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1.
MHSalud ; 21(1): 82-103, ene.-jun. 2024. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558387

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: El objetivo de la presente revisión sistemática fue determinar los efectos del entrenamiento cluster sobre la hipertrofia muscular. Metodología: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en las bases de datos electrónicas Pubmed, Scopus y Web of Science, utilizando las siguientes palabras clave: 'cluster training', 'rest Interval', 'rest pause', 'hypertrophy', 'resistance training' y 'cross sectional area'. Se incluyeron ensayos clínicos que utilizaron el entrenamiento cluster como intervención en personas mayores de 18 años de ambos sexos. Resultados: La revisión sistemática obtenida durante la búsqueda de las bases de datos consultadas arrojó un total de 23 artículos, potencialmente elegibles, de los cuales se tomó una muestra de 9, con los que se podían obtener resultados que respondían al objetivo de esta revisión. La cantidad de participantes de los 9 artículos elegibles fue de 172 sujetos. Los entrenamientos cluster permiten aumentar el volumen de entrenamiento y la intensidad sin provocar elevados niveles de fatiga, favoreciendo así el desarrollo de la hipertrofia muscular. Conclusiones: Los resultados de esta revisión sistemática sugieren que los entrenamientos cluster pueden ser una herramienta eficaz para el desarrollo de la hipertrofia muscular.


Abstract Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effects of cluster training on muscle hypertrophy. Methodology: A literature search was performed in the electronic databases Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science, using the following keywords: 'cluster training', 'rest interval', 'rest pause', 'hypertrophy', 'resistance training' and 'cross sectional area'. We included clinical trials that used cluster training as an intervention in people over 18 years of age of both sexes. Results: The systematic review obtained during the search of the databases consulted yielded a total of 23 potentially eligible articles, of which a sample of 9 was taken from which results could be obtained that responded to the objective of this review. The number of participants from the 9 eligible articles was 172 subjects. Cluster workouts allow for increased training volume and intensity without causing high levels of fatigue, thus favoring the development of muscle hypertrophy. Conclusions: The results of this systematic review suggest that cluster training can be an effective tool for the development of muscle hypertrophy.


Resumo Objetivo: O objetivo desta revisão sistemática foi determinar os efeitos do treinamento em cluster na hipertrofia muscular. Metodologia: Realizou-se uma busca na literatura nas bases de dados eletrônicas Pubmed, Scopus e Web of Science, utilizando as seguintes palavras-chave: 'cluster training', 'rest interval', 'rest pause', 'hypertrophy', 'resistance training' e 'cross sectional area'. Foram incluídos ensaios clínicos que utilizaram o treinamento em cluster como intervenção em pessoas com mais de 18 anos de ambos os sexos. Resultados: A revisão sistemática realizada durante a busca nas bases de dados consultadas resultou em um total de 23 artigos potencialmente elegíveis, dos quais uma amostra de 9 foi selecionada para obter resultados que respondessem ao objetivo desta revisão. O número de participantes nos 9 artigos elegíveis foi de 172 indivíduos. Os treinos em cluster permitem um aumento no volume e na intensidade do treinamento sem causar altos níveis de fadiga, favorecendo assim o desenvolvimento da hipertrofia muscular. Conclusões: Os resultados desta revisão sistemática sugerem que o treinamento em cluster pode ser uma ferramenta eficaz para o desenvolvimento da hipertrofia muscular.

2.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(2)abr. 2024.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558121

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Trail running (TR), an extreme endurance sport, presents unique challenges due to the variety of terrain and distances, where physiological capacity and body composition have been considered better predictors of performance. This longitudinal case study examines the impact of training intensity distribution (TID) on an elite trail runner's physiological profile and performance over four years. Two TID models were implemented: polarized (POL) and pyramidal (PYR). Physiological assessments included maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), lactate thresholds (LT1 and LT2), and anthropometric characteristics. The training was classified according to the 3-zone intensity model (zone 1: below the first lactate threshold; zone 2: between the first and second lactate threshold; zone 3: above the second lactate threshold). During the four years, the average TID distribution was 75 % zone 1, 18 % zone 2, and 7 % zone 3. Physiological capacity increased by 7.14 % (14 to 15 km/h) for velocity at LT1 (vLT1) and 8.13 % (16 to 17.3 km/h) for velocity at LT2 (vLT2). The most significant increases were observed during the second year when the percentage of training time in zone 1 was lower (65 %) and in zone 2 greater (30 %) than those reported in other years. Consequently, vLT1 and vLT2 increased by 3.5 % (from 14.1 to 14.6 km/h) and 3.6 % (from 16.5 to 17.1 km/h), respectively. In conclusion, this case study revealed that emphasizing training in zone 2 (moderate intensity) and increasing the training load significantly improved performance at lactate thresholds. Despite modifying body composition, no influence on improving endurance performance was observed. These findings underscore the importance of TID in elite trail runners and highlight the potential to optimize physiological adaptations and performance outcomes.


Trail running (TR), un deporte de resistencia extrema, presenta desafíos únicos debido a la variedad de terrenos y distancias, donde la capacidad fisiológica y la composición corporal se han considerado mejores predictores del rendimiento. Este estudio de caso longitudinal examina el impacto de la distribución de la intensidad del entrenamiento (TID) en el perfil fisiológico y el rendimiento de un corredor de montaña de élite durante cuatro años. Se implementaron dos modelos TID: polarizado (POL) y piramidal (PYR). Las evaluaciones fisiológicas incluyeron el consumo máximo de oxígeno (VO2max), los umbrales de lactato (LT1 y LT2) y las características antropométricas. El entrenamiento se clasificó según el modelo de intensidad de 3 zonas (zona 1: por debajo del primer umbral de lactato; zona 2: entre el primer y segundo umbral de lactato; zona 3: por encima del segundo umbral de lactato). Durante los cuatro años, la distribución TID promedio fue 75 % zona 1, 18 % zona 2 y 7 % zona 3. La capacidad fisiológica aumentó un 7,14 % (14 a 15 km/h) para la velocidad en LT1 (vLT1) y un 8,13 % (16 a 17,3 km/h) para velocidad en LT2 (vLT2). Los incrementos más significativos se observaron durante el segundo año cuando el porcentaje de tiempo de entrenamiento en la zona 1 fue menor (65 %) y en la zona 2 mayor (30 %) que los reportados en otros años. En consecuencia, vLT1 y vLT2 aumentaron un 3,5 % (de 14,1 a 14,6 km/h) y un 3,6 % (de 16,5 a 17,1 km/h), respectivamente. En conclusión, este estudio reveló que enfatizar el entrenamiento en la zona 2 (intensidad moderada) y aumentar la carga de entrenamiento mejoró significativamente el rendimiento en los umbrales de lactato. A pesar de modificar la composición corporal, no se observó influencia en la mejora del rendimiento de resistencia. Estos hallazgos subrayan la importancia del TID en los corredores de trail de élite y resaltan el potencial para optimizar las adaptaciones fisiológicas y los resultados de rendimiento.

3.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(2)abr. 2024.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558144

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Diabetes is a form of endocrine disease. Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) provides a detailed view of the body composition to find out what makes people with diabetes different from those with other diseases. We scanned 371 patients with DXA to analyze their body composition parameters. Three hundreds and seventy one patients (178 women/193 men), who with different diseases, with a mean±SD Body Mass Index (BMI) of 25.32±8.3 kg/m2 were included. The body composition of 371 patients was assessed. Bone Mineral Density (BMD), Fat Weight, Lean Weight, waist-to-hip ratio, Lean Mass Index (LMI), Fat Mass Index (FMI), the relationship between Fat percentage and BMI were analyzed. The 371 patients included 156 diabetics and 215 non-diabetics. Non-diabetic patients also included 5 obesity patients, 9 patients with fatty liver, 39 patients with hypertension, 22 patients with hyperlipidemia, 18 patients with cardiovascular disease, 11 patients with chest and lung disease, 4 patients with chronic disease, 14 patients with brain disease and 93 patients with other diseases. Among 156 diabetic patients, 129 had VAT > 100 cm2 and 27 had VAT ≤100 cm2. The lean weight (LW) of male diabetic patients was significantly higher than that of female diabetic patients. The fat weight (FW) of female patients with diabetes was significantly higher than that of male patients. The waist-hip ratio (WHR) was 1.37 ± 0.25 in male diabetic patients and 1.18 ± 0.21 in female diabetic patients. Among the 215 non-diabetic patients, the obese and fatty liver patients, which the weight (WT) (obesity: 83.87 ± 8.34 kg fat liver: 85.64±28.60 kg), FW (obesity: 28.56 ± 4.18 kg fat liver: 28.61 ± 10.79 kg), LW (obesity: 52.62 ± 9.64 kg fat liver: 54.29±17.58 kg), BMI (obesity: 28.76 ± 1.88 kg/m2 fat liver: 29.10 ± 5.95 kg/m2), was much higher than other patients. Diabetes patients had less fat mass than non- diabetic patients; the difference was around 2 kg. BMI is also a modest number. BMD doesn't differ all that much. Non-diabetic patients with fatty liver obesity and cardiovascular disease had higher fat mass and BMI than patients with other illnesses. Body composition can provide precise information on the makeup of different body areas, but further in-depth exams are required to ascertain the body's endocrine profile.


La diabetes es una enfermedad endocrina. La absorciometría de rayos X de energía dual (DXA) proporciona una vista detallada de la composición corporal para descubrir qué diferencia a las personas con diabetes de aquellas con otras enfermedades. Escaneamos a 371 pacientes con DXA para analizar sus parámetros de composición corporal. Se incluyeron 371 pacientes (178 mujeres/193 hombres), con diferentes enfermedades, con un Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC) medio ± DE de 25,32 ± 8,3 kg/m2. Se evaluó la composición corporal de 371 pacientes. Se analizaron la densidad mineral ósea (DMO), el peso graso, el peso magro, la relación cintura-cadera, el índice de masa magra (LMI), el índice de masa grasa (FMI), y la relación entre el porcentaje de grasa y el IMC. De los 371 pacientes 156 eran diabéticos y 215 no diabéticos. Los pacientes no diabéticos también incluyeron 5 con obesidad, 9 con hígado graso, 39 con hipertensión, 22 con hiperlipidemia, 18 con enfermedad cardiovascular, 11 con enfermedad torácica y pulmonar, 4 con enfermedad crónica, 14 con enfermedad cerebral y 93 pacientes con otras enfermedades. Entre los 156 pacientes diabéticos, 129 tenían un IVA > 100 cm2 y 27 tenían un IVA ≤100 cm2. El peso magro (PV) de los hombres diabéticos fue significativamente mayor que el de las mujeres diabéticas. El peso graso (FW) de las mujeres diabéticas fue significativamente mayor que el de los hombres diabéticos. El índice cintura-cadera (ICC) fue de 1,37 ± 0,25 en hombres diabéticos y de 1,18 ± 0,21 en mujeres diabéticas. Entre los 215 pacientes no diabéticos, los pacientes obesos y con hígado graso, cuyo peso (WT) (obesidad: 83,87 ± 8,34 kg hígado graso: 85,64 ± 28,60 kg), FW (obesidad: 28,56 ± 4,18 kg hígado graso: 28,61 ± 10,79 kg), PV (obesidad: 52,62 ± 9,64 kg, hígado graso: 54,29 ± 17,58 kg), IMC (obesidad: 28,76 ± 1,88 kg/m2, hígado graso: 29,10 ± 5,95 kg/m2), fue mucho mayor que otros pacientes. Los pacientes diabéticos tenían menos masa grasa que los pacientes no diabéticos; la diferencia fue de alrededor de 2 kg. La DMO no difiere mucho. Los pacientes no diabéticos con obesidad debido al hígado graso y enfermedades cardiovasculares tenían mayor masa grasa e IMC que los pacientes con otras enfermedades. La composición corporal puede proporcionar información precisa sobre la composición de diferentes áreas del cuerpo, pero se requieren exámenes más profundos para determinar el perfil endocrino del cuerpo.

4.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(2)abr. 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558148

ABSTRACT

El Tang Soo Do es un arte marcial versátil que destaca por el uso de la cadera para sus gestos técnicos. El karate es una de las artes marciales más atractivas alrededor del mundo. Tanto karate como Tang Soo Do comparten un estilo firme en sus técnicas y combate. Sin embargo, algunas de las formas en Tang Soo Do poseen un estilo suave similar al kung fu y al tai chi. Por ello, es interesante describir y comparar las capacidades físicas y la composición corporal de los practicantes de Tang Soo Do y karate a nivel recreativo. Para ello, se realizó una búsqueda en Medline® y Web of Science® durante enero de 2021. Se escogieron 10 estudios, organizando sus datos según composición corporal, fuerza muscular, resistencia muscular, flexibilidad y VO2max. Se encontraron 2 estudios en practicantes recreativos de Tang Soo Do y 8 en karate a nivel mundial, por lo que no existen suficientes estudios que permitan describir y comparar adecuadamente las capacidades físicas y la composición corporal entre sus practicantes a nivel recreativo; sin embargo, los resultados encontrados indican que es importante realizar más investigaciones que midan estas variables, con la finalidad de considerar en base a la evidencia alTang Soo Do como una importante opción para el bienestar físico y mental de sus practicantes. Las investigaciones futuras pueden evaluar estos datos en distintos grupos etarios, localización, tiempo de entrenamiento o tipos de competiciones según formas, combate o mixto. Además, se pueden realizar estudios comparativos en los practicantes de Tang Soo Do que permita a este arte marcial ser desde la evidencia una importante opción de práctica en colegios y universidades, así como un estilo de vida para sus practicantes.


SUMMARY: Tang Soo Do is a versatile martial art that stands out for the use of the hip for its technical gestures. Karate is one of the most attractive martial arts around the world. Both karate and Tang Soo Do share a firm style in their techniques and combat. However, some of the forms in Tang Soo Do possess a gentle style similar to Kung Fu and Tai Chi. Therefore, it is interesting to describe and compare the physical abilities and body composition of recreational Tang Soo Do and karate practitioners. A search was carried out in Medline® and Web of Science® during January 2021. Following the search 10 studies were chosen, organizing their data according to body composition, muscular strength, muscular resistance, flexibility and VO2max. Two studies were found on recreational Tang Soo Do practitioners and eight on karate worldwide, hence, there are not enough studies to adequately describe and compare physical abilities and body composition among recreational practitioners; However, the results found, indicate that it is important to conduct further research to measures these variables, in order to consider Tang Soo Do as an important option for the physical and mental well-being of its practitioners. Future research can evaluate these data can be evaluated in different age groups, location, training time or types of competitions according to forms, combat or mixed. In addition, comparative studies can be carried out on Tang Soo Do practitioners that allow this martial art to become an important option for practice in schools and universities, as well as a lifestyle for its practitioners.

5.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(2)abr. 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558151

ABSTRACT

Las unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI) y agudos han sido los contenedores del avance de la pandemia por COVID-19. Sin embargo, la estadía prolongada en esta unidad puede repercutir sobre la composición corporal (CC) y la capacidad derealizar ejercicio de los pacientes. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar si existe relación entre composición corporal (CC) y la prueba de caminata en 6 minutos (PC6m). Se reclutaron 17 personas (8 mujeres y 9 hombres). Se tomaron las siguientes medidas: PC6m, se consideró su distancia recorrida (DRPC6m) y su velocidad (VelPC6m). Las variables de CC medidas fueron índice de masa corporal (IMC), masa grasa (MG), masa libre de grasa (MLG) y masa magra (MM). La DRPC6m sólo mostró relación significativa con la MM corporal (MMC). Por otra parte, la VelPC6m tuvo una relación significativa con la MMC. Además de esto, la MLG del miembro inferior derecho y la MLG del miembro inferior izquierdo mostraron una relación con la VelPC6m (r=0,422; p=0,041 y r=0,417; p=0,025, respectivamente). También la MM del miembro inferior derecho y la MM del miembro inferior izquierdo se relacionaron significativamente con la VelPC6m (r=0,422; p=0,030 y r=0,420; p=0,042). En conclusión, existe relación entre composición corporal y VelPC6m. Esto permitiría aproximarse de manera rápida al nivel de funcionalidad con la que ingresa un paciente a un programa de rehabilitación.


SUMMARY: The intensive care units (ICU) and acute care units have been the containers for the advance of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, prolonged stay in this unit can impact patients' body composition (WC) and ability to exercise. This research aimed to determine if there is a relationship between body composition (BC) and the 6-minute walk test (6mWT). 17 people were recruited (8 women and 9 men). The following measurements were taken: 6mWT, its distance traveled (6mWTDT) and its speed (6mWTS) were considered. The WC variables measured were body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), and lean mass (LM). 6mWTDT only showed a significant relationship with body LM (BLM). On the other hand, 6mWTS had a significant relationship with BLM. In addition to this, the FFM of the right lower limb and the FFM of the left lower limb showed a relationship with 6mWTS (r=0.422; p=0.041 and r=0.417; p=0.025, respectively). Also, the LM of the right lower limb and the LM of the left lower limb were significantly related to the 6mWTS (r=0.422; p=0.030 and r=0.420; p=0.042). In conclusion, there is a relationship between body composition and 6mWTS. This would allow us to quickly approach the level of functionality with which a patient enters a rehabilitation program.

6.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(2)abr. 2024.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558153

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of different methods of partialization, in terms of different body component indices in relation to indicators of strength and explosiveness. The research involved 187 subjects who were divided into two groups based on sex. This research consisted of measuring body composition characteristics by multichannel bioimpedance analysis (BIA) InBody 720, as well as contractile characteristics of different muscle groups with tenziometric Dinamometry method. Based on the results of the factor analysis we found that regardless of the sex the most sensitive variable for partialization of absolute body isometric strength variable (ABiS) is partialization by allometric scaling (0.964 for females and 0.947 for males explained factor variance). However, in the case of absolute body isometric explosiveness (ABiE), the results of this study have demonstrated that partialization relative to skeletal muscle mass according to the body longitudinality - skeletal muscle mass index (SMMI) is the methodological choice disregarding the sex (0.982 for females and 0.980 for males explained factor variance). The results of the study have shown that for the purpose of scaling the maximal strength relative to body composition, the allometric method can be considered as a choice, while for the partialization of maximal isometric explosiveness skeletal muscle mass index is the best choice insensitive of the sex.


El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la sensibilidad de distintos métodos de parcialización, en términos de diferentes índices de componentes corporales en relación a los indicadores de fuerza y explosividad. En la investigación participaron 187 sujetos que se dividieron según el sexo en dos grupos. Esta investigación consistió en medir las características de composición corporal mediante análisis de bioimpedancia multicanal (BIA) InBody 720, así como las características contráctiles de diferentes grupos musculares con el método de Dinamometría tenciométrica. Con base en los resultados del análisis factorial, encontramos que, independientemente del sexo, la variable más sensible para la parcialización de la variable de fuerza isométrica corporal absoluta (ABiS) fue la parcialización mediante escala alométrica (0,964 para las mujeres y 0,947 para los hombres). Sin embargo, en el caso de la explosividad isométrica corporal absoluta (ABiE), los resultados de este estudio han demostrado que la parcialización relativa a la masa del músculo esquelético según la longitudinalidad del cuerpo - índice de masa del músculo esquelético (SMMI) es la opción metodológica sin tener en cuenta el sexo (0,982 para las mujeres y 0,980 para los hombres). Los resultados del estudio han demostrado que para escalar la fuerza máxima en relación con la composición corporal, el método alométrico puede considerarse como una opción, mientras que para la parcialización de la explosividad isométrica máxima, el índice de masa del músculo esquelético es la mejor opción independiente del sexo.

7.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 51(2)abr. 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559704

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El estado nutricional, la composición corporal y los hábitos alimentarios son relevantes para la elegibilidad, entrenamiento y progresión de la carrera naval, por la influencia que tienen estos factores sobre la salud física, mental y rendimiento deportivo de los reclutas. Objetivo: Describir y evaluar el estado nutricional, la composición corporal y la conducta alimentaria de estudiantes de primer año de la Escuela de Grumetes "Alejandro Navarrete Cisterna" de Talcahuano. Métodos: Estudio no experimental de corte transversal a 781 grumetes. Se realizó evaluación antropométrica y de composición corporal por nutricionistas entrenadas, y se aplicó la Encuesta sobre Hábitos Alimentarios de autorreporte. Resultados: Edad 19,2 ± 1,47 años, 35,7% mujeres. Según el estado nutricional, se observó un mayor porcentaje de sobrepeso y obesidad en mujeres comparado con los hombres. El IMC se relacionó directamente con la composición corporal; las mujeres presentaron una media de IMC de sobrepeso con mayor porcentaje de grasa corporal y menor porcentaje de masa muscular. La conducta alimentaria se relacionó con estado nutricional significativamente, siendo los cumplimientos de: consumo de lácteos, consumo de legumbres, cena diariamente y no consumo de bebidas alcohólicas más altos en reclutas normopeso que en aquellos con sobrepeso y obesidad. Conclusión: Los grumetes presentaron mayor normopeso, menor obesidad y mejor conducta alimentaria que la población general, debido posiblemente a la preparación física y nutricional en el periodo inicial de la instrucción naval.


Introduction: Nutritional status, body composition and eating habits are relevant for eligibility, training, and naval career progression, due to the influence of these factors have on the physical and mental health and sports performance of recruits. Objective: To describe and evaluate the nutritional status, body composition and eating behavior of first-year students of the "Alejandro Navarrete Cisterna" Naval School in Talcahuano. Methods: Non-experimental cross-sectional study of 781 recruits. Anthropometric and body composition evaluation was carried out by trained nutritionists, and the self-report Eating Habits Survey was applied. Results: Age 19.2 ± 1.47 years, 35.7% women. According to nutritional status, a higher percentage of overweight and obesity was observed in women compared to men. BMI was related to body composition; women had a mean BMI of overweight with a higher percentage of body fat and a lower percentage of muscle mass. Eating behavior was significantly related to nutritional status, with compliance of: dairy consumption, legume consumption, daily dinner and non-consumption of alcoholic beverages being higher in normal weight recruits than in those with overweight and obesity. Conclusion: The naval recruits had a higher normal weight, less obesity and better eating behavior than the general population, possibly due to the physical and nutritional preparation in the initial period of naval training.

8.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 37: e220278, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559151

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the anthropometric variables and body composition of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy based on the type of enteral diet received. Methods A case-series study involving 38 individuals with spastic quadriparetic cerebral palsy, aged four to 18 years, fed only by the enteral route, followed up at a Reference Hospital in the city of Recife (PE), Brazil. One group received an exclusively industrialized enteral diet, while the other received a mixed diet (industrialized and homemade). Weight, stature, arm circumference, and arm muscle area were measured. Body composition was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results There was no significant difference between the groups receiving industrialized and mixed diets, with a high stature deficit frequency (63.6% versus 68.7%; p=0.743), excess fat mass (93.3% versus 58.3%; p=0.060), and fat free mass deficit (73.3% versus 66.7%; p=1.000) observed in both groups. Regarding the nutritional composition of the enteral diet, 54.5% and 53.8% of the individuals in the industrialized and mixed diet groups, respectively, received an industrialized enteral diet with a hypercaloric, hyperlipidic, and hypoproteic nutritional composition. Conclusion It was concluded that there was no difference in anthropometric parameters and body composition based on the type of diet received. It should be considered that the nutritional composition of the most commonly used industrialized diet among the individuals in this study may have influenced the unfavorable outcomes, such as the high frequency of low muscle mass and excess fat mass. This highlights the need for the formulation and availability of an enteral diet that meets the nutritional needs of this population.


RESUMO Objetivo Investigar os parâmetros antropométricos e a composição corporal de crianças e adolescentes com paralisia cerebral em função do tipo de dieta enteral recebida. Métodos Estudo tipo série de casos, envolvendo 38 indivíduos com paralisia cerebral tetraparética espástica entre 4 e 18 anos, alimentados apenas por via alternativa, acompanhados em um Hospital de Referência em Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil. Um grupo recebia dieta enteral industrializada exclusiva e outro, dieta mista (industrializada e artesanal). Foram aferidos, peso, estatura, circunferência e área muscular do braço. A composição corporal se deu por meio da utilização de bioimpedância elétrica. Resultados Não houve diferença significante entre os grupos dieta industrializada e dieta mista, sendo constatada elevada frequência de déficit estatural (63,6% versus 68,7%; p=0,743), excesso de massa gorda (93,3% versus 58,3%; p=0,060) e déficit de massa livre de gordura (73,3% versus 66,7%; p=1,000), em ambos os grupos. Quanto à composição nutricional da dieta enteral ofertada, 54,5% e 53,8% dos indivíduos nos grupos dieta industrializada e dieta mista, respectivamente, recebiam dieta enteral industrializada de composição nutricional hipercalórica, hiperlipídica e hipoproteica. Conclusão Conclui-se que não houve diferença nos parâmetros antropométricos e na composição corporal em função do tipo de dieta recebida. Deve-se considerar que a composição nutricional da dieta industrializada mais utilizada pelos indivíduos dessa pesquisa pode ter influenciado os resultados desfavoráveis, como a elevada frequência de baixa massa muscular e excesso de massa gorda. Surgindo por sua vez, a necessidade da formulação e disponibilização de uma dieta enteral que atenda às necessidades nutricionais dessa população.

9.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 46: e, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559580

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To analyze the amount of muscle and the presence of sarcopenia in postmenopausal women using different methods, verifying the agreement between them as to skeletal muscle mass (SMM). Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted with postmenopausal women aged ≥ 50 years. SMM was obtained from a predictive equation, Bioelectrical Impedance (BIA), and Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA). The skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) and the appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI) were calculated. The cut-off point of SMI was determined for the population itself. The agreement between the SMI obtained using the different methods was verified. Sarcopenia was diagnosed according to the criteria proposed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People 2 (EWGSOP2). The significance level adopted for all tests was 5.0%. Results: A total of 112 women were evaluated, with an average age of 66.1 ± 5.65 years. Among them, 51.8% were sufficiently active and 43.8% were overweight and obese. The SMI cut-offs were 6.46 kg/m2 for the predictive equation and 7.66 kg/m2 for BIA, with high sensitivity and specificity. There was an excellent agreement in the identification of SMM by the predictive equation (0.89 [0.824-0.917], p < 0.001) and BIA (0.92 [0.883-0.945], p < 0.001), in reference to DXA. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 0.9%, 1.8%, and 2.7% according to BIA, DXA, and the predictive equation, respectively. Conclusion: The predictive equation showed the expected agreement in estimating skeletal muscle mass in postmenopausal women, offering a viable and accurate alternative.

10.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 30: e2023_0266, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529914

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: In prolonged physical activities, water replacement and muscle glycogen content are limiting factors in marathon runners. Carbohydrate-loading (CHO) in the days prior to endurance competition is a commonly employed method to optimise muscle glycogen stores and optimise exercise performance. Since each gram of muscle glycogen binds ∼2.7-4 grams of water, water retention may occur during carbohydrate-loading diets. Objective: To evaluate differences between CHO loading strategies (Bergström and Sherman) on intracellular (ICW) and extracellular (ECW) water content. Methods: Twenty-three runners were randomly allocated to two interventions (Bergström and Sherman) in a crossover design. Participants underwent a baseline evaluation before 3 days of glycogen depletion followed by 3 days of carbohydrate loading with a washout of 30 days consisting of normal diet and training. Multifrequency bioimpedance (BIS) was used to assess ICW and ECW at Baseline, Post-depletion and Post-CHO to determine any differences between Bergström and Sherman protocols. Blood samples were also obtained to assess potassium levels. Associations between ICW and ECW and muscle glycogen were determined. Results: There were no differences in ICW or ECW content between the two interventions at any moment. There was an effect of time for ICW, with an increase from Post-depletion to Post-CHO without any difference between interventions. Plasma potassium decreased from Baseline to Post-depletion in both conditions. There was no difference in muscle glycogen content between interventions or moments. Conclusion: There were no differences in ICW and ECW content between the Bergström and Sherman interventions at any moment. Level of Evidence I; Tests of Previously Developed Diagnostic Criteria.


RESUMEN Introducción: En actividades físicas prolongadas, la reposición de agua y el glucógeno muscular son factores limitantes en los corredores de maratón. La carga de carbohidratos (CHO) en los días previos a la competencia de resistencia es un método empleado para optimizar las reservas de glucógeno muscular y el rendimiento del ejercicio. Cómo cada gramo de glucógeno muscular se une a ≈ 2,7 a 4 gramos de agua, puede producirse retención de agua durante las dietas ricas en carbohidratos. Objetivo: Evaluar las diferencias entre las estrategias de carga de carbohidratos (Bergström y Sherman) en el contenido de agua intracelular (AIC) o extracelular (AEC). Métodos: Veintitrés corredores fueron asignados aleatoriamente a dos intervenciones (Bergström y Sherman) en un diseño cruzado. Los participantes se sometieron a una evaluación inicial antes de los 3 días de agotamiento del glucógeno, seguido de 3 días de carga de carbohidratos con un tiempo de "washout" de 30 días que consistía en una dieta y entrenamiento normales. Se utilizó bioimpedancia multifrecuencia (BIS) para evaluar AIC y AEC al inicio, después del agotamiento y después de CHO para determinar cualquier diferencia entre las dos intervenciones. También se obtuvieron muestras de sangre para evaluar el potasio. Se determinaron asociaciones entre AIC, AEC y glucógeno muscular. Resultados: No hubo diferencias en el contenido de AIC o AEC entre las dos intervenciones en ningún momento. Hubo un efecto de tiempo para AIC, con un aumento desde Post-agotamiento hasta Post-CHO sin ninguna diferencia entre las intervenciones. El potasio plasmático disminuyó entre el inicio y el post-agotamiento en ambas condiciones. No hubo diferencia en el contenido de glucógeno muscular entre las intervenciones o momentos. Conclusión: No hubo diferencias en el contenido de AIC y AEC entre las dos intervenciones en ningún momento. Nivel de Evidencia I; Pruebas de Criterios Diagnóstico Desarrollados Previamente.


RESUMO Introdução: Em atividades físicas prolongadas a reposição hídrica e o conteúdo de glicogênio muscular são fatores limitantes em corredores de maratonas. O carregamento de carboidrato (CHO) nos dias anteriores à competição de resistência é um método comumente empregado para otimizar os estoques de glicogênio muscular e o desempenho no exercício. Uma vez que cada grama de glicogênio muscular liga-se a ≈2,7 a 4 gramas de água, a retenção hídrica pode ocorrer durante dietas de carregamento de carboidrato. Objetivo: Avaliar diferenças entre as estratégias de carregamento de carboidratos (Bergström e Sherman) no teor de água intracelular (AIC) ou água extracelular (AEC). Métodos: Vinte e três corredores foram alocados aleatoriamente para duas intervenções (Bergström e Sherman) num delineamento em "crossover". Os participantes foram submetidos a uma avaliação inicial antes dos 3 dias de depleção de glicogênio, seguidos por 3 dias de carga de carboidratos com tempo de "washout" de 30 dias consistindo em dieta e treinamento normais. Utilizou-se a bioimpedância multifrequencial (BIS) para avaliar AIC e AEC na Etapa Inicial, Pós-depleção e Pós-CHO para determinar quaisquer diferenças entre os protocolos de Bersgstrom e Sherman. Também foram obtidas coletas de sangue para avaliar o potássio. Foram determinadas associações entre AIC, AEC e glicogênio muscular. Resultados: Não houve diferenças no conteúdo de AIC ou AEC entre as duas intervenções em qualquer momento. Houve um efeito do tempo para AIC, com aumento da etapa Pós-depleção para Pós-CHO sem qualquer diferença entre as intervenções. O potássio plasmático diminuiu entre a Linha de base e Pós-depleção em ambas condições. Não houve diferença no conteúdo de glicogênio muscular entre intervenções ou momentos. Conclusão: Não houve diferenças no conteúdo de AIC e AEC entre as intervenções de Bergström e Sherman em qualquer momento. Nível de Evidência I; Testes de Critérios Diagnósticos Desenvolvidos Anteriormente.

11.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 37: e20210234, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1534616

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Firefighters are regularly exposed to stress and have a high incidence of cardiovascular events. Investigating cardiovascular and autonomic reactivity to acute mental stress (AMS) and its association with adiposity may contribute to explaining the increased cardiovascular risk in these professionals. Objectives To evaluate cardiovascular and autonomic reactivity to AMS in firefighters while considering adiposity parameters. Methods This study recorded the blood pressure and heart rate (HR) of twenty-five firefighters (38±8 years) at rest, while performing the Stroop color-word test to induce AMS, and recovery. Cardiac autonomic modulation (HR variability), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS — sequential method), and adiposity (electrical bioimpedance) were assessed. One-way or two-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's post hoc test and multiple linear regression were performed. The significance level was P<0.05. Results The AMS increased mean arterial pressure (MAP — Δ16±13 mmHg) and HR (Δ14±7 bpm) ( P <0.05). These responses were associated with parasympathetic modulation withdrawal (RMSSD: baseline: 29.8±18 vs. AMS: 21.5±14 ms; High-frequency: baseline: 5.2±1.4 vs. AMS: 4.5±1.3 Ln ms 2 ; P <0.05) and decreased in the Up gain of the baroreflex (baseline: 8.9±5.1 vs. AMS: 6.3±3.0 mmHg/ms; P <0.05). Groups divided by HR reactivity peak showed parasympathetic modulation withdrawal only in firefighters with lower adiposity (RMSSD: baseline: 27.8±17.6 vs. AMS: 14.4±9.2 ms; High-Frequency: baseline: 5.3±1.2 vs. AMS: 3.8±1.4 Ln ms 2 ; P <0.05). Fat percentage (β = -0.499), BRS (β = 0.486), and sympathetic/parasympathetic balance (β = -0.351) were predictors of HR reactivity ( P <0.05). Conclusion Our results demonstrated that HR reactivity to AMS modulated by cardiac vagal withdrawal seems to be influenced by body composition in this group of firefighters.

12.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535364

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the effect of recombinant growth hormone (rGH) on body composition and metabolic profile of prepubertal short children born small for gestational age (SGA) before and after 18 months of treatment. Methods: It is a clinical, non-randomized, and paired study. Children born SGA, with birth weight and/or length <-2 standard deviations (SD) for gestational age and sex, prepubertal, born at full term, of both genders, with the indication for treatment with rGH were included. The intervention was performed with biosynthetic rGH at doses ranging from 0.03 to 0.05 mg/kg/day, administered subcutaneously, once a day at bedtime. Total lean mass (LM) and total fat mass (FM) were carried out using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and the metabolic profile was assessed for insulin, glycemia, IGF-1 levels and lipid profile. Results: Twelve patients (nine girls, 8.17±2.39 y) were evaluated; three patients dropped out of the study. There was an increase of LM adjusted for length (LMI) (p=0.008), LMI standard deviation score (SDS) adjusted for age and sex (p=0.007), and total LM (p<0.001). The percentage of body fat (BF%) and abdominal fat (AF) remained unaltered in relation to the beginning of treatment. Among the metabolic variables, blood glucose remained within normal levels, and there was a reduction in the number of participants with altered cholesterol (p=0.023). Conclusions: The effect of rGH treatment was higher on LM than in FM, with increased LM adjusted for length and standardized for age and sex. Glycemia remained within the normal limits, and there was a decreased number of children with total cholesterol above the recommended levels.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito do hormônio de crescimento recombinante (rHC) na composição corporal e no perfil metabólico de crianças pré-púberes com baixa estatura, nascidas pequenas para a idade gestacional (PIG) antes e depois de 18 meses de tratamento. Métodos: Estudo clínico, não randomizado e pareado. Foram incluídas crianças nascidas PIG, com peso e/ou altura ao nascer <-2 desvios padrão (DP) para idade gestacional e sexo, pré-púberes, nascidas a termo, de ambos os sexos, com indicação de tratamento com rGH. A intervenção foi realizada com rGH biossintético com doses variando de 0,03 a 0,05 mg/kg/dia, administrado por via subcutânea, uma vez ao dia ao deitar-se. A massa magra total (LM) e a massa gorda total (MG) foram determinadas por meio de absorciometria de raios X de dupla energia (DXA), e o perfil metabólico foi avaliado com dosagens de insulina, glicemia, IGF-1 e perfil lipídico. Resultados: Doze pacientes (nove meninas, 8,17±2,39 anos) foram avaliados; três pacientes abandonaram o estudo. Houve aumento da LM ajustada para estatura (LMI) (p=0,008), LMI standard deviation scores (SDS) ajustada para idade e sexo (p=0,007) e LM total (p<0,001). O percentual de gordura corporal (GC%) e gordura abdominal (AF) permaneceu inalterado em relação ao início do tratamento. Entre as variáveis metabólicas, a glicemia manteve-se na normalidade, e houve redução do número de participantes com colesterol alterado (p=0,023). Conclusões: O efeito do tratamento com HCr foi maior na MM do que na MG, com o aumento da MM ajustada para altura e padronizada para idade e sexo. A glicemia permaneceu normal e houve redução do número de crianças com colesterol total acima do recomendado.

13.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 30: e2022_0123, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449752

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: HIV/AIDS is considered one of the great cases of public health, but it is seen that patients who use antiretroviral therapy (ART) and practice strength training promote a promotion of their health. Objectives: Assess the impact of strength and resistance training on cytokines and body composition in people living with HIV/AIDS. Methods: Randomized clinical trial, the sample consisted of 12 patients, 7 from the Strength Group (GF) and 5 from Group 2, Muscular Resistance (MGR). We compared the levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α cytokines and body composition in the first and last sessions. The patients completed 36 strength and resistance training sessions over 12 weeks. Results: After 36 sessions of GRM resistance training, there was a significant increase from 4,734 pg/mL to 5,050 pg/mL of IL-10 (p=0.002). Regarding the GFR, no significant results were found. For body composition, there were significant differences in GFR due to the increase in lean mass of the arms from 6,441g to 7,014g (p=0.04), legs from 16,379g to 17,281g (p=0.02) and whole body of 45,640g to 47,343g (p=0.01). In G2 there was a significant decrease in the percentage of fat in the arms from 23,160% to 20,750% (p = 0.04). To assess quality of life, the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref questionnaire was used, where significant improvement was found in all domains, except for the level of independence domain. Conclusion: We conclude that muscular resistance training is effective in increasing IL-10 and decreasing the percentage of fat in the arms, whereas strength training increases lean mass in arms, legs, and the whole body. Level of Evidence I; Randomized Clinical Trial.


RESUMEN Introducción: El VIH/SIDA es considerado uno de los grandes casos de salud pública, sin embargo, está comprobado que pacientes que hacen uso de la terapia antirretroviral (TARV) y practican entrenamiento de fuerza provoca una promoción de su salud. Objetivos: Evaluar el impacto del entrenamiento de fuerza en la resistencia a las citoquinas y en la composición corporal de las personas que viven con VIH/SIDA. Métodos: Ensayo clínico aleatorizado, la muestra estuvo compuesta por 12 pacientes, siete del Grupo de Fuerza (TFG) y cinco del Grupo de Resistencia Muscular (GRM). Se compararon los niveles de las citocinas IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 y TNF-α y la composición corporal en la primera y la última sesión. Los pacientes completaron 36 sesiones de entrenamiento de fuerza y resistencia durante 12 semanas. Resultados: Tras 36 sesiones de entrenamiento de resistencia GRM, se produjo un aumento significativo de 4.734 pg/mL a 5.050 pg/mL de IL-10 (p=0,002). En cuanto a la TFG, no se encontraron resultados significativos. En cuanto a la composición corporal, hubo diferencias significativas en la TFG debido al aumento de la masa magra en brazos de 6.441g a 7.014g (p=0,04), piernas de 16.379g a 17.281g (p=0,02) y cuerpo entero de 45.640g a 47.343g (p=0,01). En el GRM hubo una disminución significativa del porcentaje de grasa en los brazos de 23.160% a 20.750% (p = 0,04). Para la evaluación de la calidad de vida se utilizó el cuestionario WHOQOL-HIV-Bref, donde se encontró una mejoría significativa en todos los dominios, excepto en el dominio nivel de independencia. Conclusión: Concluimos que el entrenamiento de resistencia muscular es eficaz para aumentar la IL-10 y disminuir el porcentaje de grasa en los brazos, mientras que el entrenamiento de fuerza aumenta la masa magra total. Nivel de Evidencia I; Ensayo clínico aleatorizado.


RESUMO Introdução: O HIV/AIDS é considerado um dos grandes casos de saúde pública, porém verifica-se que pacientes que fazem uso de terapia antirretroviral (TARV) e praticam treinamento de força provocam uma promoção de sua saúde. Objetivos: Avaliar o impacto do treinamento de força sobre a resistência nas citocinas e a composição corporal de pessoas vivendo com HIV/AIDS. Métodos: Ensaio clínico randomizado, a amostra foi composta por 12 pacientes, sendo sete do Grupo Força (TFG) e cinco do Grupo Resistência Muscular (GRM). Comparou-se os níveis das citocinas IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 e TNF-α e a composição corporal na primeira e na última sessão. Os pacientes completaram 36 sessões de treinamento de força e resistência ao longo de 12 semanas. Resultados: Após 36 sessões de treinamento resistido GRM, houve um aumento significativo de 4.734 pg/mL para 5.050 pg/mL de IL-10 (p=0,002). Em relação à TFG, não foram encontrados resultados significativos. Para composição corporal, houve diferenças significativas na TFG devido ao aumento da massa magra dos braços de 6.441g para 7.014g (p=0,04), pernas de 16.379g para 17.281g (p=0,02) e corpo inteiro de 45.640g para 47.343g (p=0,01). No GRM houve diminuição significativa do percentual de gordura nos braços de 23.160% para 20.750% (p = 0,04). Para avaliação da qualidade de vida foi utilizado o questionário WHOQOL-HIV-Bref, onde foi encontrada uma melhora significativa em todos os domínios, exceto no domínio nível de independência. Conclusão: Conclui-se que o treinamento de resistência muscular é eficaz em aumentar a IL-10 e diminuir o percentual de gordura nos braços, enquanto o treinamento de força aumenta a massa magra geral. Nível de Evidência I; Ensaio Clínico Randomizado.

14.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469258

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study aimed to determine the effect of different levels of protein on the growth, body composition, amino acid profile and serology of Channa marulius fingerlings. The experiment was conducted in ten happas installed in earthen ponds, each stocked with 10 fishes for 90 days. Four commercial fish feeds having 25%, 30%, 32% and 40% crude protein (CP) levels were fed to fish at 3% of their wet body weight three times a day. The results of the study revealed that highest weight gain, feed conversion ratio and survival rate were observed in 30% protein feed. Meanwhile, moisture content was higher in fish fed with 30% CP feed while highest crude protein was recorded in 40% CP fed fish. Lowest fat content was observed in 32% CP feed. Amino acid profile of fish revealed better results in 30% CP feed. Total protein, glucose and globulin were also highest in fish feeding 30% CP feed, while albumin was highest in 40% CP feed. It is concluded that 30% CP feed showed better results in terms of growth, amino acid profile and serological parameters without effecting fish body composition.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar o efeito de diferentes níveis de proteína sobre o crescimento, composição corporal, perfil de aminoácidos e sorologia de alevinos de Channa marulius. O experimento foi conduzido em dez happas instalados em tanques de terra, cada um abastecido com 10 peixes, por 90 dias. Quatro alimentos para peixes comerciais com níveis de 25%, 30%, 32% e 40% de proteína bruta (PB) foram dados aos peixes com 3% de seu peso corporal úmido três vezes ao dia. Os resultados do estudo revelaram que maior ganho de peso, taxa de conversão alimentar e taxa de sobrevivência foram observados em 30% de proteína alimentar. Enquanto isso, o conteúdo de umidade foi maior em peixes alimentados com 30% de PB, enquanto a proteína bruta mais alta foi registrada em peixes alimentados com 40% de PB. O menor conteúdo de gordura foi observado em rações com 32% de PB. O perfil de aminoácidos dos peixes revelou melhores resultados na ração com 30% de PB. Proteína total, glicose e globulina também foram maiores em peixes alimentados com ração com 30% de PB, enquanto a albumina foi mais alta com 40% de PB. Conclui-se que a ração com 30% de PB apresentou melhores resultados em termos de crescimento, perfil de aminoácidos e parâmetros sorológicos sem afetar a composição corporal dos peixes.

15.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250821, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345541

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study aimed to determine the effect of different levels of protein on the growth, body composition, amino acid profile and serology of Channa marulius fingerlings. The experiment was conducted in ten happas installed in earthen ponds, each stocked with 10 fishes for 90 days. Four commercial fish feeds having 25%, 30%, 32% and 40% crude protein (CP) levels were fed to fish at 3% of their wet body weight three times a day. The results of the study revealed that highest weight gain, feed conversion ratio and survival rate were observed in 30% protein feed. Meanwhile, moisture content was higher in fish fed with 30% CP feed while highest crude protein was recorded in 40% CP fed fish. Lowest fat content was observed in 32% CP feed. Amino acid profile of fish revealed better results in 30% CP feed. Total protein, glucose and globulin were also highest in fish feeding 30% CP feed, while albumin was highest in 40% CP feed. It is concluded that 30% CP feed showed better results in terms of growth, amino acid profile and serological parameters without effecting fish body composition.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar o efeito de diferentes níveis de proteína sobre o crescimento, composição corporal, perfil de aminoácidos e sorologia de alevinos de Channa marulius. O experimento foi conduzido em dez happas instalados em tanques de terra, cada um abastecido com 10 peixes, por 90 dias. Quatro alimentos para peixes comerciais com níveis de 25%, 30%, 32% e 40% de proteína bruta (PB) foram dados aos peixes com 3% de seu peso corporal úmido três vezes ao dia. Os resultados do estudo revelaram que maior ganho de peso, taxa de conversão alimentar e taxa de sobrevivência foram observados em 30% de proteína alimentar. Enquanto isso, o conteúdo de umidade foi maior em peixes alimentados com 30% de PB, enquanto a proteína bruta mais alta foi registrada em peixes alimentados com 40% de PB. O menor conteúdo de gordura foi observado em rações com 32% de PB. O perfil de aminoácidos dos peixes revelou melhores resultados na ração com 30% de PB. Proteína total, glicose e globulina também foram maiores em peixes alimentados com ração com 30% de PB, enquanto a albumina foi mais alta com 40% de PB. Conclui-se que a ração com 30% de PB apresentou melhores resultados em termos de crescimento, perfil de aminoácidos e parâmetros sorológicos sem afetar a composição corporal dos peixes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fishes , Animal Feed/analysis , Pakistan , Body Composition , Ponds , Diet
16.
Pensar mov ; 21(2): e57055, jul.-dic. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558647

