):3g,5g,8g TNT with vest groups,5g TNT without vest group and control group.Uncased explosives of different equivalent were suspended in the cabin center.After anesthesia,with exception of control group,the rats were placed in prone position about 31 cm below the explosive,facing the explosive with or without vest.After the explosion,the survived rats were observed,serological and pathological examinations were performed at 3h,1d and 3d after the explosion.Results In terms of tissue damage and mortality,compared with the control group,no obvious injury formed in rats of the 3g TNT with vest group,and all of them survived;Rats in 5g TNT with vest group showed mild lung injury,brain tissue edema,enlarged blood vessel,patchy hemorrhage on the brain surface,and with a mortality of 30%;Rats in 8g TNT with vest group showed serious organ damage with a mortality of 80%;Rats in 5g TNT without vest group suffered from severe lung injury,almost all died right after the explosion.Therefore,rats in 5g TNT with vest group were more in line with the experimental needs.Further serum and pathologic examinations showed that the brain water content increased,the serum neuron specific enolase (NSE) and S-100β protein also increased markedly,and necrotic or apoptotic changes happened in the cortex and hippocampus neurons.Conclusion A stable animal model of craniocerebral blast injury may be established with rats in the case of chest and abdomen protected and then exposed to 5g TNT explosion in cabin.

19.
Medical Journal of Chinese People's Liberation Army ; (12): 234-238, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-608714

ABSTRACT

Objective Through the establishment of adjacent cabin blast injury model of Beagle dog,to investigate the pathophysiological changes in the experimental animals in this scenario,then speculate on the mechanisms of injury.Methods Several adjacent cabins were built in the same size with the real warship.Seven Beagle dogs were subjected to injuries from the explosion,from whom one was selected randomly to implant intracranial pressure transducers before blast,the others were tested on the pathophysiological changes after blast.The dogs were mounted on the platform of a cabinet in the adjacent cabin,subjected to injury from 650g bare TNT explosive blast.The transducers recorded the value of space and intracranial shock wave pressure.Following blast treatment,the serum levels of IL-6,IL-8,neuron specific enolase (NSE),brain and chest CT and pathological changes of the brain tissue were observed.Results Serum levels of IL-6,IL-8 and NSE were elevated to varying degrees after blast.All of them increased significantly at different time points after blast (P<0.05).Brain and chest CT examinations did not show any significant positive results.Pathological results showed that there was a little necrosis in the brain,some neurons had karyopycnosis,karyolysis or disappearance of the nucleoli,and the cell boundaries were blurred.The blast wave was blocked greatly by the scalp and skull (about 90%),but could still penetrate them and cause brain injuries.Conclusions Explosion in the adjacent cabin causes mainly mild traumatic brain injuries.Blast wave can be blocked by the scalp and skull greatly.

20.
Medical Journal of Chinese People's Liberation Army ; (12): 425-429, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-849984

ABSTRACT

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) caused by blast shock waves (BSWs) is one of the most common injuries among soldiers in the war. Such mTBI can also happen in civilians if exposed to shock waves of accidental explosion disasters, bomb attacks by terrorists and so on. This injury often results in cognitive problems, memory dysfunction and emotional disorder, and these neurological deficits are closely related to the dysfunction or disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The present paper discusses mainly the relationship between dysfunction or disruption of BBB and inflammatory reaction in mild brain injury associated with explosive shock wave and effects of early intervention of oxidative stress injury, repairing the BBB and blocking inflammation on relieving delayed neurological deficits.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL