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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928328

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of RUNX2 gene overexpression vector modified exosomes derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) combined with calcium carbonate scaffold system in bone defect.@*METHODS@#Rabbit BMSCs were used as the research object, and BMSCs were identified by flow cytometry. Construct RUNX2 gene overexpression vector, transfect BMSCs with lentivirus, and collect exosomes by ultracentrifugation. The morphology of exosomes was observed by transmission electron microscope, the expression of exosome marker CD63 was detected by Western blot, and the calcium carbonate scaffold was constructed by three chamber parallel automatic temperature control reaction system. According to whether the RUNX2 gene overexpression vector was transfected or not, the complex of BMSCs and calcium carbonate scaffold was divided into three groups, namely BMSCs group, RUNX2 overexpression group and exosome group. The osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs was detected by oil red O staining and RT-PCR. There were 9 clean adult healthy male New Zealand white rabbits, aged (12.97±1.21) months, with a body weight of (19.3±3.6) kg, with 3 rabbits in each group. The animal model of skull defect was constructed by surgical method, and the repair of bone defect was evaluated by imaging, he staining and Masson staining.@*RESULTS@#The results of flow cytometry showed that the expression of CD29 protein, CD44 protein, CD11b protein and CD45 protein on the surface of BMSCs were 99.5%, 100%, 0.1% and 0.1%, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the exosomes were bilayer vesicles with a diameter of 50 to 150 nm. Western blot showed that the molecular marker CD63 of exosomes was positive. Oil red O staining showed that the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in exosome group was significantly higher than that in RUNX2 overexpression group and BMSCs group. The results of RT-PCR showed that the relative expressions of RUNX2, BMP-2 and ALP mRNA in BMSCs in exosome group were significantly higher than those in RUNX2 overexpression group and BMSCs group (P<0.05). The imaging results showed that the repair effect of skull defect in exosome group was better than that in RUNX2 overexpression group. HE staining and Masson staining showed that the repair effect of skull defect in exosome group was better than that in RUNX2 overexpression group (P<0.05). MSCs in exosome group was significantly higher than that in RUNX2 overexpression group and BMSCs group. The results of RT-PCR showed that the relative expressions of RUNX2, BMP-2 and ALP mRNA in BMSCs in exosome group were significantly higher than those in RUNX2 overexpression group and BMSCs group(P<0.05). The imaging results showed that the repair effect of skull defect in exosome group was better than that in RUNX2 overexpression group. HE staining and Masson staining showed that the repair effect of skull defect in exosome group was better than that in RUNX2 overexpression group(P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Compared with RUNX2 gene overexpression vector transfection, extraction of exosomes directly can promote the differentiation of BMSCs into osteoblasts more efficiently, and the combination with calcium carbonate scaffold can better promote the healing of bone defects. So as to provide new ideas and methods for the clinical treatment of bone defects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium Carbonate/metabolism , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/metabolism , Exosomes/metabolism , Humans , Male , Osteogenesis/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Rabbits
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942635

ABSTRACT

@#Vertical bone augmentation surgery still faces considerable challenges in clinical practice due to various problems, such as difficulty in restoring the ideal alveolar bone height and biological complications, and because it is highly technically sensitive. Plasmatrix is derived from patients’ own blood, and it can effectively promote the vascularization of the regenerated area, recruit stem cells, and reduce inflammation when used in vertical bone augmentation. Based on studies published worldwide, this article first divides vertical bone augmentation into 3 categories according to the height of the expected alveolar ridge, namely, type Ⅰ, the required vertical bone gain is less than 4 mm; type Ⅱ, the required vertical bone gain is between 4-8 mm; and type Ⅲ, the required vertical bone gain is greater than 8 mm. In the type Ⅰ vertical bone augmentation, the plasmatrix bone block is directly placed in the defect area and covered with the plasmatrix membrane before tension-free suturing; in the type Ⅱ vertical bone augmentation, the plasmatrix bone block should be placed in the defect area and fixed with titanium nails and then covered with an absorbable collagen membrane and plasmatrix membrane with a tension-free suture; in the type Ⅲ vertical bone augmentation, additional active ingredients (such as bone morphogenetic protein, autologous bone, etc.) should be added to the plasmatrix bone block and strong fixation (such as titanium nails) should be used. Absorbable collagen and plasmatrix membranes should be used to cover the surface of the bone block, and the flap should be sutured. According to different types of vertical bone augmentation categories, the above methods optimize the vertical bone augmentation effect. This article aims to provide a reference and guidelines for oral clinicians to fully understand plasmatrix and simplify the classification and operation of vertical bone augmentation.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906998

ABSTRACT

@#Tooth loss is accompanied by alveolar bone absorption or defect, resulting in insufficient bone and soft tissue. In addition to restoring the masticatory function of missing teeth, implant treatment should also needs to restore the contour and shape of the dental arch. Guided bone regeneration is a common means of bone increase. Xenogeneic granular bone substitute materials are widely used in the field of clinical bone augmentation due to their advantages of long degradation time and low immunogenicity, but other problems, such as inconvenient operation and low osteogenic activity, remain. Plasmatrix can effectively improve the effect of oral tissue regeneration and reduce the occurrence of postoperative complications, and its application in oral tissue regeneration is gradually increasing. This article first introduces the main application forms of plasmatrix in horizontal bone augmentation (mainly solid plasmatrix membrane and plasmatrix bone block), and reclassifies horizontal bone defects according to commonly used decision-making schemes in clinical bone augmentation, in other words, whether the implant can be placed in the ideal position and whether there is bone dehiscence after implantation. Type Ⅰ defects refers to the situation where the bone at the implant site can allow the insertion of an implant with ideal size, and there is no bone dehiscence around the implant, but the alveolar bone contour is not ideal; type Ⅱ defects refers to the situation that when an ideal size implant is placed at the implant site determined by the future prosthesis position, there will be bones on three sides of the implant, but there is bone dehiscence in the buccal bone wall (the length of bone dehiscence is less than 50% of the implant length); type Ⅲ defects refers to the situation where the bone volume at the implant site is not enough to for the placement of the ideal size implant at the ideal position, and bone grafting is required to restore the bone volume before the implant placement. The application of plasmatrix in different types of bone defects is then described. In type Ⅰ bone defects, the solid plasmatrix membrane is used instead of the collagen membrane; in type Ⅱ bone defects, the bone defect around the implant is filled by plasmatrix bone block and then covered with collagen membrane and solid plasmatrix membrane; and in type Ⅲ bone defects, plasmatrix bone block is used to replace autogenous bone block to fill the defect area, and titanium screws are used for fixation. The defect is then covered with a collagen membrane and a solid plasmatrix membrane. This article aims to provide oral clinicians with a comprehensive understanding of plasmatrix and simplify the guidelines for bone regeneration operations.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920554

ABSTRACT

@#The reconstruction effect of peri-implantitis bone defects depends on their morphological characteristics. This paper reviews the morphological classification and treatment of peri-implantitis bone defects. A literature review shows that the morphological classification of bone defects in peri-implantitis includes morphology classification and clinical classification. At present, the Renvert classification is more commonly used in the clinic and is divided into four-wall bone pockets, three-wall bone pockets, two-wall bone pockets, one-wall bone pocket and dehiscence according to the number of bone walls. This has guiding significance in the treatment plan of peri-implantitis. The treatment of peri-implantitis depends on the severity of peri-implant bone defects. Peri-implantitis with mild bone defects is treated by nonsurgical treatment, peri-implantitis with severe bone defects is recommended to remove the implant, and peri-implantitis with moderate bone defects is further judged according to the shape of the bone defects. Four-wall bone pockets, three-wall bone pockets and dehiscence are mostly treated by bone regenerative surgery. For shallow two-wall bone pockets, one-wall bone pockets and horizontal bone resorption, bone resection is often used. However, most peri-implantitis has a variety of bone defect forms at the same time, which need to be treated with bone regenerative surgery and bone resection surgery.

5.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(4): 83-95, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1345517

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the bone repair in surgical defects of rats treated with hyaluronic acid (HA) associated or not with Hevea brasiliensis fraction protein (F-1). Bone defect were created in 15 albino Wistar rats divided into 3 groups (n=5): Control group (1) - blood clot; HA group (2) - 0.5% hyaluronic acid; HAF1 group (3) - 0.1% F-1 protein fraction dissolved in 0.5% hyaluronic acid. After 4 weeks, the animals were euthanized and the bone repair was evaluated through histomorphometric analysis, zymography and immunohistochemistry. The neoformed bone area did not show a significant difference (p = 0.757), but there was a tendency for bone trabeculation to increase in the groups HA and HAF1. For immunohistochemically analysis, there was a difference in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) labeling (p = 0.023), being higher in the groups HA and HAF1 than the control group. No significant difference in bone sialoprotein (BSP) (p = 0.681), osteocalcin (p = 0.954), however, significant difference in platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD-31) (p = 0.040), with HAF1 group being significantly lower than the control. For zymographic analysis, there was no significant difference for metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) (p = 0.068), but there was a tendency to increase MMP-2 in the HA group. Despite the influence on angiogenic factors and the apparent tendency for greater trabeculation in the HA and HAF1 groups, there was no significant difference in the area of ​​newly formed bone tissue in the analyzed period.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o reparo ósseo em defeitos cirúrgicos de ratos tratados com ácido hialurônico (AH) associado ou não à fração proteica de Hevea brasiliensis (F-1). Foram criados defeitos ósseos em 15 ratos albinos Wistar divididos em 3 grupos (n = 5): Grupo controle (1) - coágulo sanguíneo; Grupo HA (2) - ácido hialurônico 0,5%; Grupo HAF1 (3) - fração proteica F-1 0,1% dissolvida em ácido hialurônico a 0,5%. Após 4 semanas, os animais foram submetidos à eutanásia e o reparo ósseo avaliado por meio de análise histomorfométrica, zimografia e imunohistoquímica. A área óssea neoformada não apresentou diferença significativa (p = 0,757), mas houve tendência de aumento da trabeculação óssea nos grupos HA e HAF1. Para a análise imunoistoquímica, houve diferença na marcação do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular (VEGF) (p = 0,023), sendo maior nos grupos HA e HAF1 do que no grupo controle. Nenhuma diferença significativa na sialoproteína óssea (BSP) (p = 0,681), osteocalcina (p = 0,954), no entanto, diferenças significativas foram encontradas para a molécula de adesão de células endoteliais plaquetárias-1 (CD-31) (p = 0,040), com o grupo HAF1 sendo significativamente inferior ao controle. Para a análise zimográfica, não houve diferença significativa para metaloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) (p = 0,068), mas houve tendência de aumento da MMP-2 no grupo HA. Apesar da influência sobre os fatores angiogênicos e da aparente tendência de maior trabeculação nos grupos HA e HAF1, não houve diferença significativa na área de tecido ósseo neoformado no período analisado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Hyaluronic Acid , Latex , Bone Regeneration , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
6.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(2): 138-146, Apr.-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251348

ABSTRACT

Abstract The increase in the number of revision total knee arthroplasty surgeries has been observed in recent years, worldwide, for several causes. In the United States, a 601% increase in the number of total knee arthroplasties, between 2005 and 2030, is estimated. Among the enormous challenges of this complex surgery, the adequate treatment of bone defects is essential to obtain satisfactory and lasting results. The adequate treatment of bone defects aims to build a stable and lasting support platform for the implantation of the definitive prosthetic components and, if possible, with the reconstruction of bone stock. Concomitantly, it allows the correct alignment of the prosthetic and limb components, as well as restoring the height of the joint interline and, thus, restoring the tension of soft parts and load distribution to the host bone, generating a joint reconstruction with good function, stable, and painless. There are several options for the management of these bone defects, among them: bone cement with or without reinforcement with screws, modular metallic augmentations, impacted bone graft, structural homologous graft and, more recently, metal metaphyseal cones, and metaphyseal sleeves. The objective of the present article was to gather classic information and innovations about the main aspects related to the treatment of bone defects during revision surgeries for total knee arthroplasty.


Resumo O aumento do número de cirurgias de revisão de artroplastia total do joelho tem sido observado nos últimos anos, em todo o mundo, por diversas causas. Nos Estados Unidos, é estimado um aumento de 601% no número de artroplastias totais do joelho entre 2005 e 2030. Dentre os enormes desafios dessa cirurgia complexa, o adequado tratamento dos defeitos ósseos é essencial para a obtenção de resultados satisfatórios e duradouros. O adequado tratamento dos defeitos ósseos objetiva construir uma plataforma de suporte estável e duradoura para a implantação dos componentes protéticos definitivos e, se possível, com recomposição do estoque ósseo. Concomitantemente, possibilita o correto alinhamento dos componentes protéticos e do membro, assim como permite restabelecer a altura da interlinha articular e, dessa forma, restaurar a tensão de partes moles e distribuição de carga ao osso hospedeiro, gerando uma reconstrução articular com boa função, estável e indolor. Diversas são as opções para manejo dessas falhas ósseas, entre elas: cimento ósseo com ou sem reforço com parafusos, aumentos metálicos modulares, enxerto ósseo impactado, enxerto estrutural homólogo e, mais recentemente, cones metafisários de metal trabecular e sleeve metafisário. O objetivo do presente artigo foi reunir informações clássicas e inovações dos principais aspectos relativos ao tratamento das falhas ósseas durante as cirurgias de revisão de artroplastia total do joelho.


Subject(s)
Bone and Bones/abnormalities , Bone Transplantation , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879449

ABSTRACT

In the process of repairing of bone defects, bone scaffold materials need to be implanted to restore the corresponding tissue structure at the injury. At present, the repair materials used for bone defects mainly include autogenous bone, allogeneic bone, metal materials, bioceramics, polymer materials and various composite materials. Different materials have demonstrated strong reconstruction ability in bone repair, but the ideal bone implants in the clinic are still yet to be established. Except for autogenous bone, other materials used in bone defect repair are unable to perfectly balance biocompatibility, bone formation, bone conduction and osteoinduction. Combining the latest advances in materials sciences and clinical application, we believe that composite materials supplementedwith Chinese medicine, tissue cells, cytokines, trace elements, etc. and manufactured using advanced technologies such as additive manufacturing technology may have ideal bone repair performance, and may have profound significance in clinical repair of bone defects of special type. This article reviewed to the domestic and foreign literature in recent years, and elaborates the current status of bone defect repair materials in clinical application and basic research in regard to the advantages, clinical options, shortcomings, and how to improve the autogenous bone, allogeneic bone and artificial bone materials, in order to provide a theoretical basis for clinical management of bone defects.


Subject(s)
Acrylic Resins , Biocompatible Materials , Bone Substitutes , Bone and Bones , Osteogenesis , Tissue Engineering , Tissue Scaffolds
8.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200592, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355806

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study characterized the morphological aspects of marine collagen - spongin (SPG) extract from marine sponges, as well as, evaluating its in vitro and in vivo biological performance. Aplysina fulva marine sponge was used for the SPG extraction. It was investigated the physicochemical and morphological properties of SPG by using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and compared to PMMA and bovine collagen. Additionally, the SPG cytotoxicity and its influence on cell proliferation, through in vitro tests. Moreover, the in vivo biological response was investigated using an experimental model of tibial bone defect. The results demonstrated that SPG presented an irregular granular aspect, with a composition of OH, C=O, NH, CN and an amorphous profile. Also, in vitro viability results for the L929 and MC3T3 cell lines cultured with SPG extracts demonstrated normal growth in comparison to controls, except for MC3T3 viability at day 3. For in vivo analysis, using tibial bone defects in rats, SPG treated animals presented an increased rate of material resorption and higher granulation and bone formation deposition in the region of the defect, mainly after 45 days. As a conclusion, SPG was successfully extracted. The in vitro and in vivo studies pointed out that SPG samples produced an increase in L929 and MC3T3 viability and improved the performance in tibial bone defects. It can be concluded that SPG can be used as a bone graft for bone regeneration.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-847098

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have good potential for directional differentiation, but the effect and mechanism of enamel matrix derivatives on osteogenic differentiation are still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the latest research progress on osteogenic induction of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by enamel matrix derivatives. METHODS: Related literature from 2000 to 2020 was searched in CNKI, Wanfang Data, VIP Database, PubMed databases. The key words are “Emdogain® or enamel matrix derivatives, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells”. The languages of the literature were set to Chinese and English. When retrieving some classic articles, the publication date could be extended appropriately. Finally, 62 English articles and 5 Chinese articles meeting the inclusion criteria were selected. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There are different reports on the osteogenic effect of enamel matrix derivatives on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Enamel matrix derivatives may enhance the osteogenic induction ability of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, and may enhance the osteogenic effect by affecting cells or cell membranes, but the relevant mechanism is unclear.

10.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1229-1234, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921865

ABSTRACT

With the continuous progress of materials science and biology, the significance of biomaterials with dual characteristics of materials science and biology is keeping on increasing. Nowadays, more and more biomaterials are being used in tissue engineering, pharmaceutical engineering and regenerative medicine. In repairing bone defects caused by trauma, tumor invasion, congenital malformation and other factors, a variety of biomaterials have emerged with different characteristics, such as surface charge, surface wettability, surface composition, immune regulation and so on, leading to significant differences in repair effects. This paper mainly discusses the influence of surface charge of biomaterials on bone formation and the methods of introducing surface charge, aiming to promote bone formation by changing the charge distribution on the surface of the biomaterials to serve the clinical treatment better.


Subject(s)
Biocompatible Materials , Osteogenesis , Regenerative Medicine , Tissue Engineering
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921397

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the clinical effect of Er:YAG laser combined with ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) on three-walled periodontal intrabony defects adjacent to implant sites.@*METHODS@#A total of 30 patients with three-walled periodontal intrabony defects adjacent to implant sites were treated with the combination therapy. Patients with three-walled intrabony defects were divided into two groups according to the depth of the intrabony pocket between the implant and natural teeth. Evaluation of wound healing was performed 10 days after the operation, and bone augmentation was evaluated 6 months after the operation.@*RESULTS@#Primary healing in group 1 was 92.31%, primary healing in group 2 was 82.35%. No significant difference was observed between the two groups (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The effect of bone augmentation with combination therapy was more ideal in group 2 than in group 1. Implant placement with combination therapy may be a viable technique to reconstruct three-walled intrabony defects due to the space maintenance provided by implants and bone grafts and the good root surface biocompatibility provided by the Er:YAG laser and EDTA.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Alveolar Bone Loss , Dental Implants , Ethylenediamines , Follow-Up Studies , Guided Tissue Regeneration, Periodontal , Humans , Lasers, Solid-State , Periodontal Attachment Loss , Treatment Outcome
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1398-1404, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134455

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The objective of this study were bone defect complications that occur due to traumas or infections. Bone grafts are required to provide support, fill gaps and improve biological repair in skeletal damage. Dexamethasone plays role in calcium signaling modulation and used in diseases. Aim of this study was to evaluate osteonectin and osteopontin expressions in new bone development after dexamethasone application on tibial bone defects. Rats were divided into defect, defect+graft and defect+graft+dexamethasone treated groups. Tibial bone defect created, and rats were kept immobile for 28 days. Alloplastic material was placed in defect area in second and group third groups. 2.5 mg/kg Dex and normal saline were injected to dexamethasone and defect groups twice a week for 56 days. Inflammation and congestion were increased in defect and defect+graft groups. Defect+graft+dexamethasone group; increased number of osteoblast and osteocyte cells, dense bone matrix, formation of new bone trabeculae was observed. Defect+graft group; osteonectin expression in graft regions, osteoblast cells, some connective tissue cells and fibers were seen whereas in defect+graft+dexamethasone group; osteopontin expression in osteoblast and osteocyte cells of new bone trabeculae were observed. Dexamethasone may lead to formation of new bone trabeculae into the graft material resulting in increased osteoconduction and osteoinductive effect for differentiation of osteon.


RESUMEN: Los defectos óseos son complicaciones que ocurren debido a traumas o infecciones. Se requieren injertos óseos para proporcionar apoyo, llenar los espacios y mejorar la reparación biológica en el hueso dañado. La dexametasona desempeña un papel importante en la modulación de la señalización del calcio y se usa en enfermedades. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las expresiones de osteonectina y osteopontina en el desarrollo óseo después de la aplicación de dexametasona en defectos óseos tibiales. Las ratas se dividieron en grupos: defecto, defecto + injerto y defecto + injerto + grupos tratados con dexametasona. Se creó un defecto óseo tibial, y las ratas se mantuvieron inmóviles durante 28 días. El material aloplástico se colocó en el área del defecto en el segundo y tercer grupo. Se inyectaron 2,5 mg / kg de dexametasona y solución salina normal a grupos de defectos dos veces por semana durante 56 días. La inflamación y la congestión aumentaron en los grupos de defectos y defectos + injerto; En el grupo defecto + injerto + grupo tratado con dexametasona se observó un aumento en el número de osteoblastos y osteocitos, de matriz ósea densa y en la formación de nuevas trabéculas óseas. En el grupo defecto + grupo de injerto se observó la expresión de osteonectina en las áreas de injerto, osteoblastos, algunas células y fibras de tejido conectivo, mientras que en el grupo defecto + injerto + dexametasona se observó la expresión de osteopontina en osteoblastos y osteocitos y formación de nuevas trabéculas óseas . En conclusión la dexametasona puede conducir a la formación de nuevas trabéculas óseas en el material de injerto, lo que resulta en un aumento de la osteoconducción y un efecto osteoinductivo para la diferenciación del osteón.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Tibia/surgery , Tibia/drug effects , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Bone Transplantation , Tibia/pathology , Bone Regeneration , Immunohistochemistry , Osteonectin/physiology , Bone Remodeling , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Osteopontin/physiology
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-847339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Guided bone regeneration technology, as a most widely used method for repairing bone defects, has been extensively used in the field of stomatology. However, there are few reports on the guided bone regeneration technology in long bone defects. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of guided bone regeneration combined with kidney-tonifying therapy on the repair of femoral bone defects in rats, and investigate its osteogenic efficacy and underlying mechanism. METHODS: Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups: blank group, guided bone regeneration group, high-, moderate-, and low-dose kidney-tonifying groups, and ossotide tablets group. The femur bone defect model of rats was established, and was treated by guided bone regeneration except for blank group. Bio-Gide collagen membrane combined with autologous bone was implanted by guided bone regeneration. The kidney-tonifying groups were given 0.216, 0.108 and 0.054 g/(kg•d) Qianggu capsule via gavage for 8 weeks. The ossotide tablets group was given 0.58 mg/(kg•d) ossotide tablets via gavage for 8 weeks. At 12 weeks after surgery, the osteogenesis was evaluated by X-ray examination, hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson staining of bone tissue. The mRNA expression levels of alkaline phosphatase, Runx-2, vascular endothelial growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein-2 in bone tissues were detected by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Results of X-ray examination and hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson staining of bone tissue showed that the scores of Lane Sandhu and Huddleston in each group were significantly higher than those in the blank group (P < 0.001). The scores in the high-and moderate-dose kidney-tonifying groups were significantly higher than those in the guided bone regeneration group (P < 0.01). RT-PCR results showed that the mRNA expression levels of alkaline phosphatase, Runx-2, vascular endothelial growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein-2 in bone tissue in the high-and moderate-dose kidney-tonifying groups were significantly higher than those in the blank group (P < 0.01), and were superior to the guided bone regeneration group (P < 0.05). In summary, guided bone regeneration combined with kidney-tonifying can significantly promote the repair of femoral bone defects, reduce bone absorption and improve osteogenic efficacy in rats. The mechanism of promoting bone regeneration and angiogenesis may be by up-regulating the expression of related osteogenic factors and angiogenic factors in the environment where the membrane barrier creates a dominant growth of bone tissue.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-847318

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bone tissue engineering has provided a novel ideal for treating bone defects in clinic. This study is the first to combine traditional Chinese medicine with the nanostructures of tissue-engineered scaffolds in order to explore and construct a new bone tissue substitute material for the treatment of bone defects. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the osteogenic activity of icariin (ICA)/hydroxyapatite (HA)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) composite scaffolds. METHODS: A HA/PLGA composite scaffold was prepared by physical blending of HA and PLGA, and was then soaked in ICA solution of different concentrations to obtain the HA/ICA/PLGA scaffold. Rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were used to evaluate the cell adhesion, proliferation, osteogenesis and cytotoxicity of the composite scaffold. The cell adhesion, proliferation and cytotoxicity were detected by MTT method. The activities of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were detected by ELISA. The expression levels of osteogenic genes and proteins were detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR and western blot assay, respectively. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Adding appropriate amount of HA into PLGA could improve the mechanical strength of the scaffold, and 10% HA had the best effect with tensile strength of (1.67±0.37) MPa, and compression modulus of (4.17±1.62) MPa, and nanostructure would be formed on the surface of the scaffold. The nanostructure could promote the adhesion of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on the surface of the scaffold. ICA did not affect the proliferation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on the composite scaffold. However, the HA/PLGA composite scaffold soaked in 1.00 µmol/L ICA aqueous solution had the optimal osteogenic differentiation function, and the expression levels of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, osteogenic related genes and proteins (Runx-2 and COL I) were increased. The ICA/HA/PLGA scaffold had no cytotoxicity. These results suggest that HA (10%)/ICA (1.00 µmol/L)/PLGA scaffold has good mechanical properties, osteogenesis and biocompatibility, which has the potential to be a favorable scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

15.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-209216

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Traumatic segmental bone defects of leg are difficult problem to manage with significant long-term morbidity.Historically, due to difficulty in managing segmental bone defects, amputation was the preferred treatment. Later over the lasthalf-century, limb salvage was done using various techniques such as vascularized fibular grafts, acute limb shortening, externalfixator application, and filling the defect with autograft or allograft. More recently, Masquelet described the use of cement spacerapplication within this defect and staged bone grafting within the induced biomembrane formed around the spacer as a potentialtreatment strategy to manage these bone defects.Method: This study describes the clinical, radiological, and functional outcome in 20 patients with traumatic bone loss of up to5 cm managed using Masquelet technique.Results: The outcome was analyzed using Association for the study and application of methods of ilizarov (ASAMI) scorewhich showed excellent results in 10 patients, good in 5 patients, fair in 2 patients, and poor in 3 patients.Conclusion: We conclude that the induced membrane technique can be a valuable addition to the armamentarium of limbreconstruction procedures in patients with small bone defects with or without soft tissue injury.

16.
Metro cienc ; 29(1): 39-43, 2019/Jun. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046315

ABSTRACT

El propósito de esta revisión es presentar una visión concreta de las proteínas morfogenéticas óseas, su potencial de inducir osteogénesis y la aplicación en los procesos regenerativos. Las investigaciones acerca de los iniciadores moleculares de diferenciación ósea y cartilaginosa han identificado un grupo entero de proteínas morfogenéticas óseas que ejercen efecto regulador. La proteína morfogenética ósea (BMP) es endógena, presenta propiedades osteoinductivas, osteoconductivas y osteogénicas, y ha mostrado efectos significativos en la promoción de la formación ósea, por lo cual es una buena alternativa en reconstrucción. El uso de BMP se ha descrito en la reconstrucción de los defectos óseos de origen traumático y patológico, incluyendo: fisura nasoalveolar, aumento del reborde alveolar, elevación del seno maxilar, injerto de alvéolo postextracción y cirugía peri-implantaria.


The purpose of this review is to present a concrete vision about bone morphogenetic proteins, their potential in the induction of osteogenesis and their application in regenerative processes. Research on the molecular primers of bone and cartilage differentiation has identified an entire group of bone morphogenetic proteins that exert a regulatory effect. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) is an endogenous protein, has osteoinductive, osteoconductive and osteogenic properties, has shown significant effects in the promotion of bone formation, being a good alternative in reconstruction. The use of BMP has been described in the reconstruction of bone defects of traumatic and pathological origin, including nasoalveolar fissure, increased alveolar ridge, maxillary sinus elevation, post-extraction alveolar graft, and perimplant surgery


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteogenesis , Protein Biosynthesis , Maxillofacial Abnormalities , Genetics , Maxilla
17.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-211290

ABSTRACT

Background: For the treatment of the cranial and maxillofacial bone defects autogenic and/or allogenic bone grafts and alloplastic materials have been used for a long time. In the last decade, avian eggshell powder has been suggested as a bone substitute candidate in reconstructive surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of particulate hen eggshell grafting on the healing of experimentally induced mandibular defects.Methods: The study was conducted on 10 adult local rabbits. Two cavities of 4mm diameter have been created in the lateral surface of the mandible. One of the cavities was filled with particulate hen eggshell graft (test one), while the other hole was left for normal healing (control one). On the 8 weeks, the rabbits have been sacrificed and defective regions have been extracted.Results: All animals showed normal wound healing. No foreign body reaction was observed, hen eggshell grafts were resorbed, integrated with bone at 8 weeks.  There were no differences between control and chicken eggshell groups in new bone formation. At 8 weeks, histological analysis of specimens showed different amounts of woven bone contained osteocytes and covered by lining of osteoblasts.Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that hen eggshell powder is a worth-while bone substitute because it is a safe, cheap, and easily available material.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-754758

ABSTRACT

Treatment of extremity bone defects,especially large segmental ones,is a difficult problem encountered by orthopedic surgeons in the clinic.Despite a variety of treatment techniques available,lack of uniform protocols causes patients to suffer enormous physical and psychological pain during their medical treatment.Now that new materials and new techniques are constantly evolving and patients' requirements for functional and morphological recovery of the injured limb become more demanding,it has become a great challenge for orthopedic surgeons to provide an optimal individualized treatment protocol for each patient.This review intends to help surgeons with brief update information on the research progress in the treatment of extremity bone defects.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-754732

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the effects of bone transport versus induced membrane technique for large segmental tibial defects.Methods The clinical data were analyzed retrospectively of 89 patients with large segmental tibial defect who had been treated at Department of Orthopaedics,Wuxi No.9 People's Hospital from June 2005 to February 2017 using bone transport or induced membrane technique.They were 58males and 31 females,aged from 13 to 74 years (average,38.0 years).The bone transport group had 59cases and the induced membrane technique group 30 cases.The 2 groups were compared in terms of preoperative general data and postoperative bone nonunion,bone healing time,complications and functional recovery of the adjacent joint.Results There were no statistically significant differences between the 2groups in terms of age,gender,cause or type of defects,associated injury,course of disease,functionary scores of the adjacent joint or number of operations,showing compatibility between the 2 groups (P > 0.05).All the patients were followed up for 12 to 48 months (average,20 months).The bone transport group had significandy longer clinical healing time (14.7 ± 5.4 months) and significantly higher incidences of major complications (50.8%),minor complications (57.6%) and overall complications (83.1%) than the induced membrane technique group (11.2 ± 2.8 months,16.7%,26.7% and 30.0%,respectively) (P < O.05),but significantly lower functionary scores of the adjacent joint (86.4 ± 5.0 points) than the induced membrane technique group (88.8 ± 4.9 points) (P < 0.05).Conclusions Both bone transport and induced membrane technique are effective repairs for large segmental tibial defects.However,induced membrane technique may be superior to bone transport in terms of bone healing,complications and functional recovery.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772702

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study aims to explore the influence of three-wall osseous defects on periodontal ligament stress under normal occlusal forces.@*METHODS@#A finite element model for mandibular total dentition, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone was created based on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) DICOM images. Mesial or distal proximal three-wall osseous defects at varying depths (namely, 1/3, 2/3 and 3/3 of the root) were simulated by modifying the elastic modulus of elements within the defects area. Occlusal forces with an angle of 45° to the long axis of the tooth were applied to the finite element model. In addition, the equivalent stresses of the periodontal ligament were analysed.@*RESULTS@#In the case of no bone defect, the mean value of the periodontal ligament equivalent stress of 14 teeth was 5.71 MPa. The equivalent stresses of the periodontal ligament at different depths (namely, 1/3, 2/3 and 3/3 of the root) were 6.61, 7.14 and 7.42 MPa, respectively. With increasing depth of the osseous defects, stress on the periodontal ligament increased considerably, and the initial stress increment was greater than that of a later stage. Periodontal ligament stresses with mesial proximal three-wall osseous defects (at depths of 1/3, 2/3 and 3/3 of the root) were 6.62, 7.19 and 7.51 MPa respectively. Periodontal ligament stresses with distal proximal three-wall osseous defects (at depths of 1/3, 2/3 and 3/3 of the root) were 6.60, 7.10 and 7.33 MPa, respectively. For three-wall osseous defects located in the mesial surface and distal surface, a significant difference in periodontal ligament stress was lacking. In the case of the same absorption depth, the size relationship of periodontal ligament stress was in the following order: premolars>molars>incisors>canines.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Shallow three-wall osseous defects will likely cause a notable loss in strength of the periodontal ligament. Therefore, teeth with three-wall osseous defects should become the focus of clinical research. Treatment for these teeth should be administered as early as possible.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Process , Dental Stress Analysis , Finite Element Analysis , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Incisor , Periodontal Ligament , Stress, Mechanical
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