ABSTRACT

Resumen Esta ponencia examina las evidencias para la actividad física en la pérdida de peso y de adiposidad, la prevención del aumento de peso y la adiposidad, así como la recuperación de peso en adultos, y provee orientación sobre las implicaciones para los profesionales del ejercicio. La evidencia de la investigación indica que se requieren > 150 minutos, pero preferiblemente 300 minutos por semana de actividad aeróbica de intensidad al menos moderada para prevenir el aumento de peso y adiposidad, y al menos el extremo superior de esta gama de actividad para prevenir la recuperación de peso después de la pérdida de peso. Para que la pérdida de peso y adiposidad total sea significativa, se requiere un mínimo de 300 a 400 minutos por semana de actividad aeróbica de intensidad, al menos, moderada. La evidencia en torno al volumen de actividad física aeróbica requerida para reducir la adiposidad central está surgiendo, y las investigaciones apuntan a que puede ser sustancialmente menor que la que se requiere para la pérdida de peso. El impacto de la actividad física de alta intensidad y el ejercicio de resistencia para la gestión del peso es incierto. Durante las consultas para la gestión del peso, los profesionales en ejercicio deben aconsejar que se pueden lograr beneficios para la salud metabólica y cardiovascular por medio de la actividad física a cualquier peso, e independientemente del cambio de peso.


Abstract This Position Statement examines the evidence for physical activity in weight and adiposity loss, prevention of weight and adiposity gain, and in weight regain in adults, and provides guidance on implications for exercise practitioners. Research evidence indicates that >150 min but preferably 300 min per week of aerobic activity of at least moderate intensity is required to prevent weight and adiposity gain, and at least the upper end of this range of activity to prevent weight regain after weight loss. For meaningful weight and total adiposity loss, a minimum of 300-420 min per week of aerobic activity of at least moderate intensity is required. The evidence around the volume of aerobic physical activity required to reduce central adiposity is emerging, and research suggests that it may be substantially less than that required for weight loss. The impact of high-intensity physical activity and resistance exercise for weight management is uncertain. During consultations for weight management, exercise practitioners should advise that metabolic and cardiovascular health benefits can be achieved with physical activity at any weight, and irrespective of weight change.


Resumo Este documento examina as evidências da atividade física na perda de peso e adiposidade, na prevenção do ganho de peso e adiposidade e na recuperação de peso em adultos, e fornece orientações sobre as implicações para os profissionais do exercício físico. As evidências da pesquisa indicam que são necessários mais de 150 minutos, mas preferencialmente 300 minutos por semana de atividade aeróbica de intensidade moderada para evitar o ganho de peso e adiposidade, e pelo menos o extremo superior dessa gama de atividade para evitar o ganho de peso após a perda de peso. É necessário um mínimo de 300 a 400 minutos por semana de atividade aeróbica de intensidade moderada para uma perda significativa de peso e adiposidade total. Estão surgindo evidências sobre a quantidade de atividade física aeróbica necessária para reduzir a adiposidade central, e pesquisas sugerem que ela pode ser substancialmente menor do que a necessária para a perda de peso. O impacto da atividade física de alta intensidade e dos exercícios de resistência no controle de peso é incerto. Durante as consultas de controle de peso, os profissionais do exercício físico devem informar que os benefícios metabólicos e cardiovasculares à saúde podem ser obtidos por meio da atividade física em qualquer peso, independentemente da mudança de peso.

17.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1824-1832, dic. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528780

ABSTRACT

La termografía por infrarrojo (TI) permite evaluar la temperatura corporal, medir los cambios en la disipación del calor corporal en superficie y relacionarlos con las características de composición corporal e índices antropométricos. Aumentar el número de registros de zonas corporales evaluadas con TI y establecer las relaciones de estas temperaturas (32 áreas corporales) con variables de composición corporal e índices antropométricos, como el índice de masa corporal (IMC), índice cintura cadera, índice cintura estatura, en hombres adultos divididos según su estado ponderal. Participaron 60 hombres, adultos sanos, divididos en 2 grupos: grupo 1 (n=30), con IMC ≤ 24,9, edad 23,2 ± 3,9 años, masa corporal 66,5 ± 6,5 kg, y talla 170,5 ± 7,4 cm; y, grupo 2 (n= 30), con IMC > 24,9, edad 29,4 ± 9,9 años, masa corporal 84,5 ± 11,9 kg, y talla 172,0 ± 7,18 cm. Se realizaron evaluaciones antropométricas y de TI. Sujetos con IMC ≤ 24,9 kg/ m2 presentaron valores mayores de temperatura superficial, en todas las zonas estudiadas, a diferencia de los sujetos con niveles de IMC > 24,9 kg/m2, donde la disipación del calor corporal fue menor. Existe una estrecha relación entre la temperatura superficial de la piel y el IMC, donde sujetos con un IMC normal mostraron una disipación de calor y valores de temperatura superficial mayores, en todas las zonas evaluadas, a diferencia de los sujetos con un IMC que se encontraba por encima del límite de normalidad.


SUMMARY: Infrared thermography (IT) makes it possible to assess body temperature, measure changes in body heat dissipation on the surface, and relate them to body composition characteristics and anthropometric indices. The objective of this study was to increase the number of records of body areas evaluated with IT and establish the relationships of these temperatures (32 body areas) with body composition variables and anthropometric indices, such as body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, in adult men divided according to their weight status. A total of 60 healthy adult men participated, divided into 2 groups: group 1 (n=30), with a body mass index (BMI) ≤ 24.9, age 23.2 ± 3.9 years, body mass 66.5 ± 6.5 kg, and height 170.5 ± 7.4 cm; and, group 2 (n = 30), with BMI > 24.9, age 29.4 ± 9.9 years, body mass 84.5 ± 11.9 kg, and height 172.0 ± 7.18 cm. Anthropometric and IT assessments were performed. Subjects with BMI ≤ 24.9 kg/ m2 presented higher values of surface temperature in all areas studied, unlike subjects with BMI levels > 24.9 kg/m2, where body heat dissipation was lower. There is a close relationship between skin surface temperature and BMI, where subjects with a normal BMI showed higher heat dissipation and surface temperature values, in all evaluated areas, unlike subjects with a BMI that was above the normal limit.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Body Composition , Body Temperature , Anthropometry , Skinfold Thickness , Thermography , Body Mass Index , Waist-Hip Ratio , Overweight , Waist-Height Ratio , Obesity
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1653-1659, dic. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528793

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Monitoring of body composition and cardiophysiological parameters are main part of the general health status of handball players and significant indicators of their physical fitness. The assessment of body components, especially skeletal muscle mass and body fat mass are important because of their influence on sport performance. The aim of this study is to determine the body composition and cardiophysiological characteristics of elite handball players from Republic of North Macedonia. 27 male HB players from two top ranking teams from RNM were tested ergometrically with Bruce protocol for determination of maximal oxygen consumption; body analysis was made with bioelectrical impedance analyzer, InBody 720. Anthropometric parameters were as follows: mean height was 190.4±7.8 cm and weight 96.3±15.5 kg, skeletal muscle mass (SMM)=47.11±6.69 kg; BMI=26.38±3.1; BF%=15.04±6.01 and WHR=0.9±1.8. The result of ergometrical test produce mean VO2 max=43.92 ml/kg/min which is 100.46 % of reference value. The body composition of elite international handball players from the top handball teams in Republic of North Macedonia showed similar body components as other European handball players. The obesity diagnose parameters were negatively associated with exercise time and maximal oxygen consumption.


El seguimiento de la composición corporal y los parámetros cardiofisiológicos son una parte principal del estado de salud general de los jugadores de balonmano y son indicadores importantes de su condición física. La evaluación de los componentes corporales, especialmente la masa muscular esquelética y la masa grasa corporal, son importantes debido a su influencia en el rendimiento deportivo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la composición corporal y las características cardiofisiológicas de jugadores de balonmano de élite de la República de Macedonia del Norte. Se evaluaron 27 jugadores masculinos de HB de dos equipos de primer nivel de RNM ergométricamente con el protocolo de Bruce para determinar el consumo máximo de oxígeno; el análisis corporal se realizó con el analizador de impedancia bioeléctrica InBody 720. Los parámetros antropométricos fueron los siguientes: talla media 190,4±7,8 cm y peso 96,3±15,5 kg, masa músculo esquelética (SMM)=47,11±6,69 kg; IMC=26,38±3,1; %GC=15,04±6,01 y RCC=0,9±1,8. El resultado de la prueba ergométrica produce un VO2 máximo medio = 43,92 ml/kg/ min, que es el 100,46 % del valor de referencia. La composición corporal de los jugadores de balonmano internacionales de élite de los mejores equipos de balonmano de la República de Macedonia del Norte mostró componentes corporales similares a los de otros jugadores de balonmano europeos. Los parámetros diagnósticos de obesidad se asociaron negativamente con el tiempo de ejercicio y el consumo máximo de oxígeno.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Body Composition , Athletes , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Oxygen Consumption , Anthropometry , Cross-Sectional Studies , Republic of North Macedonia
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1758-1763, dic. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528794

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The Olympic Games always offer great interest when it comes to water polo. Currently, many selections have an approximate quality and details determine who will win. Prior to the tournament the authors wanted to verify body composition and anthropometric characteristics of players of the three national teams, Serbia, the United States of America (USA) and Montenegro. The purpose of this research was to determine the differences in body composition and anthropometric characteristics between the water polo players of the national team of Serbia and Olympic champion in Tokyo 2021, the national team of USA which took sixth place and the national team of Montenegro, which took the eighth place. Body mass index, fat percentage and muscle mass (body composition variables) were evaluated by Bioelectric Impedance type MC-980 and body height, body weight, triceps skinfold, biceps skinfold, skinfold of the back, abdominal skinfold, upper leg skinfold, lower leg skinfold (other anthropometric characteristics) were evaluated by an anthropometer and a calliper. ANOVA showed that there was a statistically significant difference in fat percentage. The LSD post hoc test showed statistically significant differences between the water polo players of the Montenegrin national team (13.33 %) compared to the water polo players of the USA national team (16.67 %). It can be stated that water polo players from Montenegro had a statistically significantly lower fat percentage than water polo players from the USA and a lower level of fat than water polo players from Serbia, though this was not statistically significant. Although the fat percentage is a disruptive factor with athletes, it had no effect on the result at the Olympic Games in Tokyo, because Serbia eventually won the gold medal, the USA obtained sixth place, and Montenegro eighth place. It means that some other abilities influenced the results at the Tokyo Olympics in water polo, for example tactical, physical, psychological, technical... which is to be shown by some other research.


Los Juegos Olímpicos siempre ofrecen un gran interés en lo que respecta al waterpolo. Actualmente, muchas selecciones tienen una calidad aproximada y los detalles determinan quién ganará. Antes del torneo, los autores deseaban comprobar la composición corporal y las características antropométricas de los jugadores de las tres selecciones nacionales: Serbia, Estados Unidos (EE.UU.) y Montenegro, que siempre tienen las mayores ambiciones en las grandes competiciones. El propósito de esta investigación fue determinar las diferencias en composición corporal y características antropométricas entre los jugadores de waterpolo de la selección nacional de Serbia, que fue campeona olímpica en Tokio 2021, la selección nacional de Estados Unidos que ocupó el sexto lugar y la selección nacional de Montenegro, que acabó octavo. El índice de masa corporal, el porcentaje de grasa y la masa muscular (variables de composición corporal) se evaluaron mediante Impedancia Bioeléctrica tipo MC-980 y la altura corporal, el peso corporal, el pliegue del tríceps, el pliegue del bíceps, el pliegue de la espalda, el pliegue abdominal, el pliegue de la parte superior de la pierna y la parte inferior de la pierna. Los pliegues cutáneos (otras características antropométricas) fueron evaluados mediante un antropómetro y un calibrador. ANOVA mostró que había una diferencia estadísticamente significativa en el porcentaje de grasa. La prueba post hoc de LSD mostró diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los jugadores de waterpolo de la selección nacional de Montenegro (13,33 %) en comparación con los jugadores de waterpolo de la selección de Estados Unidos (16,67 %). Se puede afirmar que los jugadores de waterpolo de Montenegro tenían un porcentaje de grasa estadísticamente significativamente menor que los jugadores de waterpolo de EE. UU. y un nivel de grasa más bajo que los jugadores de waterpolo de Serbia, lo que no es estadísticamente significativo. Aunque el porcentaje de grasa es un factor perturbador para los atletas, no tuvo ningún efecto en el resultado de los Juegos Olímpicos de Tokio, ya que al final Serbia ganó la medalla de oro, Estados Unidos quedó en sexto lugar y Montenegro en el octavo lugar. Esto significa que en los resultados de los Juegos Olímpicos de Tokio en el waterpolo influyeron otras habilidades, por ejemplo tácticas, físicas, psicológicas y técnicas, tal como lo demostrarán investigaciones a futuro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Body Composition , Anthropometry , Water Sports , Analysis of Variance
20.
Rev. cuba. med ; 62(4)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1550900

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El ciclismo es una actividad física que se practica de forma recreativa y como actividad laboral, en base a esto los beneficios en la salud varían. Sus efectos pueden extenderse en la regulación de la expresión de citocinas proinflamatorias en la obesidad; sin embargo, se deben estudiar detalles en los indicadores clínicos asociados a otras enfermedades crónico-degenerativas. Objetivo: Identificar los cambios en los parámetros clínicos que sirven como indicadores de riesgo metabólico en personas que realizan ciclismo como ejercicio habitual y como actividad laboral. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación de diseño transversal, descriptivo en el Estado de México, México. Se formaron 3 grupos de 16 participantes provenientes de Toluca y municipios aledaños. Se realizaron mediciones de composición corporal y análisis bioquímicos para identificar las diferencias entre los grupos a través de la prueba t- student y el análisis de varianza ANOVA. Resultados: Los análisis estadísticos reportaron diferencias significativas en las concentraciones de lipoproteínas de alta densindad y triglicéridos. Para el grupo de los conductores de bicitaxi fue más favorable, se detalla como el tiempo de la actividad ayuda a mantener los parámetros de composición corporal como el porcentaje del tejido muscular y adiposo. Conclusiones: Los beneficios del ciclismo se presentaron con diferentes grados de eficiencia de acuerdo con la modalidad en la que se practican. Las variables no cambian de forma significativa en ningún grupo, pueden ser dependientes de otras variables como la alimentación(AU)


Introduction: Cycling is a physical activity, which is practiced recreationally and as a work activity. Its effects may extend to the regulation of the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in obesity; however, details should be studied in the clinical indicators associated with other chronic-degenerative diseases. Objective: To identify changes in clinical parameters that serve as indicators of metabolic risk in people who perform cycling as a regular exercise and as a work activity. Methods: A cross-sectional and descriptive design research was carried out in the State of Mexico, Mexico. Three groups of 16 participants were formed from Toluca and surrounding municipalities. Body composition measurements and biochemical analyzes were performed to identify differences between groups through Student's t test and ANOVA analysis of variance. Results: Statistical analyzes reported significant differences in HDL and triglyceride concentrations. For the group of pedicab drivers it was more favorable, it is detailed how the time of the activity helps to maintain body composition parameters such as the percentage of muscle and adipose tissue. Conclusions: The benefits of cycling were presented with different degrees of efficiency according to the modality in which they are practiced. The variables do not change significantly in any group and may be dependent on other variables such as diet(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Exercise , Nutritional Status , Occupational Health , Metabolic Diseases/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
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